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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

EVALUATION OF A BEHAVIORAL SKILLS TRAINING PACKAGE TO TEACH ADULTS WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES PEDESTRIAN CROSSING SKILLS

Stoeklen, Tanya LaBelle 01 December 2015 (has links)
The present study used a multiple probe design to examined the effectiveness of a Behavioral Skills Training (BST) package that included a discrimination component for teaching two male adults with developmental disabilities pedestrian crossing skills. Each participant was evaluated on his ability to perform the step from a behavior checklist, and to discriminate between car present and car not present conditions. Results suggest the BST package was effective at improving both participants' ability to safely and independently cross the street, and that they maintained most of the skills learned during maintenance probes in actual city traffic. Teaching pedestrian skills that include hazard discrimination can lead to a more independent lifestyle for individuals with disabilities. Other implications, limitations and suggestions for further research are discussed.
2

La navigation urbaine des enfants-piétons : approche développementale et ergonomique / Urban child navigation : developmental and ergonomics approach

Solt, Jordan 11 December 2017 (has links)
Chaque année de nombreux enfants-piétons sont victimes de collisions avec des véhicules et ce malgré les efforts réalisés pour améliorer les véhicules et les infrastructures. Ces améliorations ont permis une réduction notable des séquelles mais l’étude du comportement des piétons demeure primordiale puisque ce sont ces comportements eux-mêmes qui expliquent la plus grande partie des collisions. Afin de comprendre les comportements et processus mentaux impliqués lors de la navigation urbaine, nous nous sommes intéressés aux quatre types d’études s’intéressant à la navigation urbaine infantile : (1) les études traitant des circonstances et facteurs accidentogènes, (2) celles s’intéressant aux moments clés auxquels le risque d’accident est le plus important, (3) celles traitant des compétences nécessaires au piéton pour naviguer de manière sûre, (4) et enfin celles, plus récentes, qui se centrent sur la perception du risque. Enfin, pour compléter notre approche, nous nous sommes tournés vers les dispositifs permettant de développer la compétence de piéton. Les objectifs de cette thèse sont triples : mieux comprendre l’impact de certains facteurs individuels et environnementaux sur l’exploration visuelle de scènes urbaines par les enfants, c’est-à-dire caractériser ce que « regarde » un enfant durant sa navigation urbaine, appréhender les différences développementales en terme de recherche d’information, et finalement, mesurer les différences interindividuelles et intraindividuelles durant le processus de prise de décision chez l’enfant-piéton. L’approche empirique de cette thèse s’articule autour de trois études complémentaires, alliant approche expérimentale et approche de terrain. Dans la première étude, 125 enfants âgés de 7 à 8 ans participant à une journée de prévention routière, ont été sollicités. Cette étude avait pour but de recueillir, par le biais de dessins réalisés par les enfants, des données qualitatives sur la représentation mentale de l’environnement urbain chez l’enfant-piéton. La deuxième étude a porté sur 62 participants, 21 adultes et 41 enfants âgés de 3 à 11 ans. Le protocole impliquait une tâche de prise de décision de franchissement de chaussée à l’aide de photographies. Dans l’objectif d’étudier la stratégie d’exploration visuelle en lien avec la prise de décision, cette étude avait pour but de recueillir des données oculométriques ainsi que de le temps de prise de décision. Enfin, pour notre dernière étude, nous nous sommes concentrés spécifiquement sur l’étude du processus décisionnel chez l’enfant à l’aide de la chronométrie mentale. Nous avons donc réalisé une expérimentation comptant 255 participants âgés de 5 à 11 ans. Le protocole comportait une tâche de prise de décision de franchissement de chaussée sur photographies d’un environnement urbain où la densité informationnelle variait. L’ensemble des résultats sont discutés autour de trois principaux points : (i) les mécanismes d’inhibition chez le piéton, (ii) les sources d’informations utilisées par l’enfant pour prendre ses décisions avec notamment la place d’autrui et (iii), les dispositifs de formation à destination des enfants-piétons / Each year, lots of pedestrian children get injured by vehicles, in spite of efforts made to improve vehicles and safety infrastructures.These improvements have drastically reduced damages on casualties, though the study of pedestrian behaviour remains crucial since most collisions are caused by pedestrian behaviour themselves. In order to understand mental processes and behaviours involved during movement in an urban context, four types of studies dealing with pedestrian children behaviours were analysed : (1) studies about accident-prone circumstances and factors, (2) studies about most likely key-moment for accidents to occur, (3) studies about key competencies needed by pedestrians to move safely in urban traffic, and finally (4), most recent studies about the perception of risk. With the aim of having a comprehensive approach, attention was also drawn on mechanisms that could improve pedestrians' skills.Therefore, this thesis' goals are multiple. First, to define what a children would look at when moving across urban traffic. Second, to understand how behaviours toward the search for information vary. Finally, to measure inter- and intra-individual differences during the decision-making process of pedestrian children. The empirical approach of this thesis relies on three complementary studies, mixing both empirical and in-the-field approach. The first study involved 125 7-to-8 year old children, who were attenting a road-awareness-day. Children were asked to answer a question with a drawing. The purpose of this first study was to gather qualitative data about how pedestrian children perceive the urban environment. The second study was done on 62 attendees, including 21 adults and 41 3-to-11 year old children. The protocol consisted in showing attendees photographs, and asking them do decide to cross the street or not. The purpose of this second study was to collect eye-based and decision-making-time data, in order to highlight the link between visual exploration and decision-making process. The thirs study focused specifically on pedestrian children's decision-making process, using mental chronometry. An experimentation was led on 255 5-to-11 year old participants. The protocol was also about asking attendees to make a decision based on photographs; but this time with a varying informational density. All results of the studies mentioned above will be summarized in 3 main topics which are : pedestrians' inhibition mechanisms, information sources (including other people), and finally, training techniques aimed for pedestrian children
3

Exploring the response of rural primary school children to road safety education programmes

Sentsho, Mpoye Lazarus 25 September 2010 (has links)
This is a case study of a rural school in the Moloto area. The objective of the enquiry is to explore the responses of children to road safety input that they receive at school. Children’s experiences as road users were gathered through intensive interviews with them, their parents and teachers and corroborated by my observation of children using the Moloto road and other arterial roads in the village. The study was informed by the interpretivist paradigm. Road safety education is part of the mainstream curriculum in South African schools but the environment for delivering it effectively is counterproductive in a school that lacks resource materials and trained teachers. The little that is taking place, as the study shows, is class-based, lacks context and focuses on teaching pedestrian skills with no practical input. The community’s unsafe road use behaviour of walking in the middle of the road and crossing the road everywhere undermines whatever road safety skills children might have learnt at home or at school. Key findings of the study are: children’s development of pedestrian skills; children’s constructions of road safety knowledge and their value of life and road signs; the negative influence of the unsafe “road environment”; and children’s attitude to road safety. Although children theoretically know what to do when using the road, in practice they do not show safe road use behaviour. Their construction of road safety knowledge is mainly informed by the practices of the broad community. This paradox between what the literature prescribes, what the national curriculum entails and what the children apply in their everyday use of the roads is the main finding of the study. Although children are enthusiastic about road safety education the same cannot be said about the teachers who are demoralised and not sure whether what they are doing is right or wrong. However, the children understand the value of life and the danger of using the road infrastructure recklessly even though their road use behaviour suggests otherwise. The low level of formal education among parents and the lack of support for teachers from road safety officers do not help the situation. Effective road safety education delivery depends on a number of variables or factors. Where these conditions are not available, the whole process becomes a futile exercise. In conclusion, road safety education can be summarised as a process with sequenced goals: The provision of information about injury risks and how to avoid them, changing attitudes towards risk and safety, and altering behaviour. Training should include the development of clearly defined pedestrian skills through guidance by a more skilled individual and practice in the road environment. Education can thus underpin both legislative and environmental measures by creating a climate of opinion that enhances a culture of safety which is not evident in the Moloto community. It will take political will and resource allocation for road safety education for any meaningful impact to be made in delivering road safety education and pedestrian skills effectively in a rural school like the Moloto primary school in Mpumalanga. / Thesis (PhD)--University of Pretoria, 2010. / Early Childhood Education / unrestricted

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