Sarkaria, Sarbjit Singh
A number of researchers have investigated the application of neural networks to visual recognition, with much of the emphasis placed on exploiting the network's ability to generalise. However, despite the benefits of such an approach it is not at all obvious how networks can be developed which are capable of recognising objects subject to changes in rotation, translation and viewpoint. In this study, we suggest that a possible solution to this problem can be found by studying aspects of visual psychology and in particular, perceptual organisation. For example, it appears that grouping together lines based upon perceptually significant features can facilitate viewpoint independent recognition. The work presented here identifies simple grouping measures based on parallelism and connectivity and shows how it is possible to train multi-layer perceptrons (MLPs) to detect and determine the perceptual significance of any group presented. In this way, it is shown how MLPs which are trained via backpropagation to perform individual grouping tasks, can be brought together into a novel, large scale network capable of determining the perceptual significance of the whole input pattern. Finally the applicability of such significance values for recognition is investigated and results indicate that both the NILP and the Kohonen Feature Map can be trained to recognise simple shapes described in terms of perceptual significances. This study has also provided an opportunity to investigate aspects of the backpropagation algorithm, particularly the ability to generalise. In this study we report the results of various generalisation tests. In applying the backpropagation algorithm to certain problems, we found that there was a deficiency in performance with the standard learning algorithm. An improvement in performance could however, be obtained when suitable modifications were made to the algorithm. The modifications and consequent results are reported here.
Abdelmotaleb, Ahmed Mostafa Othman
I extended an artificial life platform called GReaNs (the name stands for Gene Regulatory evolving artificial Networks) to explore the evolutionary abilities of biologically inspired Spiking Neural Network (SNN) model. The encoding of SNNs in GReaNs was inspired by the encoding of gene regulatory networks. As proof-of-principle, I used GReaNs to evolve SNNs to obtain a network with an output neuron which generates a predefined spike train in response to a specific input. Temporal pattern recognition was one of the main tasks during my studies. It is widely believed that nervous systems of biological organisms use temporal patterns of inputs to encode information. The learning technique used for temporal pattern recognition is not clear yet. I studied the ability to evolve spiking networks with different numbers of interneurons in the absence and the presence of noise to recognize predefined temporal patterns of inputs. Results showed, that in the presence of noise, it was possible to evolve successful networks. However, the networks with only one interneuron were not robust to noise. The foraging behaviour of many small animals depends mainly on their olfactory system. I explored whether it was possible to evolve SNNs able to control an agent to find food particles on 2-dimensional maps. Using ring rate encoding to encode the sensory information in the olfactory input neurons, I managed to obtain SNNs able to control an agent that could detect the position of the food particles and move toward it. Furthermore, I did unsuccessful attempts to use GReaNs to evolve an SNN able to control an agent able to collect sound sources from one type out of several sound types. Each sound type is represented as a pattern of different frequencies. In order to use the computational power of neuromorphic hardware, I integrated GReaNs with the SpiNNaker hardware system. Only the simulation part was carried out using SpiNNaker, but the rest steps of the genetic algorithm were done with GReaNs.
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