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How Technology Diffuses through Construction User Culture: An Innovation Design to Improve Safety Technology AdoptionHung, Yu-Hsiu 05 January 2011 (has links)
Usability has long been considered an important component of an innovation (Norman, 2002), evidenced by the fact that usability research has dominated innovation design efforts for a number of years. However, recent research has shown that satisfying usability is not sufficient for the successful diffusion and adoption of an innovation (Karsh, 2004). To develop an useful innovation, one must understand the mechanisms by which people choose to adopt and use an innovation, as well as how an innovation fits different levels of a socialtechnical system (Karsh, Escoto, Beasley, & Holden,(2006). The goal of this research, therefore, was to develop an innovation analytic and design framework that would enable designers to design a more likely adopted innovation and to validate it through the design and evaluation of a fall-protection training intervention for residential roofing subcontractors. The proposed innovation analytic and design framework was based on the traditional systems-engineering process: Requirement Analysis, Prototype Development, and Summative Evaluation. Rogers’ Theory of Innovation Diffusion and Adoption, as well as Participatory Design, were utilized to obtain a holistic view of technology-adoption challenges and opportunities. The requirement analysis involved the development and use of a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews to identify the contributors of safety technology adoption in small roofing companies, as well as to understand the practices of safety technology adoption and fall-protection training. One hundred and four questionnaires from workers in North Carolina and Virginia were collected, and 29 workers received the follow-up semi-structured interview. Results showed that (1) social influence had a significant impact on the diffusion and adoption of safety technology; (2) workers’ satisfaction with existing safety performance standards/practices, as well as disengagement during available safety training, caused difficulties in implementing regular safety training; (3) management commitment and presentation of good/bad consequences of unsafe behavior were expected to facilitate the rate of adoption of safety technology. Results also identified specific recommendations for a fall-protection training intervention. The prototype development was performed by a six-member Participatory Design (PD) team in a PD workshop, who used the results of the questionnaire and semi-structured interviews to develop a training intervention. Four PD approaches (PICTIVE, Inspiration Card Workshop, Scenario Building, and Future Workshop) were employed in the development of a Personal Fall Arrest System (PFAS) as an industry-specific training intervention. This research also used summative comparative evaluation to assess the developed PFAS training intervention against a standard PFAS training intervention with respect to (1) adoption propensity, (2) expected adoption outcome, and (3) results demonstrability. Eighteen roofing workers were recruited to evaluate and compare the two interventions. The standard PFAS training intervention was developed by two experts using the safety manual published by the National Roofing Contractor Association. Results suggested that (1) the developed PFAS training intervention was more likely to be adopted and easier to diffuse among roofing subcontractors than the standard PFAS training intervention, and (2) use of the developed PFAS training intervention would better improve company's safety performance in comparison to the standard training intervention. Results of the evaluations confirmed the efficacy of the proposed innovation analytic and design framework in designing a more likely adopted innovation. / Ph. D.
XP ett stöd eller ett hinder?Bengtsson, Sandra, Gnospelius, Sara January 2004 (has links)
Detta arbete är en reflektion över ett programvaruutvecklingsprojekt, WAIS, och den arbetsmetodik som användes för detta projekt. Arbetsmetodiken för utvecklings-projektet var Extreme Programming (XP) och vi ifrågasätter om detta val var lämpligt för ett projekt som WAIS. Projektet genomfördes vid Blekinge Tekniska Högskola under våren 2004. Utvecklingsprojektet WAIS var en del av ett större projekt, AIS 42, som stöds av VINNOVA. Huvudprojektets bakgrund och syfte beskrivs för att läsaren skall förstå den roll projektet hade. Studenternas uppgift har varit att utveckla en prototyp för ett system som skall sprida information relaterad till logistik och transporter. Slutanvändarna till systemet är många och de tillhör olika organisationer som är spridda både fysiskt och verksamhetsmässigt. Arbetsmetodiken XP faller in under paraplybegreppet Agile manifesto vilkas principer beskrivs i detta arbete. Paralleller dras till arbetsprocessen och dess resultat som projektgruppen har utfört. Vi reflekterar över projektarbetet och arbetsmetodiken utifrån det perspektiv som växt fram under våra år på MDA-programmet. Synsättet bygger bland annat på particpatory design och människa-datorinteraktion där användarmedverkan har en central roll vid utvecklingsprocesser. Vår slutsats visar att utvecklingsprojektet gått miste om flera av de fördelar som arbetsmetodiken XP kan ge. De orsaker som identifierades var: tidsaspekter, tillgång till aktörer och avsaknaden av en tydlig gemensam målbild. / This thesis is a reflection over a software engineering project, WAIS, and the work methodology that has been used within the project. Extreme Programming (XP) was the work methodology used during the process of development. We question if the choice of work methodology is suitable for this kind of project. The project was running by student during spring 2004 at Blekinge Institute of technology (BTH). The project WAIS was a part of a larger project named AIS 42 that runs with funds from VINNOVA. The main projects background and purpose are described in thesis so that the reader can understand the students’ part in the projects as a whole. The students’ main task was to develop a prototype for a system that disseminates information about logistics and transports. The system has many different end users and they come from various organizations that are spread out both physical and organizational. XP is treated as a methodology with in Agile manifesto, which principles are being explained in the thesis. Parallels are being drawn between the work process and the result from the work done. We reflect over the process and the work methodology from a perspective that has been brought forth from our years of education at BTH. The approach is built up upon theories from participatory design and human computer interaction where the user has an essential part of the process of development. The conclusion shows that the project has missed some of the advantages that XP brings. The reasons that we identified were; timeaspects, access to users and the lack of a joint objectiv.
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