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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Studies on the pathobiology and management of canine osteosarcoma /

Loukopoulos, Panayiotis. January 2002 (has links) (PDF)
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Queensland, 2002. / Includes bibliographical references.
2

Genome-wide Analysis of Copy Number Aberrations in Canine Osteosarcoma

Liu, Jonathan 16 September 2011 (has links)
Canine osteosarcoma (OSA) is the most common bone tumour in dogs and is characterized by massive genomic instability throughout the cancer genome. Using matched primary tumour and metastasis samples from 8 OSA cases, we identified 2 focally deleted (<0.2 Mb) novel candidate genes, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B (CDKN2B) and the membrane associated guanylate kinase, WW and PDZ domain containing 2 (MAGI2), which have not been previously identified in canine OSA and may have roles in driving OSA tumour progression. We also identified highly similar genomic profiles between matched samples, which yielded a small list of candidate regions that may harbour genes that drive metastasis formation. This study identified potential therapeutic targets, prognostic markers and early detectors of metastasis, in addition to providing insight into the OSA tumour progression.
3

The roles of Hedgehog signaling in the development of osteosarcoma. / Hedgehog信號通路在骨肉瘤形成過程的作用 / Hedgehog xin hao tong lu zai gu ru liu xing cheng guo cheng de zuo yong

January 2012 (has links)
骨肉瘤是最常見的原發性骨腫瘤之一。青少年和年輕成年人屬于患上骨肉瘤的高危群組。利用現今的治療方法,非轉移性骨肉瘤病患者的長期存活率達百份之七十。不過,轉移性和復發骨肉瘤病人的預後並不理想,其五年存活率低於百份之二十。骨肉瘤的高死亡率帶出進一步瞭解骨肉瘤成因的重要性。雖然多個與骨肉瘤病發機理有關的遺傳風險因素已被發現,例如TP53基因和Rb基因的功能喪失性突變均會使其攜帶者傾向於出現骨肉瘤。但是這些結果仍未能找出專一性較強的骨肉瘤遺傳標記。因此有需要進一步研究骨肉瘤的主要病發機理。其中Hedgehog信號通路對於出生前後階段的骨絡生長和發育均有重要的調控作用。再者,之前在Ptch1{U+1D9C}/{U+1D9C}; HOC-Cre小鼠模型所做的研究也表明,於造骨細胞上調Hedgehog信號通路會導致長骨局部增生。另外,多種癌症的病發亦已知與Hedgehog信號通路失調有密切關係。根據這些發現,本研究項目假設Hedgehog信號通路失調是導致骨肉瘤病發的一個遺傳風險因素。一種新穎的小鼠模型 Ptch1{U+1D9C}/⁺; p53⁺/⁻; HOC-Cre被構建並採用於證明此假設。在這小鼠模型,Hedgehog信號通路只有在造骨細胞部分地上調。另外,p53的雜合敲除有助增加骨肉瘤的病發機率。實驗結果表明七至十二個月週歲的Ptch1{U+1D9C}/⁺; p53⁺/⁻; HOC-Cre小鼠出現類此骨肉瘤的症狀。原帶類骨肉瘤組織含有大量類骨質和多核細胞。由原帶類骨肉瘤組織所衍生的細胞系Kios-5有癌細胞在體和離體的特性。及後又發現由上調Hedgehog信號通路所導致的類骨肉瘤與Hippo信號通路有聯動關係。這個結果與一種由Hedgehog信號通路上調所導致的成神經管細胞瘤的結果互相吻合。故此,本研究也想探討Hippo信號通路和骨肉瘤的病變之間的關聯。實驗結果指出由Hedgehog信號通路上調而導致的骨肉瘤亦連帶上調Hippo信號通路的轉錄活度。與此同時,兩個Hippo信號通路的主要轉化啟動因子(Yap1和Taz) 還有Hippo信號通路的下游目標基因(Ctgf和Cyr61)的表達在原帶類骨肉瘤組織和類骨肉瘤衍生的細胞系均有上調。這印證了越來越多的研究結果表示Hippo信號通路在癌症的病變過程起關鍵作用。再者,類骨肉瘤細胞系的致腫瘤性也依賴於Yap1。更重要是,在組織陣列裡百份之八十七的人體骨肉瘤樣本表達YAP蛋白。這結果表明Hippo信號通路在骨肉瘤有臨床方面的一定重要性。另外,Kios-5活化一個多潛性標記基因Nanog的表達。這顯示本研究的骨肉瘤模型帶有類似幹細胞的特質。Kios-5還能夠被誘導分化成有骨質特性和脂肪特性的細胞。這些跡象顯示Kios-5的可塑性比較高。及後的一組實驗進一步地識別出潛在的分秘物質控制著Hedgehog與Hippo信號通路之間的相互作用。總結,我們的結果表明在雜合敲除p53基因的情況下於造骨細胞上調Hedgehog信號通路會引發骨肉瘤。當中亦上調Hippo信號通路的轉錄活度。而這兩條信號通路之間透過潛在的分秘物質而產生相互作用。 / Osteosarcoma (OS) is one of the most common primary bone tumors. Adolescence and young adults are the high risk groups of OS development. Under the current treatment, the overall survival rate for patients with non-metastatic OS approaches 75-80%. However, the 5-year survival rate for patients with metastatic and recurrent approached 60%. Though OS was treatable, the high incidence of OS metastasis disease and severe sequelae accompanying medical intervention necessitate better understanding of the etiology of OS. Multiple genetic risk factors, such as loss-of-function mutations in TP53 or RB1, predispose individual to OS development. However, these findings did not identify specific genetic markers for OS and thus, major mechanisms underlying OS pathogenesis require further investigation. In particular, Hedgehog (Hh) signaling has been well implicated in regulating bone growth and development at both embryonic and postnatal stages. Previous studies using Ptch1c/c; HOC-Cre mutant mice have shown that upregulation of Hh signaling in mature osteoblasts leads to focal bone overgrowth in the long bones. Dysregulated Hh signaling has also been implicated in a wide range of cancers. Based on these facts, the current studies hypothesized that dysregulation of Hh signaling in bones is a genetic risk factor that predispose to osteosarcoma development. A novel mouse model, Ptch1{U+1D9C}/⁺ ; p53⁺/⁻; HOC-Cre was generated to test this hypothesis in vivo. The mutants have partial upregulation of Hh signaling specifically in mature osteoblasts in a p53⁺/⁻ background to enhance the incident rate of OS. The results demonstrated that the mutant mice developed OS-like phenotypes starting from 7-12 months of age. The primary OS-like tumor tissues possessed massive osteoid with the presence of multinucleated cells. The tumor-derived cell line Kios-5 revealed cancer properties both in vitro and in vivo. The Hh signaling-induced OS in the mutant mice was shown to crosstalk with Hippo signaling pathway, which was previously demonstrated to be involved in a subset of medulloblastoma that is caused by Hedgehog signaling upregulation. Consistent with emerging evidence that Hippo pathway has critical roles in cancer development, results from the current studies suggested that OS initiated by upregulated Hedgehog signaling in mature osteoblasts led to upregulated transcriptional activity of Hippo signaling. The mutant mice showed upregulated expression of the main transcriptional coactivators of the Hippo pathway, Yap1 and Taz as well as the downstream target genes of Hippo pathway, Ctgf and Cyr61. The tumorigenicity of OS-like tumor derived cells showed Yap1-dependence. Importantly, Hippo pathway has clinical relevance in OS pathogenesis as 78% of human OS samples in tissue array showed YAP expression. Besides, tumor cells derived from the OS model showed stem cells properties through upregulating the expression of the key pluripotent marker gene, Nanog. And the OS cells revealed higher lineage plasticity as they were inducible to undergo osteoblastic and adipogenic differentiation. Further, the results suggested potential secretory factor(s) was/were mediated the interaction between Hh and Hippo pathways were recognized. In conclusion, the findings indicated that upregulated Hedgehog signaling in the mature osteoblasts under the p53⁺/- context initiated osteosarcoma development, which also led to upregulated Hippo pathway transcriptional activity. The crosstalk between these two signaling pathways was mediated through some potential secretory factor(s). / Detailed summary in vernacular field only. / Chan, Lok Hei. / Thesis (M.Phil.)--Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2012. / Includes bibliographical references (leaves 187-205). / Abstracts also in Chinese. / ABSTRACT OF THESIS ENTITLED --- p.iii / 中文摘要 --- p.vi / ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS --- p.viii / CONTENTS --- p.ix / LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS --- p.xii / LIST OF FIGURES --- p.xiv / Chapter CHAPTER 1 --- INTRODUCTION --- p.1 / Chapter 1.1 --- Introductory statement --- p.1 / Chapter 1.2 --- Introduction of osteosarcoma --- p.1 / Chapter 1.2.1 --- Clinical feature and treatment --- p.4 / Chapter 1.2.2 --- Genetic risk factors --- p.5 / Chapter 1.2.3 --- Invasion and metastasis of osteosarcoma --- p.8 / Chapter 1.3 --- Bone formation in mammals and its regulation by Hedgehog signaling --- p.10 / Chapter 1.3.1 --- Overview of bone formation in vertebrates --- p.10 / Chapter 1.3.2 --- Hedgehog signaling in bone formation --- p.19 / Chapter 1.4 --- Hedgehog signaling and cancer development --- p.27 / Chapter 1.4.1 --- Hedgehog signaling pathway --- p.27 / Chapter 1.4.2 --- Hedgehog signaling in cancer pathogenesis --- p.34 / Chapter 1.4.2.1 --- Mutation-driven, ligand-independent activation of Hedgehog in cancer development --- p.38 / Chapter 1.4.2.2 --- Hedgehog signaling in cancer stem cells --- p.42 / Chapter 1.4.2.3 --- Hedgehog-targeting therapy in cancers --- p.44 / Chapter 1.5 --- Emerging roles of Hippo signaling in organ development and cancer pathogenesis --- p.47 / Chapter 1.5.1 --- Hippo signaling pathway --- p.47 / Chapter 1.5.1.1 --- Sensing the environmental cues by the Hippo pathway --- p.47 / Chapter 1.5.1.2 --- Salvador-Warts-Hippo (SWH) tumor-suppressor kinase cascade --- p.51 / Chapter 1.5.1.3 --- Transcriptional regulation of Hippo pathway target genes --- p.52 / Chapter 1.5.2 --- Emerging roles of Hippo signaling in cancer pathogenesis --- p.54 / Chapter 1.5.3 --- Therapeutic potential through targeting the Hippo pathway --- p.56 / Chapter 1.6 --- Aim of studies --- p.57 / Chapter CHAPTER 2 --- MATERIALS AND METHODS --- p.58 / Chapter 2.1 --- Animal studies --- p.58 / Chapter 2.1.1 --- Genotyping --- p.58 / Chapter 2.1.1.1 --- DNA purification --- p.58 / Chapter 2.1.1.2 --- PCR amplification, gel electrophoresis and imaging --- p.59 / Chapter 2.2 --- Cell culture --- p.61 / Chapter 2.2.1 --- Isolation and culturing of primary osteosarcoma cells --- p.61 / Chapter 2.2.2 --- Primary culture of wild-type calvarial osteoblasts --- p.62 / Chapter 2.2.3 --- Culture of MC3T3-E1, Hela, SaOS-2, U2-OS and HEK-293 --- p.62 / Chapter 2.3 --- MTT proliferation assay --- p.63 / Chapter 2.4 --- Differentiation assay --- p.64 / Chapter 2.4.1 --- Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining --- p.64 / Chapter 2.4.2 --- Alizarin Red S staining --- p.65 / Chapter 2.4.3 --- Von Kossa staining --- p.65 / Chapter 2.4.4 --- Oil Red O staining --- p.65 / Chapter 2.5 --- Immunofluorescence staining --- p.66 / Chapter 2.6 --- Anchorage-independent (soft agar) assay --- p.67 / Chapter 2.7 --- Migration assay --- p.68 / Chapter 2.8 --- Transwell invasion assay --- p.69 / Chapter 2.9 --- In vitro treatment of Hedgehog agonists/antagonists --- p.70 / Chapter 2.10 --- RNA extraction and qRT-PCR --- p.71 / Chapter 2.10.1 --- RNA extraction --- p.71 / Chapter 2.10.2 --- Reverse-transcription --- p.72 / Chapter 2.10.3 --- Real-time PCR --- p.72 / Chapter 2.11 --- Nude mice injection --- p.75 / Chapter 2.11.1 --- Subcutaneous injection --- p.75 / Chapter 2.11.2 --- Intra-tibial inoculation --- p.75 / Chapter 2.12 --- Western blot --- p.76 / Chapter 2.12.1 --- Protein extraction --- p.76 / Chapter 2.12.2 --- Protein concentration determination --- p.77 / Chapter 2.12.3 --- Western blot analysis --- p.77 / Chapter 2.13 --- Dual-luciferase reporter gene assay --- p.79 / Chapter 2.13.1 --- Transfection of plasmids by electroporation --- p.79 / Chapter 2.13.2 --- Sample harvesting and dual-luciferase assay --- p.80 / Chapter 2.14 --- Lentivirus preparation and Transduction of Kios-5 --- p.80 / Chapter 2.14.1 --- Lentivirus preparation --- p.80 / Chapter 2.14.2 --- Transduction of Kios-5 --- p.81 / Chapter 2.15 --- Conditioned medium studies --- p.82 / Chapter 2.15.1 --- Conditioned medium preparation --- p.82 / Chapter 2.15.2 --- Neutralizing OPN antibody treated conditioned medium --- p.83 / Chapter 2.15.3 --- Conditioned medium treatment --- p.83 / Chapter 2.16 --- Recombinant OPN treatment --- p.84 / Chapter 2.17 --- Immunohistochemistry --- p.84 / Chapter 2.18 --- Statistical analysis --- p.85 / Chapter CHAPTER 3 --- RESULTS --- p.87 / Chapter 3.1 --- Introductory statement --- p.87 / Chapter 3.2 --- Design of the OS mouse model Ptch1{U+1D9C}/+; p53+/-; HOC-Cre --- p.87 / Chapter 3.3 --- Characterization of the osteosarcoma mouse model --- p.93 / Chapter 3.3.1 --- Development of osteosarcoma-like tumor from the mouse model --- p.93 / Chapter 3.3.2 --- Characterization of osteosarcoma-like tumor derived cell line --- p.94 / Chapter 3.3.2.1 --- Osteoblastic properties of Kios-5 --- p.94 / Chapter 3.3.2.2 --- Functional assays of Kios-5 --- p.101 / Chapter 3.3.2.3 --- In vivo cancer properties of Kios-5 --- p.106 / Chapter 3.3.2.4 --- Molecular characterizations of Kios-5 and its derived secondary tumors --- p.109 / Chapter 3.4 --- Interaction between Hedgehog signaling and Hippo pathway in osteosarcoma mouse model --- p.114 / Chapter 3.5 --- Secretory factor-mediated interaction between Hedgehog signaling and Hippo pathway --- p.133 / Chapter CHAPTER 4 --- DISCUSSION --- p.160 / Chapter 4.1 --- Introductory statement --- p.160 / Chapter 4.2 --- Mouse model of Hedgehog signaling-induced osteosarcoma --- p.160 / Chapter 4.3 --- Hedgehog signaling interacted with Hippo pathway in the osteosarcoma mouse model --- p.167 / Chapter 4.4 --- Autocrine/paracrine mechanism in Hedgehog signaling-induced osteosarcoma --- p.171 / Chapter 4.5 --- Future studies --- p.174 / APPENDIX --- p.177 / Chapter A-1 --- List of reagents and chemicals --- p.177 / Chapter A-2 --- Recipes of buffers --- p.181 / Chapter A-3 --- Data sheet of human osteosarcoma tissue array --- p.185 / REFERENCES --- p.187
4

Predictors of and variability in methotrexate clearance among osteosarcoma patients receiving high-dose therapy

Pinchasik, Dawn 28 October 2013 (has links)
No description available.
5

Alterations in Tgf-β Signaling Mediate the Biologic Behaviour of Osteosarcoma Cell Lines

Deheshi, Benjamin Michael 31 December 2010 (has links)
Osteosarcoma is a mesenchymal tumour of bone common among children and young adults. Prognosis is poor if metastases are present at diagnosis. The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling pathway plays a complex dual role in cancer. We hypothesized that alterations in the TGF-β signaling pathway are important in the tumorigenesis of osteosarcoma cell lines. Smad phosphorylation and nuclear localization, Smad4 expression, and TAZ expression were determined in the HOS osteosarcoma cell line and tumorigenic derivatives. Basal TGF-β activity and TAZ expression correlated with a tumorigenic phenotype in the KHOS cell lines as measured by Anchorage Independent Growth (AIG). In comparison, exogenous TGF-β suppressed AIG and acted as a tumour suppressor, while Smad4-deficient KHOS cells were resistant to the inhibitory TGF-β effect. In conclusion, basal TGF-β signaling and TAZ correlate with increased tumorigenic potential in osteosarcoma cell lines, whereas exogenous TGF-β acted as a tumour suppressor in a Smad4-dependent manner.
6

Alterations in Tgf-β Signaling Mediate the Biologic Behaviour of Osteosarcoma Cell Lines

Deheshi, Benjamin Michael 31 December 2010 (has links)
Osteosarcoma is a mesenchymal tumour of bone common among children and young adults. Prognosis is poor if metastases are present at diagnosis. The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling pathway plays a complex dual role in cancer. We hypothesized that alterations in the TGF-β signaling pathway are important in the tumorigenesis of osteosarcoma cell lines. Smad phosphorylation and nuclear localization, Smad4 expression, and TAZ expression were determined in the HOS osteosarcoma cell line and tumorigenic derivatives. Basal TGF-β activity and TAZ expression correlated with a tumorigenic phenotype in the KHOS cell lines as measured by Anchorage Independent Growth (AIG). In comparison, exogenous TGF-β suppressed AIG and acted as a tumour suppressor, while Smad4-deficient KHOS cells were resistant to the inhibitory TGF-β effect. In conclusion, basal TGF-β signaling and TAZ correlate with increased tumorigenic potential in osteosarcoma cell lines, whereas exogenous TGF-β acted as a tumour suppressor in a Smad4-dependent manner.
7

Molecular Determinants of Malignancy in Canine Osteosarcoma

Larsen, Dana Meegan 13 December 2011 (has links)
Cancer is essentially a genetic disease of uncontrolled cell survival and proliferation. Medical therapy has traditionally involved chemotherapy and radiation which inhibit the replication of actively dividing cells in a fairly non-selective manner. Research into the molecular pathogenesis of cancer has enabled the recent development of therapy targeted to receptors or signaling pathways crucial to the development and progression of specific cancers and revealed molecular markers that can be used to predict prognosis and treatment response. The work presented in this thesis examines the expression of two potential molecular markers of malignancy, the R1alpha regulatory subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PRKAR1A) and insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) retrospectively in a population of canine osteosarcoma patients. Furthermore, it describes the derivation and preliminary characterization of canine osteosarcoma primary cell cultures and the use of these cells to assess the effects of PRKAR1A expression on sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drug treatment in vitro. Post-chemotherapy overall survival was significantly longer in canine osteosarcoma patients with tumours expressing low levels of PRKAR1A, and PRKAR1A expression did not correlate with mitotic index. IGF2 expression was generally high in the small numbers of cases examined, did not differ between axial and appendicular sites and did not correlate with either mitotic index or survival. PRKAR1A expression varied between cell cultures, but did not appear to be related to expression levels of phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding (phospho- CREB), a downstream target of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA). In vitro chemosensitivity did not correlate with PRKAR1A expression, but faster growing cells with shorter doubling times and higher rates of BrdU incorporation tended to be more chemosensitive. In summary, this work identifies an association between low tumour PRKAR1A expression and prolonged post-chemotherapy survival in dogs with osteosarcoma and provides preliminary evidence suggesting that this survival advantage may not be associated with downstream phosphorylation of CREB or sensitivity of the tumour cells to chemotherapeutic agents.
8

SATB2, a novel p73-interacting protein: characterization and role in osteosarcoma

Lau, Joanne 24 July 2013 (has links)
p73 shares many structural and functional similarities with its homologue, the p53 tumour suppressor. Many p73 protein isoforms result from both alternative splicing and differential promoter utilization. Transcriptionally active (TA) isoforms are pro-apoptotic, while N-terminally truncated (dN) variants are anti-apoptotic and act as dominant-negative inhibitors of TAp73 and p53. p73 has been shown to activate the transcription of genes involved in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in response to DNA damaging agents, including chemotherapies. We hypothesize that the activity of p73, like many transcription factors, may be modulated by binding to regulatory proteins. A novel p73-binding protein that we have identified is special AT-rich sequence binding protein 2 (SATB2), which is a nuclear matrix attachment region (MAR)-binding protein. It has important functions in the regulation of gene transcription, neuronal and osteoblast (OB) differentiation, and craniofacial patterning. The SATB2 family member, SATB1, has been implicated in breast tumour growth and metastasis. Here, I describe the initial characterization of the p73-SATB2 interaction. SATB2 binds to and stabilizes TAp73a, leading to the enhancement of TAp73a-mediated induction of p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA; apoptotic gene) and p21 (cell cycle gene). Conversely, SATB2 does not bind to but decreases TAp73b levels, resulting in inhibition of TAp73b-mediated transcription. Thus, our findings reveal a role for SATB2 in the regulation of p73 stability and function. Moreover, we demonstrate that SATB2 is overexpressed in osteosarcoma (OS), while it is undetectable in other sarcomas, thereby suggesting that SATB2 may be a potential biomarker that can distinguish OS from other sarcomas. Loss of SATB2 also inhibits the migration and invasion capabilities of OS cells, and suggests that SATB2 promotes both migration and invasion in OS. Therefore, I present work showing that SATB2 is a novel p73-binding partner that differentially regulates the stability and function of the C-terminal isoforms of p73, as well as the novel involvement of SATB2 in OS invasion.
9

SATB2, a novel p73-interacting protein: characterization and role in osteosarcoma

Lau, Joanne 24 July 2013 (has links)
p73 shares many structural and functional similarities with its homologue, the p53 tumour suppressor. Many p73 protein isoforms result from both alternative splicing and differential promoter utilization. Transcriptionally active (TA) isoforms are pro-apoptotic, while N-terminally truncated (dN) variants are anti-apoptotic and act as dominant-negative inhibitors of TAp73 and p53. p73 has been shown to activate the transcription of genes involved in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in response to DNA damaging agents, including chemotherapies. We hypothesize that the activity of p73, like many transcription factors, may be modulated by binding to regulatory proteins. A novel p73-binding protein that we have identified is special AT-rich sequence binding protein 2 (SATB2), which is a nuclear matrix attachment region (MAR)-binding protein. It has important functions in the regulation of gene transcription, neuronal and osteoblast (OB) differentiation, and craniofacial patterning. The SATB2 family member, SATB1, has been implicated in breast tumour growth and metastasis. Here, I describe the initial characterization of the p73-SATB2 interaction. SATB2 binds to and stabilizes TAp73a, leading to the enhancement of TAp73a-mediated induction of p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA; apoptotic gene) and p21 (cell cycle gene). Conversely, SATB2 does not bind to but decreases TAp73b levels, resulting in inhibition of TAp73b-mediated transcription. Thus, our findings reveal a role for SATB2 in the regulation of p73 stability and function. Moreover, we demonstrate that SATB2 is overexpressed in osteosarcoma (OS), while it is undetectable in other sarcomas, thereby suggesting that SATB2 may be a potential biomarker that can distinguish OS from other sarcomas. Loss of SATB2 also inhibits the migration and invasion capabilities of OS cells, and suggests that SATB2 promotes both migration and invasion in OS. Therefore, I present work showing that SATB2 is a novel p73-binding partner that differentially regulates the stability and function of the C-terminal isoforms of p73, as well as the novel involvement of SATB2 in OS invasion.
10

Studies on the pathobiology and management of canine osteosarcoma

Loukopoulos, P. Unknown Date (has links)
No description available.

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