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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
21

Relationships and introgression within Carthamus (Asteraceae), with an emphasis on safflower (Carthamus tinctorius).

Bowles, Victoria Unknown Date
No description available.
22

Transitions between Marine and Freshwaters in Fishes: Evolutionary Pattern and Process

Bloom, Devin 19 March 2013 (has links)
Evolutionary transitions between marine and freshwater habitats are rare events that can have profound impacts on aquatic biodiversity. The main goal of my thesis is determining the processes involved in transitions between marine and freshwater biomes, and the resulting patterns of diversity using phylogenetic approaches. To test hypotheses regarding the geography, timing, frequency, and mechanisms regulating biome transitions I generated multi-locus time-calibrated molecular phylogenies for groups of fishes that include both exclusively marine and freshwater species. My analysis of anchovies demonstrated that Neotropical freshwater anchovies represent a monophyletic radiation with a single origin in South American freshwaters. I used a phylogeny of herring and allies (Clupeiformes) to investigate the evolution of diadromy, a migratory behavior in which individuals move between oceans and freshwater habitats for reproduction and feeding. These analyses do not support the hypothesis that differences in productivity between marine and freshwater explain the origins of diadromous lineages. Diadromy has been considered an evolutionary pathway for permanent biome transitions, however I found that diadromy almost never produces a fully marine or freshwater clade. Marine lineages often invade continental freshwaters during episodes of marine incursion. In South America, the rich diversity of marine derived fish lineages invaded during Eocene marine incursions from either the Pacific or the Caribbean, and Oligocene marine incursions from the Caribbean. I falsified the highly cited Miocene marine incursion hypothesis, but found that the Pebas Mega-Wetland catalyzed diversification in some marine derived lineages. Using diversification analyses, I investigated the evolutionary processes that have generated disparate patterns of diversity between continents and oceans. I found that freshwater silversides have higher speciation and extinction rates than marine silversides. Lineages accumulation plots suggest ecological limits are not regulating clade growth in either marine or freshwater biomes. Overall, biome conservatism is a widespread pattern among fishes, and this pattern is largely driven by competition in clades that are physiologically capable of biome transitions. Biome transitions are facilitated by rare paleogeographic events, such as marine incursions. Finally, a difference in net diversification rate is the macroevolutionary mechanism that best explains the difference in diversity between continents and oceans.
23

Morphological And Pathogenic Analyses Of Varieties Of Waitea Circinata And Their Rhizoctonia Anamorphs

de la Cerda, Karla Adriana 19 September 2011 (has links)
The species complex, Waitea circinata (WC) has been currently divided into five cultural types: var. circinata, var. oryzae, var. zeae, var. agrostis, and var. prodigus. These divisions are currently based on differences in their sclerotial morphology which have been supported by differences in their internal transcribed spacer region. Physiological differences such as optimal growth temperature, and morphological and pathogenic analyses as well as molecular biological techniques, were used to examine a broad WC collection coming from different geographic regions, and different susceptible hosts. The pathogenic examination showed that WC varieties are not host specific and can successfully infect both turfgrasses and cereals. Phylogenetic trees based on Neighbor-joining (NJ) and Maximum likelihood (ML) methods for three genomic regions (ITS, beta-tubulin, IGS1) showed support for only three of the five WC cultural types that have been described, namely Waitea circinata var. circinata, var. oryzae and var. zeae." / Waitea circinata varieties were characterized using molecular, morphological, physiological and pathological techniques. / Ontario Turfgrass Research Foundation, CONACYT (Ministry of Science from Mexico)
24

Genomic and phylogenetic assessment of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) Hox genes and analysis of Hox genes in association with myomeres across multiple lamprey genera

Childs, Darcy 22 August 2013 (has links)
Lampreys are an important model for the study of early vertebrate development due to their unique evolutionary position as one of only two extant jawless vertebrates. In this study, 12 new putative Hox gene fragments were identified within the recently available Petromyzon marinus (sea lamprey) genome. These and the other previously-identified Hox genes were analyzed phylogenetically, which enabled the assignment of many of the new sequences to distinct paralogous gene clusters and showed distinctions between gnathostome and lamprey Hox sequences. An examination of Hox genes in other lamprey species was conducted using genomic PCR-based detection methods and identified 26 putative Hox gene homeobox fragments from multiple Hox genes across nine lamprey species. A study of Hox10 coding sequences in different lamprey species failed to find any correlation with variable numbers of trunk myomeres in lampreys, which suggests that other sequences or factors regulate the number of myomeres in different species.
25

Phylogenetic Toric Varieties on Graphs

Buczynska, Weronika J. 2010 August 1900 (has links)
We define the phylogenetic model of a trivalent graph as a generalization of a binary symmetric model of a trivalent phylogenetic tree. If the underlining graph is a tree, the model has a parametrization that can be expressed in terms of the tree. The model is always a polarized projective toric variety. Equivalently, it is a projective spectrum of a semigroup ring. We describe explicitly the generators of this projective coordinate ring for graphs with at most one cycle. We prove that models of graphs with the same topological invariants are deformation equivalent and share the same Hilbert function. We also provide an algorithm to compute the Hilbert function, which uses the structure of the graph as a sum of elementary ones. Also, this Hilbert function of phylogenetic model of a graph with g cycles is meaningful for the theory of connections on a Riemann surface of genus g.
26

Morphological and molecular determination of Fucus (Fucales, Heterokontophyta) biogeography across North American shores

Young, Robert George January 2009 (has links)
The genus Fucus (Phaeophyceae) has nine commonly accepted species, six of which inhabit North American shores: F. gardneri, F. serratus, F. distichus, F. evanescens, F. vesiculosus, and F. spiralis. Fucus inhabit the intertidal zones of the Atlantic, Pacific and Arctic Oceans and due to their highly plastic and morphologically simple phenotypes, are valuable candidates for molecular phylogenetic research. Furthermore, Fucus species are valuable for biogeographic investigations due to their relatively slow migration, limited dispersal range, and easily collected distribution. The closest ancestral species to the genus is a Pacific endemic Hesperophycus californicus supporting a North Pacific origin of the species (Serrão et al. 1999). However, a closer relationship between Atlantic and Arctic Fucus has been described casting doubt on the Pacific origins of the genus (Lindstrom 2001, Dunton 1992). The investigation of Fucus across this area is necessary to elucidate the apparent contradiction in the origin of the genus. Samples were collected from 79 locations across North American waters. The amplification of the divergent mtDNA spacer region was performed to assess taxonomic placement of 55 collected species and reconstruct the biogeography of North American Fucus species. Morphological analysis was also completed based on 21 measured characteristics in an attempt to support molecular analysis. Results of the study indicate two distinct lineages among collected samples. One lineage (F. spiralis and F. vesiculosus) with a distinct Atlantic origin and the second lineage (F. distichus and F. serratus) with a widely distributed F. distichus, and the Atlantic F. serratus. Morphological analysis and statistical support for these lineages was determined through discriminant analysis of the collected samples. Overall results determined biogeographic influences in the F. distichus species complex across Arctic, Pacific, and Atlantic regions with little apparent biogeographical influence within F. vesiculosus, F. serratus and F. spiralis. Closer phylogenetic relationships between Arctic and Atlantic samples were apparent as suggested by Lindstrom (2001) and Dunton (1992).
27

Transitions between Marine and Freshwaters in Fishes: Evolutionary Pattern and Process

Bloom, Devin 19 March 2013 (has links)
Evolutionary transitions between marine and freshwater habitats are rare events that can have profound impacts on aquatic biodiversity. The main goal of my thesis is determining the processes involved in transitions between marine and freshwater biomes, and the resulting patterns of diversity using phylogenetic approaches. To test hypotheses regarding the geography, timing, frequency, and mechanisms regulating biome transitions I generated multi-locus time-calibrated molecular phylogenies for groups of fishes that include both exclusively marine and freshwater species. My analysis of anchovies demonstrated that Neotropical freshwater anchovies represent a monophyletic radiation with a single origin in South American freshwaters. I used a phylogeny of herring and allies (Clupeiformes) to investigate the evolution of diadromy, a migratory behavior in which individuals move between oceans and freshwater habitats for reproduction and feeding. These analyses do not support the hypothesis that differences in productivity between marine and freshwater explain the origins of diadromous lineages. Diadromy has been considered an evolutionary pathway for permanent biome transitions, however I found that diadromy almost never produces a fully marine or freshwater clade. Marine lineages often invade continental freshwaters during episodes of marine incursion. In South America, the rich diversity of marine derived fish lineages invaded during Eocene marine incursions from either the Pacific or the Caribbean, and Oligocene marine incursions from the Caribbean. I falsified the highly cited Miocene marine incursion hypothesis, but found that the Pebas Mega-Wetland catalyzed diversification in some marine derived lineages. Using diversification analyses, I investigated the evolutionary processes that have generated disparate patterns of diversity between continents and oceans. I found that freshwater silversides have higher speciation and extinction rates than marine silversides. Lineages accumulation plots suggest ecological limits are not regulating clade growth in either marine or freshwater biomes. Overall, biome conservatism is a widespread pattern among fishes, and this pattern is largely driven by competition in clades that are physiologically capable of biome transitions. Biome transitions are facilitated by rare paleogeographic events, such as marine incursions. Finally, a difference in net diversification rate is the macroevolutionary mechanism that best explains the difference in diversity between continents and oceans.
28

Relationships and introgression within Carthamus (Asteraceae), with an emphasis on safflower (Carthamus tinctorius).

Bowles, Victoria 11 1900 (has links)
Carthamus (Asteraceae) contains both crop species (C. tinctorius, safflower) and weedy species, increasing the need for a better understanding of the genus. Despite previous studies, many outstanding questions remain regarding the phylogenetic relationships of safflower, especially with regards to the weedy species. Investigation of the relationships in Carthamus was done using sequence data. The closest relative to C. tinctorius was studied using microsatellite data. Microsatellite data was also utilized to track the introgression of C. oxyacanthus DNA into the C. tinctorius genome in an interspecific cross. Sequence data supports the division of the genus into two sections, Carthamus and Atractylis. Both sequence and microsatellite data reveal that most traditionally recognized species are not monophyletic. Microsatellite data indicates that C. palaestinus is the closest relative of cultivated safflower. Microsatellites also indicate that C. oxyacanthus DNA is able to move into the C. tinctorius genome, showing potential for breeding programs and raising concerns for potential transgenic crops. / Plant Biology
29

Genomic and phylogenetic assessment of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) Hox genes and analysis of Hox genes in association with myomeres across multiple lamprey genera

Childs, Darcy 22 August 2013 (has links)
Lampreys are an important model for the study of early vertebrate development due to their unique evolutionary position as one of only two extant jawless vertebrates. In this study, 12 new putative Hox gene fragments were identified within the recently available Petromyzon marinus (sea lamprey) genome. These and the other previously-identified Hox genes were analyzed phylogenetically, which enabled the assignment of many of the new sequences to distinct paralogous gene clusters and showed distinctions between gnathostome and lamprey Hox sequences. An examination of Hox genes in other lamprey species was conducted using genomic PCR-based detection methods and identified 26 putative Hox gene homeobox fragments from multiple Hox genes across nine lamprey species. A study of Hox10 coding sequences in different lamprey species failed to find any correlation with variable numbers of trunk myomeres in lampreys, which suggests that other sequences or factors regulate the number of myomeres in different species.
30

Análise das relações filogenéticas entre os gêneros de Cheirodontinae (Ostariophysi: Characiformes: Charasidae) utilizando sequências de DNA mitocondrial e nuclear

Mariguela, Tatiane Casagrande [UNESP] 26 February 2010 (has links) (PDF)
Made available in DSpace on 2014-06-11T19:35:42Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 0 Previous issue date: 2010-02-26Bitstream added on 2014-06-13T19:25:09Z : No. of bitstreams: 1 mariguela_tc_dr_botib.pdf: 5111387 bytes, checksum: 7fcfb5cb251df098061cd92f7e806568 (MD5) / Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) / Os Characiformes são peixes exclusivamente de água doce e encontram-se distribuídos nas Américas e na África, atingindo maior diversidade nas principais drenagens neotropicais. A família Characidae é o grupo mais especioso entre os Characiformes, porém, a relação dessa família com outras famílias é ainda incerta. São conhecidas cerca de 1000 espécies de Characidae das quais cerca de um terço estão distribuídas em 14 subfamílias, e as demais não tem uma posição filogenética clara, sendo incluídas em um grande grupo considerado incertae sedis em Characidae. A subfamília Cheirodontinae compreende cerca de 60 espécies, sendo um grupo de characídeos amplamente distribuídos nas bacias hidrográficas da América do Sul e Central, incluindo espécies trans-andinas. Os gêneros de Cheirodontinae atualmente estão divididos e, três tribos: Cheirodontini, Compsurini e Odontostilbini. No presente estudo, o principal objetivo foi investigar as relações de Cheirodontinae com as subfamílias de Characidae e as relações internas dos membros de Cheirodontinae através da análise de sequências de DNA mitocondrial (16S e Citocromo b) e nuclear (RAG1, RAG2 e Myh6). As análises mostraram que Spintherobolus não pertence à subfamília e Cheirodon stenodon, que era considerado incertae sedis em Characidae, deve fazer parte da mesma. Diversos gêneros apareceram polifiléticos, principalmente Odontostilbe. As espécies trans-andinas e andinas, são as espécies mais antigas da subfamília. As relações observadas nas análises são bastante diferentes das correntemente aceitas para Cheirodontinae e assim é proposta uma nova classificação para o grupo. O gênero Holoshesthes é considerado válido e pertencente a um clado juntamente com o gênero Aphyocheirodon e Acinocheirodon. Odontostilbe forma um clado monofilético com as espécies antes pertencentes à Serrapinnus... / The Characiformes are exclusively freshwater fishes and they are found distributed in Americas and Africa, reaching more diversity in the major Neotropical drainages. The family Characidae is the most specious group among characiforms, but the relationships among this family and other families remains unclear. It is known about 1,000 species belonging to Characidae, one third distributed in 14 subfamilies, and the remaining does not have a clear phylogenetic position, and currently are included in a large group considered incertae sedis in Characidae. The subfamily Cheirodontinae comprises about 60 species, being a characid group widely distributed in the South and Central America hydrographic basins, including trans-Andean species. The genera of Cheirodontinae are currently divided in three tribes: Cheirodontini, Compsurini, and Odontostilbini. In the present work, the main goal was investigate the internal relationships of the members of Cheirodontinae through sequencing and analysis of mitochondrial (16S rRNA and Cytochrome b) and nuclear (RAG1, RAG2, and Myh6) genes. These analyses shown that Spintherobolus does not belong to the subfamily and Cheirodon stenodon, which was considered incertae sedis in Characidae, belongs to the same. Several genera are polyphyletic, mainly Odontostilbe. The trans-Andean and Andean species are the older species of the subfamily. The relationships observed in the analyses are very different of the currently accepted to Cheirodontinae and thereby it is suggested a new classification to the group. The genus Holoshesthes is considered valid and belonging to a clade jointly with the genus Aphyocheirodon and Acinocheirodon. Odontostilbe form a monophyletic clade with the species currently belonging to Serrapinnus, a new species, and Compsura heterura. The tribes Cheirodontini, Compsurini and Odontostilbini are preserved, with different compositions and a new tribe is suggested (Pseudocheirodontini)

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