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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Anything but a head in the sand? : pioneering ostrich farming in New Zealand : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Sociology in the University of Canterbury /

Lishomwa, Lileko. January 2007 (has links)
Thesis (M. A.)--University of Canterbury, 2007. / Typescript (photocopy). Includes bibliographical references (leaves 214-228). Also available via the World Wide Web.
2

A microbiological and molecular study of campylobacter and related species isolated from ostriches (Struthio camelus)

Peyrot, Belinda Margaret January 2014 (has links)
>Magister Scientiae - MSc / Campylobacter and related Epsilonproteobacteria (Arcobacter and Helicobacter) are currently viewed as emerging pathogens and are able to cause gastroenteritis, bacteraemia, the Guillain-Barré syndrome, reactive arthritis and other diseases in humans. While poultry, cattle and sheep are known reservoirs for campylobacter, very little is known about ostriches as a vector for these organisms. What is known, however, is that these birds can and sometimes do get infected. Studies by various researchers have provided evidence that various species of animals shed Epsilonproteobacteria in their faeces. In this study, qualitative microbiological assays were performed on liver, caecum and colon samples predominantly from healthy ostriches presented for slaughter, to detect any Epsilonproteobacteria present. Samples were collected at an abattoir in the Western Cape between February and December 2010. Qualitative microbiological assays were also performed on 50 faecal samples collected on a farm. Epsilonproteobacteria were isolated from the tissue samples and characterized following the phenotypic and biochemical scheme presented in the Cape Town protocol. This protocol uses membrane filtration onto antibiotic-free Tryptose blood agar plates, and incubation at 37 ºC in a hydrogen-enhanced microaerobic atmosphere (Lastovica, 2006). The isolates were identified as C. jejuni subsp. jejuni. The multiplex PCR of Neubauer and Hess (2006) was applied to some of these isolates. A panel of isolates consisting of C. jejuni subsp. jejuni, C. fetus and E. coli was used to verify the DNA extraction procedure. The C. fetus and E. coli isolates were used as negative controls, and although DNA was successfully extracted from them, no bands were observed in the respective lanes of electrophoresed gels after application of the PCR.
3

Evaluation of packaging and freezing and thawing rates on the shelf-life stability of ostrich meat

Leygonie, Coleen 12 1900 (has links)
Thesis (PhD (Food Sc))--Stellenbosch University, 2011. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Ostrich meat has become increasingly popular in South Africa and abroad, driven by the health conscious trend and ostrich meat’s natural low intramuscular fat, high polyunsaturated fatty acid and low cholesterol content. This increased demand led to the investigation of novel packaging regimes to improve its attractiveness and shelf-life. Different modified atmospheric packaging regimes were studied for fresh and frozenthawed ostrich M.iIliofibularis steaks stored at ±4°C for 10 days. Oxygen MAP (30 CO2:70 O2) was applied with great success to fresh steaks, and resulted in significantly improved colour stability, decreased drip loss and a 10-day shelf-life. Oxygen MAP of frozen-thawed ostrich steaks was not successful as the colour deteriorated within 3 days, coupled with high lipid and protein oxidation. The microbial shelf-life was not influenced by freezing and thawing. The use of nitrogen MAP (30 CO2:70 N2) as an alternative to vacuum packaging for fresh and frozen-thawed ostrich meat was inconclusive due to trace amounts of residual oxygen in the headspace accelerating myoglobin oxidation by depleting the metmyoglobin reducing activity. The differences in oxidative stability of the fresh and frozen-thawed ostrich meat led to the investigation of the source of these differences and a system that would allow control over the freezing and thawing practice. This was supported by the industry that is under increasing pressure to reduce the excessive (15-20%) thaw weight loss that is continually reported. Subsequently, a mathematical prediction model based on the control volume approach was developed that predicted the rate of freezing and thawing of intact whole vacuum-packed ostrich muscle. The model predicted with greater accuracy than existing models, and can be used successfully by the industry to optimally design, control and operate their systems. Furthermore research was conducted to investigate the effect of different freezing and thawing rates on the ice crystal formation and the quality of ostrich M. femorotibialis stored at ±4°C post freeze/thaw. Five characteristic freezing rates (FR (time from 0°C to -7°C): 1, 2, 4, 8, 24h) were paired with five characteristic thawing rates (TR (time form -7°C to 0°C): 1.5, 3, 6.5, 14, 21h) in a completely randomised block design. Results showed that thawing had no impact on any of the tested quality parameters, including thaw loss. Freezing rate however did influence the ice crystal formation and at a characteristic freezing rate of one hour (FR_1h) only intracellular ice crystals were observed throughout the M. femorotibialis leading to the lowest thaw loss (2.57%) and highest shear force. Freezing rate of 2h, 4h and 8h (FR_2h, FR_4h and FR_8h) were dominated by extracellular ice crystals. FR_2h and FR_8h showed major dehydration of the muscle fibres and excessive distortion of the muscle fibre matrix that led to significantly lower oxidative stability. FR_24h (approximately commercial rates) formed columns of ice from the surface to the centre of the meat resulting in the highest thaw loss (6.24%). FR_4h was judged to deliver the best quality product with moderate thaw (3.93%) and drip loss, low cooking loss, good colour stability and extremely low TBARS. FR_4h is an achievable rate of freezing for the industry and if implemented should decrease the thaw loss problem as well as increase revenue and throughput in the processing facility. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: ‘n Hedendaagse strewe na ‘n gesonde lewenstyl tesame met die natuurlike lae vetinhoud (d.i. hoë poli-onversadigde vetsure en lae cholesterolvlak) van volstruisvleis het gelei tot ‘n toename in die nasionale en internasionale aanvraag. Hierdie het ook die behoefte laat ontstaan om nuwe verpakkingstegnieke te ondersoek om sodoende die aanvaarbaarheid en rakleeftyd van die produk te verleng. Die invloed van verskeie gewysigde atmosferiese verpakkingsmetodes (GAV) op die kleurstabiliteit, drupverlies en rakleeftyd van vars en bevrore/ontdooide volstruisvleis (spesifiek M. Iliofibularis), gestoor by ±4°C vir 10 dae, is ondersoek. Die suurstof GAV (30 CO2:70 O2) van vars volstruisvleis het ‘n verbetering in kleurstabiliteit, verlaagde drupverlies en 'n verlengde mikrobiese rakleeftyd (10 dae) tot gevolg gehad. Die suurstof GAV van bevrore-ontdooide volstruisvleis het geen voordelige effek op kleurstabiliteit en rakleeftyd getoon nie. Die bevrore/ontdooide monsters het totaal verkleur na 3 dae en ‘n hoë vlak van lipied- en proteïenoksidasie is waargeneem. Die bevriesing en ontdooiing het geen invloed op rakleeftyd gehad nie. Die moontlikheid om stikstof GAV (30 CO2:70 N2) as 'n alternatief tot vakuumverpakking vir vars en bevrore/ontdooide volstruisvleis te gebruik, is beïnvloed deur die teenwoordigheid van oorblywende suurstof in die lugruimte van die GAV, met ‘n gevolglike toename in die tempo van mioglobien oksidasie as gevolg van ‘n afname in die metmioglobien reduksie aktiwiteit. Die verskil in die oksidatiewe stabiliteit van vars en bevrore/ontdooide volstruisvleis het gelei tot ‘n verdere ondersoek na die oorsaak van die verskille en die ontwikkeling van ‘n moontlike protokol om die oksidatiewe stabiliteit en dus rakleeftyd van volstruisvleis, te verbeter en bestuur. Die behoefte aan so ‘n protokol is beklemtoon deur die bedryf wat onder toenemende druk verkeer om buitensporige ontdooiingsverliese (15-20%) te verminder. ‘n Wiskundige voorspellingsmodel, gebaseer op die beheer-volume benadering, is ontwikkel om die tempo van bevriesing en ontdooiing van vakuumverpakte heel volstruisspiere te voorspel. Die model het tempo van bevriesing en ontdooiing met groter akkuraatheid as die bestaande modelle voorspel en kan suksesvol gebruik word in die bestuur van slagpale. Verder navorsing is onderneem om ondersoek in te stel na die effek van die tempo van bevriesing en ontdooiing op die kwaliteit van die bevrore-ontdooide volstruisvleis tydens berging by ±4°C. Die invloed van die kombinasie van vyf bevriesingstempo’s (FR (tydsverloop 0°C tot -7°C): 1, 2, 4, 8, 24 h) met vyf ontdooiingstempo’s (OT (tydsverloop -7°C to 0°C): 1.5, 3, 6.5, 14, 21 h) is ondersoek. Die resultate het getoon dat ontdooiingstempo geen beduidende invloed op enige van die kwaliteit kriteria, insluitend ontdooiingsverlies, gehad het nie. Bevriesingtempo het egter ‘n groot rol ten opsigte van yskristalvorming gespeel. Teen ‘n kenmerkende bevriesingstempo van een uur (FR_1h) was slegs intrasellulêre yskristalle waargeneem dwarsdeur die M. femorotibialis wat gelei het tot die laagste ontdooiingsverlies (2.57 %). Die ander bevriesingstempo’s, d.i. FR_2h, FR_4h en FR_8h, het gelei tot die vorming van meestal ekstrasellulêre yskristalle. Bevriesingstempo’s van FR_2h en FR_8h het beduidende dehidrasie van die spiervesels en vervorming van die spiervesel matriks tot gevolg gehad, wat tot verhoogde oksidasie gelei het. ‘n Bevriesingstempo van FR_24h (d.i. kommersieële tempo), het gelei tot die vorming van yskolomme van die oppervlak na die middelpunt van die spier, wat gevolglik die grootste ontdooiingsverlies (6.24%) tot gevolg gehad het. ‘n Bevriesingstempo van vier ure (FR_4h) is bestempel as die mees geskikte bevriesings tempo as gevolg van ‘n matige ontdooiingsverlies (3.93%), drupverlies, lae kookverlies, goeie kleur stabiliteit en uiters lae lipiedoksidasie te verseker. Die FR_4h bevriesingstempo is haalbare in die bedryf. Indien dit geïmplementeer word, sal dit waarskynlik die deurset van die slagpalesiklus asook die kostedoeltreffendheid van die volstruisbedryf vebeter, deur die vermindering van ontdooiingsverlies en verbetering van die algehele kwalitiet van die vleis.
4

Microbial quality and safety of ostrich meat

Cloete, Anya January 2010 (has links)
The aim of this study was to determine the quality of slaughtered ostrich meat and to evaluate the ostrich slaughter process, to determine whether ostrich meat are contaminated by the in-house slaughtering practices and if prevalence of microorganisms increase with the succession of the slaughter process. Furthermore, the presence of specific foodborne pathogens and spoilage organisms was explored by means of molecular and conventional methods to determine whether ostrich meat is a source of these microorganisms. Data obtained from this study provides some baseline information that could be used in future studies on system contamination and the extent of downstream processing steps in the production of ostrich meat. Antimicrobial resistance has become a growing area of concern in both human and veterinary medicine, it is therefore necessary that another aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic resistant pattern of Staphylococcus aureus in ostrich meat in order to establish whether Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from ostrich meat samples show resistance to antibiotics
5

Microbial quality and safety of ostrich meat

Cloete, Anya January 2010 (has links)
The aim of this study was to determine the quality of slaughtered ostrich meat and to evaluate the ostrich slaughter process, to determine whether ostrich meat are contaminated by the in-house slaughtering practices and if prevalence of microorganisms increase with the succession of the slaughter process. Furthermore, the presence of specific foodborne pathogens and spoilage organisms was explored by means of molecular and conventional methods to determine whether ostrich meat is a source of these microorganisms. Data obtained from this study provides some baseline information that could be used in future studies on system contamination and the extent of downstream processing steps in the production of ostrich meat. Antimicrobial resistance has become a growing area of concern in both human and veterinary medicine, it is therefore necessary that another aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic resistant pattern of Staphylococcus aureus in ostrich meat in order to establish whether Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from ostrich meat samples show resistance to antibiotics
6

Microbial quality and safety of ostrich meat

Cloete, Anya January 2010 (has links)
Magister Scientiae - MSc / The aim of this study was to determine the quality of slaughtered ostrich meat and to evaluate the ostrich slaughter process, to determine whether ostrich meat are contaminated by the in-house slaughtering practices and if prevalence of microorganisms increase with the succession of the slaughter process. Furthermore, the presence of specific foodborne pathogens and spoilage organisms was explored by means of molecular and conventional methods to determine whether ostrich meat is a source of these microorganisms. Data obtained from this study provides some baseline information that could be used in future studies on system contamination and the extent of downstream processing steps in the production of ostrich meat. Antimicrobial resistance has become a growing area of concern in both human and veterinary medicine, it is therefore necessary that another aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic resistant pattern of Staphylococcus aureus in ostrich meat in order to establish whether Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from ostrich meat samples show resistance to antibiotics. / South Africa
7

Purification and partial characterisation of cathepsin D from ostrich skeletal muscle, and its activity during meat maturation

Krause, Jason January 2009 (has links)
Cathepsin D, a muscle proteinase, participates in lysosomally mediated protein degradation in vivo. This enzyme has been proposed to play a significant role in the postmortem proteolysis process apparently associated with tenderisation. The lack of data on the postmortem characteristics of ostrich meat, especially on the ageing process and its influence on meat tenderness, called for an investigation into this process. There is no data available for purified ostrich cathepsin D, and the aim of this study was, therefore, to isolate, purify and characterise cathepsin D from ostrich skeletal muscle and subsequently investigate the possible role that it may have in the tenderisation process of meat. Cathepsin D was successfully isolated and purified from ostrich skeletal muscle using pepstatin A-agarose chromatography. The purified enzyme was composed of two subunits (14 and 29kDa). The amino acid composition as well as the N-terminal amino acid sequence of both subunits were determined. Kinetic parameters (Km and Vm), thermodynamic parameters (Ea, ∆H, ∆S and ∆G) and functional characteristics (effect of pH, temperature and various inhibitors on cathepsin D activity) were determined and are reported in this study. Ostrich muscle cathepsin D showed a pH optimum of 4 and a temperature optimum of 45°C. The activity of cathepsin D was strongly inhibited by pepstatin A and DTT. Purified ostrich cathepsin D displayed kinetic and functional properties similar to previously reported values from various species. The effect of storage on the activity of cathepsin D was investigated over a 30 day period. It was established that substantial postmortem cathepsin D activity remained throughout the storage period, to implicate cathepsin D, fulfilling a possible role in meat maturation.
8

Purification and partial characterization of a Myofibril-Bound Serine Protease and its endogenous inhibitor from skeletal muscle of the ostrich

Tshidino, Shonisani Cathphonia January 2008 (has links)
The ostrich is becoming an important source of meat for humans in developed and developing countries. This study was conducted to purify and characterize myofibrilbound serine protease (MBSP) and its endogenous inhibitor (MBSPI) from skeletal muscle of the ostrich. It is well documented that MBSP is tightly bound to myofibrils and its endogenous inhibitor has been purified from the same tissue of other studied mammalian species. Literature supports an association of MBSP and its endogenous inhibitor with the degradation of myofribrillar proteins, resulting in the softening of muscle that lead to the conversion of muscle into meat with the control of the inhibitor. MBSP was successfully dissociated from washed myofibrils by 40 percent ethylene glycol at pH 8.5. Following centrifugation, MBSP was partially purified in two chromatographic steps, namely Toyopearl Super Q 650S and p-aminobenzamidine-Agarose. On the other hand, MBSPI was fractionated from the sarcoplasmic fraction using 75 percent ammonium sulfate saturation, followed by centrifugation and partially purified by three chromatographic steps, namely Toyopearl Super Q 650S, Superdex 200 and HiTrap SP HR. Ostrich MBSP was physicochemically and kinetically characterized, while MBSPI was only physicochemically characterized. Ostrich MBSP revealed an Mr of 21 kDa, cleaving synthetic fluorogenic substrates specifically at the carboxyl side of arginine residues. Optimum pH and temperature of ostrich MBSP were 8.0 and 40˚C, respectively. Kinetic parameters (Km and Vmax values) were calculated from Lineweaver-Burk plots. The characteristics of ostrich MBSP were compared to the values obtained for commercial bovine trypsin in this study, as well as that obtained for MBSP from various fish species and mouse. The results suggest that ostrich MBSP is a trypsin-like serine protease, thereby confirming the existence of MBSP in ostrich skeletal muscle. Partially purified ostrich MBSPI (Mr 17 kDa) (one form) shares 100 percent identity to myoglobin from the same species, while 2 other forms of MBSPI (Mr values of 35 and 36 kDa) exhibited high sequence identity to glyceraldehyde 3- phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) (76 percent) from human and rat.
9

Purification and characterisation of 20S proteasome from ostrich skeletal muscle and its role in meat tenderisation

Thomas, Adele René January 2004 (has links)
The proteasome is renowned for its high molecular weight, multisubunit and mulicatalytic nature. One of its many suggested roles is the degradation of myofibrillar proteins, and therefore it has been proposed to play a role in the meat tenderisation process. The aim of this study was therefore to isolate, purify and characterise the 20S proteasome from ostrich skeletal muscle, with a view to ultimately investigating its role in the tenderisation process of ostrich meat. The 20S proteasome was successfully isolated and purified from ostrich skeletal muscle using Toyopearl Super Q-650S, Sephacryl S-300, hydroxylapatite and Mono Q chromatographies. The intact molecule showed a molecular weight of 725 K and a pI of 6.67. The subunits showed a molecular weight range of 22.2-33.5 K and a pI range of 3-9. 2D-PAGE revealed at least 14 polypeptides. The amino acid composition of the intact enzyme and of each of the eight subunits separating on SDSPAGE, as well as the N-terminal sequences of five of the eight subunits, were determined. The trypsinlike (Tr-L), chymotrypsin-like (ChT-L), peptidylglutamyl peptide hydrolase (PGPH) and caseinolytic activities showed pH optima of 11, 9, 7-8 and 10.3, and temperature optima of 40, 60, 70 and 60oC, respectively. The pH stability range for all four activities was 5-12. The ChT-L and PGPH activities showed thermostabilities up to 60oC, whereas the Tr-L and caseinolytic activities were stable up to 40o C. The enzyme showed complex kinetics. It was inhibited by the peptide aldehyde Z-LLL-CHO and cysteine protease inhibitors. Cations had negligible effects on the enzyme, excepting for Ca2+ and Mg2+. Of the detergents tested, SDS had the most potent stimulatory effect, particularly on the PGPH and caseinolytic activities. The fatty acid studies showed that unsaturation enhanced the ChT-L and the caseinolytic activities, while it completely suppressed the Tr-L activity. Heating at 60oC for 1-2 min stimulated the caseinolytic and PGPH activities. The studies on the role of ostrich skeletal muscle 20S proteasome in ostrich meat tenderisation suggested a definite but minor role of this enzyme, based on the fact that it remained active throughout the 12 days of storage of ostrich M. iliofibularis meat at 4oC and that it participated in myofibril degradation of post-mortem muscle, but to a small degree. These results support the proposal that the proteasome comes into play after the calpains have initiated degradation. However, there was a lack of improvement in tenderness values and minimal myofibrillar degradation over the 12-day storage period of the ostrich M. iliofibularis meat, leading to the conclusion that the tenderisation of this meat was incomplete after 12 days.
10

Development of value added ostrich (Struthio Camelus) meat products

Schutte, Sumari 03 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2008. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were threefold: (i) to investigate the effect of the replacement of pork fat with olive oil on the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of ostrich polony; (ii) to investigate the effect of replacement of sodium tri-polyphosphate (STPP) with iota-carrageenan (CGN) on the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of restructured cooked ostrich ham; and (iii) to investigate the effect of salt (NaCl) reduction on the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of ostrich bacon. Five levels of olive oil were added to a polony formulation in 5% increments from 0 to 20%. Hardness, gumminess and shear force values decreased (P≤0.05) with increased levels of olive oil. The L* and b* values decreased (P≤0.05) with increased levels of olive oil producing lighter and more yellow products. Ostrich polony proved to have a favourable fatty acid profile in line with international recommended standards. A trained sensory panel found that the effect of increased levels of olive oil on had an effect (P≤0.05) on the sensory characteristics of colour; processed meat aroma and flavour; ostrich aroma; olive oil aroma; firmness and juiciness. A consumer panel found all the olive oil treatments to be acceptable. It can be concluded that olive oil can be used successfully for the production of low fat ostrich meat polony. In a restructured ostrich ham five decreasing levels of phosphate (0.7, 0.53, 0.35, 0.18 and 0%) were substituted with five increasing levels of carrageenan (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4%). The cooked yield of the restructured ostrich ham decreased significantly (P≤0.05) with decreased levels of phosphate. No tendencies in instrumental colour measurements with relation to decreased levels of phosphate were revealed. Hardness, cohesiveness and gumminess increased with decreased levels of phosphate. Ostrich ham had a favourable fatty acid profile and the latter is in line with international recommended standards. The trained sensory panel found that decreased levels of phosphate had a significant effect on the ham sensory characteristics of meat aroma and flavour; ostrich meat aroma and flavour and mealiness, but no significant effect on the spicy aroma and flavour. Three ham treatments with different levels of phosphate (0.7, 0.35 and 0%) were presented to a consumer panel. The consumer panel found the ham treatments with levels of 0.7 and 0.35% most acceptable. Carrageenan can be used to substitute phosphate at a level of 0.35% phosphate and 0.2% carrageenan in ostrich ham. Ostrich bacon was produces with five targeted salt (NaCl) levels of 3.5, 2.75, 2.0, 1.25, and 0.5%. Decreased salt levels had no significant effect on the L*, a* and b* values of the five treatments. Ostrich bacon had a favourible fatty acid profile. A trained sensory panel found that the effect of increased levels of salt had a significant effect on bacon sensory characteristics of ostrich aroma and flavour smoky bacon aroma and flavour and saltiness. A consumer panel found all the bacon treatments acceptable, with 2.75 and 2.0% being most likable. It can be concluded that, from a technical point of view, the salt content in ostrich bacon can be reduced successfully to produce ostrich bacon with low salt levels, although consumer preference for salt remains high. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die doelstellings van hierdie studie was drievoudig: (i) om die effek van die vervanging van varkvet met olyfolie op die fisiko-chemiese en sensoriese eienskappe van volstruispolonie te bestudeer; (ii) om die effek van die vervanging van natriumtripolifosfaat met iotakarrageenan op die fisikochemiese en sonsoriese eienskappe op die van hergestruktureerde volstruisham te bestudeer; en (iii) om die effek van sout (NaCl) vermindering op die fisiko-chemiese en sensoriese eienskappe van volstruisspek te bestudeer. Die polonie behandelings het uit vyf vlakke olyfolie bestaan wat by die polonie formulasie in 5% inkremente 0% tot 20% gevoeg is. Hardheid, taaiheid en skeurkrag het afgeneem (P≤0.05) met verhoogde vlakke van olyfolie. Die L*- en b*-waardes het afgeneem (P≤0.05) met verhoogde vlakke van olyfolie en uiteibdelik ‘n ligter en geler produk geproduseer. Die betrokke volstruispolonie behandelings het ‘n gunstige vetsuurprofiel wat in lyn is met internasionale aanbevole standaarde. ‘n Opgeleide sensoriese paneel het gevind dat die verhoogde vlakke van olyfolie ‘n betekenisvolle (P≤0.05) effek het op die kleur, geprossesseerde vleisgeur en -aroma, volstruis aroma, olyfolie aroma, fermheid en sappigheid. ‘n Verbruikerspaneel het gevind dat al vyf polonie behandelings aanvaarbaar is. Olyfolie kan dus suksesvol gebruik word in die produksie van laevet volstruispolonie. Hergestruktureerde volstruisham het bestaan uit vyf afnemende fosfaat vlakke (0.7, 0.53, 0.35, 0.18 and 0%) en vyf toenemende vlakke van karrageenan (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4%). Die opbrengs van gaar hergestruktureerde volstruisham het afgeneem (P≤0.05) met verlaagde vlakke van fosfaat. Geen betekenisvolle patroon is in instrumentele kleurmeting gevind nie. Hardheid, binding en taaiheid het toegeneem met afnemende fosfaat vlakke. Daar is bewys dat volstruisham ‘n gunstige vetsuurprofiel het wat in lyn is met internasionale aanbevole standaarde het. ‘n Opgeleide sensoriese paneel het gevind dat afnemende fosfaatvlakke ‘n betekenisvolle effek op die sensoriese eienskappe van volstruisvleis geur en aroma asook melerigheid, maar geen betekenisvolle effek op die speserygeur en -aroma gehad nie. Drie behandelings met verskillende fosfaat vlakke (0.7, 0.35 and 0%) is deur ‘n verbruikerspaneel vir aanvaaraarheid getoets. Die verbruikerspaneel het gevind dat die behandelings met 0.7 en 0.35% fosfaat aanvaarbaar was. Karrageenan kan dus gebruik word om fosfaat te vervang by ‘n vlak van 0.35% fosfaat en 0.2% karrageenan in volstruisham. Volstruisspek is geproduseet met vyf soutvlakke (NaCl), nl 3.5, 2.75, 2.0, 1.25 en 0.5%. Verlaagde soutvlakke het geen beteknisvolle effek op die L*-, a*- en b*-waardes van die vyf behandelings gehad nie. Volstruisspek het ook ‘n besonder gunstige vetsuurprofiel. ‘n Opgeleide sensoriese paneel het gevind dat die effek van verhoogde soutvlakke ‘n betekenisvolle effek het op die volgende sensoriese eienskappe: geur en aroma van volstruisvleis; geur en aroma van gerookte spek; en southeid. ‘n Verbruikerspaneel het gevind dat al die behandelings aanvaarbaar was, met die monsters met 2.75 and 2.0% sout as mees aanvaarbaar. In opsomming, die soutinhoud van volstruisspek kan uit ‘n tegniese oogpunt suksesvol verlaag word om ‘n produk met ‘n laer soutinhoud te produseer, alhoewel verbruikersvoorkeur vir sout hoog bly.

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