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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Modulation of tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis-inducing ligand (trail) receptors in a human osteoclast model in vitro

McManus, Stephen January 2010 (has links)
We have previously shown that osteoclasts (OCLs) from multiple myeloma (MM) specimens vary from healthy OCLs in their expression of the TRAIL receptors. TRAIL (TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand), a member of the TNF superfamily, has been shown to induce apoptosis in cells by binding receptors DR4 and DR5, but not DcR1 and DcR2, its decoy receptors, which lack the necessary internal death domain. The observed modulation of these receptors may confer a resistance to apoptosis in the MM environment, and could be related to the cytokine pattern that primarily involves the resorption promoting Receptor Activator of NF-[kappa]B Ligand (RANKL) and Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 1 (MIP-1[alpha]). The aim of our study was to determine which cytokines present in the disease might be responsible for this modulation. In long term cultures of OCL precursors from cord blood in the presence of M-CSF and RANKL, multinucleated cells (MNCs) that express OCL markers form, and can resorb bone. Through immunocytochemistry we showed that these MNCs can express all four TRAIL receptors. By stimulating with various cytokines (RANKL, MIP-1[alpha], Transforming Factor [bêta] (TGF[bêta]), osteoprotegerin (OPG), TRAIL), and parathyroid hormone (PTH) in OCL cultures, we were able to observe receptor modulation at the mRNA level using real time PCR, the protein level using Western blot analysis, and cell surface expression via immunocytochemistry. To determine if these changes translated to a difference in resistance to apoptosis, cells treated with [with] apoptosis-inducing levels of TRAIL after 5 days of stimulation with the selected cytokines were evaluated via TUNEL to quantify apoptosis. While no correlation has yet been established between the observed receptor modification and apoptosis induction, sample size is a factor, and further tests will be performed. Our results suggest the possibility that TRAIL receptor modification is induced by multiple cytokines present in bone diseases, capable of altering both the susceptibility and resistance pathways in osteoclasts. By potentially prolonging the lifespan of the OCL, these regulatory influences may ultimately be contributory factors to the augmentation of resorption in the micro-environment of bone resorptive diseases like multiple myeloma, Paget's disease of bone, or osteoporosis.
2

Regulation of osteoclast activation and autophagy through altered protein kinase pathways in Paget's disease of bone

McManus, Stephen January 2016 (has links)
Résumé : La maladie osseuse de Paget (MP) est un désordre squelettique caractérisé par une augmentation focale et désorganisée du remodelage osseux. Les ostéoclastes (OCs) de MP sont plus larges, actifs et nombreux, en plus d’être résistants à l’apoptose. Même si la cause précise de la MP demeure inconnue, des mutations du gène SQSTM1, codant pour la protéine p62, ont été décrites dans une proportion importante de patients avec MP. Parmi ces mutations, la substitution P392L est la plus fréquente, et la surexpression de p62P392L dans les OCs génère un phénotype pagétique partiel. La protéine p62 est impliquée dans de multiples processus, allant du contrôle de la signalisation NF-κB à l’autophagie. Dans les OCs humains, un complexe multiprotéique composé de p62 et des kinases PKCζ et PDK1 est formé en réponse à une stimulation par Receptor Activator of Nuclear factor Kappa-B Ligand (RANKL), principale cytokine impliquée dans la formation et l'activation des OCs. Nous avons démontré que PKCζ est impliquée dans l’activation de NF-κB induite par RANKL dans les OCs, et dans son activation constitutive en présence de p62P392L. Nous avons également observé une augmentation de phosphorylation de Ser536 de p65 par PKCζ, qui est indépendante d’IκB et qui pourrait représenter une voie alternative d'activation de NF-κB en présence de la mutation de p62. Nous avons démontré que les niveaux de phosphorylation des régulateurs de survie ERK et Akt sont augmentés dans les OCs MP, et réduits suite à l'inhibition de PDK1. La phosphorylation des substrats de mTOR, 4EBP1 et la protéine régulatrice Raptor, a été évaluée, et une augmentation des deux a été observée dans les OCs pagétiques, et est régulée par l'inhibition de PDK1. Également, l'augmentation des niveaux de base de LC3II (associée aux structures autophagiques) observée dans les OCs pagétiques a été associée à un défaut de dégradation des autophagosomes, indépendante de la mutation p62P392L. Il existe aussi une réduction de sensibilité à l’induction de l'autophagie dépendante de PDK1. De plus, l’inhibition de PDK1 induit l’apoptose autant dans les OCs contrôles que pagétiques, et mène à une réduction significative de la résorption osseuse. La signalisation PDK1/Akt pourrait donc représenter un point de contrôle important dans l’activation des OCs pagétiques. Ces résultats démontrent l’importance de plusieurs kinases associées à p62 dans la sur-activation des OCs pagétiques, dont la signalisation converge vers une augmentation de leur survie et de leur fonction de résorption, et affecte également le processus autophagique. / Abstract : Paget’s disease of bone (PDB) is a skeletal disorder characterized by focal and disorganized increases in bone turnover. In PDB, osteoclasts are larger, more active, more numerous, and resistant to apoptotic stimuli. While no single root cause has been identified, mutations to the gene encoding the p62 protein, SQSTM1, have been described in a significant population of patients with PDB. Among these mutations, the P392L substitution is the most prevalent, and overexpression of p62P392L in osteoclasts generates at least a partial pagetic phenotype in vitro. Normally this protein mediates a number of cell functions, from control of NF-κB signaling to autophagy. In human osteoclasts, a multiprotein complex containing p62 and protein kinases PKCζ and PDK1 (the principal kinase of Akt), form in response to stimulation by receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), the principal osteoclastogenic-signaling cytokine. We found that PKCζ is involved in RANKL-induced activation of NF-κB, and that it contributed to a basal activation of NF-κB observed in p62P392L mutants. This may be regulated in part by a PKCζ dependent increase in p65 phosphorylation at Ser536 which we characterized, independent of IκB. This could represent one alternative pathway by which mutant p62 leads to increased NF-κB activation. We observed increased basal phosphorylation of survival regulators ERK and Akt in PDB that was reduced upon PDK1 inhibition. The activity of 4EBP1 and Raptor, associated with mTOR activity, were also altered in pagetic osteoclasts and regulated by PDK1 inhibition. We then identified autophagic defects common to pagetic osteoclasts; with higher basal levels of LC3II (associated with autophagic structures), regardless of p62 mutation, and reduced sensitivity to autophagy induction in PDB. These results suggest an accumulation of non-degradative autophagosomes. Inhibition of PDK1 not only induced apoptosis in PDB and controls, but significantly reduced resorption in PDB, and with regards to autophagy, PDK1 inhibition was more potent in PDB than in controls. Therefore PDK1/Akt signaling represents an important checkpoint to PDB osteoclast activation. In sum, these results demonstrate the importance of several p62-associated kinases in the over-activation of pagetic osteoclasts, through increased survival and altered signaling. As p62 mutations alone do not account for most cases of PDB, the characterization of these pathways may identify a common factor linking pagetic osteoclasts. Therefore these studies represent a novel approach to osteoclast apoptosis, activation, and autophagy associated with PDB.

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