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1 
Completely Recursive Least Squares and Its ApplicationsBian, Xiaomeng 02 August 2012 (has links)
The matrixinversionlemma based recursive least squares (RLS) approach is of a recursive form and free of matrix inversion, and has excellent performance regarding computation and memory in solving the classic leastsquares (LS) problem. It is important to generalize RLS for generalized LS (GLS) problem. It is also of value to develop an efficient initialization for any RLS algorithm.
In Chapter 2, we develop a unified RLS procedure to solve the unconstrained/linearequality (LE) constrained GLS. We also show that the LE constraint is in essence a set of special errorfree observations and further consider the GLS with implicit LE constraint in observations (ILEconstrained GLS).
Chapter 3 treats the RLS initializationrelated issues, including rank check, a convenient method to compute the involved matrix inverse/pseudoinverse, and resolution of underdetermined systems. Based on auxiliaryobservations, the RLS recursion can start from the first real observation and possible LE constraints are also imposed recursively. The rank of the system is checked implicitly. If the rank is deficient, a set of refined nonredundant observations is determined alternatively.
In Chapter 4, base on [Li07], we show that the linear minimum mean square error (LMMSE) estimator, as well as the optimal Kalman filter (KF) considering various correlations, can be calculated from solving an equivalent GLS using the unified RLS.
In Chapters 5 & 6, an approach of joint stateandparameter estimation (JSPE) in power system monitored by synchrophasors is adopted, where the original nonlinear parameter problem is reformulated as two looselycoupled linear subproblems: state tracking and parameter tracking. Chapter 5 deals with the state tracking which determines the voltages in JSPE, where dynamic behavior of voltages under possible abrupt changes is studied. Chapter 6 focuses on the subproblem of parameter tracking in JSPE, where a new prediction model for parameters with moving means is introduced. Adaptive filters are developed for the above two subproblems, respectively, and both filters are based on the optimal KF accounting for various correlations. Simulations indicate that the proposed approach yields accurate parameter estimates and improves the accuracy of the state estimation, compared with existing methods.

2 
Análise de planos de medição para estimação de estado de sistemas de energia elétrica / Analysis of measurement plans for power systems state estimationDardengo, Victor Pellanda, 1988 24 August 2018 (has links)
Orientador: Madson Cortes de Almeida / Dissertação (mestrado)  Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Faculdade de Engenharia Elétrica e de Computação / Made available in DSpace on 20180824T01:13:38Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1
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Previous issue date: 2013 / Resumo: No planejamento de sistemas de medição para estimação de estado de sistemas de energia elétrica são definidos os tipos, a localização e a quantidade de medidores. Um plano de medição adequado deve garantir a observabilidade da rede, viabilizando a estimação do estado de toda a rede, e permitir a filtragem de erros grosseiros. Para que os erros grosseiros possam ser filtrados é necessário que no plano de medição não estejam presentes medidas e conjuntos críticos. Neste contexto, esta dissertação propõe uma nova metodologia de análise de observabilidade baseada no estimador linearizado regularizado e apresentam duas técnicas de classificação de medidas capazes de identificar medidas críticas, medidas pertencentes a conjuntos críticos e medidas redundantes. A primeira técnica é baseada na fatoração da matriz Gram das medidas e a segunda é baseada na fatoração da matriz Jacobiana das medidas. Além disso, são estudadas e aplicadas técnicas de fatoração com números inteiros que conferem maior robustez 'as metodologias de classificação de medidas. São apresentados testes realizados em redes de pequeno e médio porte que apontam o bom funcionamento dos métodos desenvolvidos e estudados / Abstract: In planning of power systems state estimation are defined the type, the location and the number of meters. An adequate measurement plan have to ensure the observability of the network, enabling the state estimation of the entire network, and allow filtering of gross errors. In order to filter gross errors is necessary in the measurement plan is not present critical measurements and critical sets. In this context, this work proposes a new observability analysis methodology based on the regularized weighted least squares DC state estimator and presents two measurements classification techniques capable of identifying critical measurements, measurements belonging to critical sets and redundant measurements. The first technique is based on the factorization of the measurement Gram matrix and second is based on the factorization of the measurement Jacobian matrix. Furthermore, are studied and applied factorization techniques with integers numbers which give greater robustness to measurements classification methodologies. Tests are presented in small and medium networks size showing the proper functioning of developed and studied methods / Mestrado / Energia Eletrica / Mestre em Engenharia Elétrica

3 
On Large Sparse Linear Inequality And Equality Constrained Linear Least Squares Algorithms With Applications In Energy Control CentersPandian, A 09 1900 (has links) (PDF)
No description available.

4 
A Robust Dynamic State and Parameter Estimation Framework for Smart Grid Monitoring and ControlZhao, Junbo 30 May 2018 (has links)
The enhancement of the reliability, security, and resiliency of electric power systems depends on the availability of fast, accurate, and robust dynamic state estimators. These estimators should be robust to gross errors on the measurements and the model parameter values while providing good state estimates even in the presence of large dynamical system model uncertainties and nonGaussian thicktailed process and observation noises. It turns out that the current Kalman filterbased dynamic state estimators given in the literature suffer from several important shortcomings, precluding them from being adopted by power utilities for practical applications. To be specific, they cannot handle (i) dynamic model uncertainty and parameter errors; (ii) nonGaussian process and observation noise of the system nonlinear dynamic models; (iii) three types of outliers; and (iv) all types of cyber attacks. The three types of outliers, including observation, innovation, and structural outliers are caused by either an unreliable dynamical model or realtime synchrophasor measurements with data quality issues, which are commonly seen in the power system.
To address these challenges, we have pioneered a general theoretical framework that advances both robust statistics and robust control theory for robust dynamic state and parameter estimation of a cyberphysical system. Specifically, the generalized maximumlikelihoodtype (GM)estimator, the unscented Kalman filter (UKF), and the Hinfinity filter are integrated into a unified framework to yield various centralized and decentralized robust dynamic state estimators. These new estimators include the GMiterated extended Kalman filter (GMIEKF), the GMUKF, the Hinfinity UKF and the robust Hinfinity UKF. The GMIEKF is able to handle observation and innovation outliers but its statistical efficiency is low in the presence of nonGaussian system process and measurement noise. The GMUKF addresses this issue and achieves a high statistical efficiency under a broad range of nonGaussian process and observation noise while maintaining the robustness to observation and innovation outliers. A reformulation of the GMUKF with multiple hypothesis testing further enables it to handle structural outliers. However, the GMUKF may yield biased state estimates in presence of large system uncertainties. To this end, the Hinfinity UKF that relies on robust control theory is proposed. It is shown that Hinfinity is able to bound the system uncertainties but lacks of robustness to outliers and nonGaussian noise. Finally, the robust Hinfinity filter framework is proposed that leverages the Hinfinity criterion to bound system uncertainties while relying on the robustness of GMestimator to filter out nonGaussian noise and suppress outliers. Furthermore, these new robust estimators are applied for system bus frequency monitoring and control and synchronous generator model parameter calibration. Case studies of several different IEEE standard systems show the efficiency and robustness of the proposed estimators. / Ph. D.

5 
Erros não detectáveis no processo de estimação de estado em sistemas elétricos de potência / Undetectable errors in power system state estimationFabio, Lizandra Castilho 28 July 2006 (has links)
Na tentativa de contornar os problemas ainda existentes para a detecção e identificação de erros grosseiros (EGs) no processo de estimação de estado em sistemas elétricos de potência (EESEP), realizase, neste trabalho, uma análise da formulação dos estimadores aplicados a sistemas elétricos de potência, em especial, o de mínimos quadrados ponderados, tendo em vista evidenciar as limitações dos mesmos para o tratamento de EGs. Em razão da dificuldade de detectar EGs em medidas pontos de alavancamento, foram também analisadas as metodologias desenvolvidas para identificação de medidas pontos de alavancamento. Através da formulação do processo de EESEP como um problema de álgebra linear, demonstrase o porquê da impossibilidade de detectar EGs em determinadas medidas redundantes, sendo proposto, na seqüência, um método para identificação de medidas pontos de alavancamento. Para reduzir os efeitos maléficos dessas medidas no processo de EESEP verificase a possibilidade de aplicar outras técnicas estatísticas para o processamento de EGs, bem como técnicas para obtenção de uma matriz de ponderação adequada. / To overcome the problems still existent for gross errors (GEs) detection and identification in the process of power system state estimation (PSSE), the formulations of the estimators applied to power systems are analyzed, specially, the formulation of the weighted squares estimator. These analyses were performed to show the limitations of these estimators for GEs processing. As leverage points (LP) represent a problem for GEs processing, methodologies for LP identification were also verified. By means of the linear formulation of the PSSE process, the reason for the impossibility of GEs detection in some redundant measurements is shown and a method for LP identification is proposed. To minimize the bad effects of the LP to the PSSE process, the possibility of applying other statistic techniques for GEs processing, as well as techniques to estimate an weighting matrix are also analyzed.

6 
Measurement calibration/tuning & topology processing in power system state estimationZhong, Shan 17 February 2005 (has links)
State estimation plays an important role in modern power systems. The errors in the telemetered measurements and the connectivity information of the network will greatly contaminate the estimated system state. This dissertation provides solutions to suppress the influences of these errors.
A twostage state estimation algorithm has been utilized in topology error identification in the past decade. Chapter II discusses the implementation of this algorithm. A concise substation model is defined for this purpose. A friendly user interface that incorporates the twostage algorithm into the conventional state estimator is developed.
The performances of the twostage state estimation algorithms rely on accurate determination of suspect substations. A comprehensive identification procedure is described in chapter III. In order to evaluate the proposed procedure, a topology error library is created. Several identification methods are comparatively tested using this library.
A remote measurement calibration method is presented in chapter IV. The uncalibrated quantities can be related to the true values by the characteristic functions. The conventional state estimation algorithm is modified to include the parameters of these functions. Hence they can be estimated along with the system state variables and used to calibrate the measurements. The measurements taken at different time instants are utilized to minimize the influence of the random errors.
A method for auto tuning of measurement weights in state estimation is described in chapter V. Two alternative ways to estimate the measurement random error variances are discussed. They are both tested on simulation data generated based on IEEE systems. Their performances are compared. A comprehensive solution, which contains an initialization process and a recursively updating process, is presented.
Chapter VI investigates the errors introduced in the positive sequence state estimation due to the usual assumptions of having fully balanced bus loads/generations and continuously transposed transmission lines. Several tests are conducted using different assumptions regarding the availability of single and multiphase measurements. It is demonstrated that incomplete metering of threephase system quantities may lead to significant errors in the positive sequence state estimates for certain cases. A novel sequence domain threephase state estimation algorithm is proposed to solve this problem.

7 
Development Of Algorithms For Bad Data Detection In Power System State EstimationMusti, S S Phaniram 07 1900 (has links)
Power system state estimation (PSSE) is an energy management system function responsible for the computation of the most likely values of state variables viz., bus voltage magnitudes and angles. The state estimation is obtained within a network at a given instant by solving a system of mostly nonlinear equations whose parameters are the redundant measurements, both static such as transformer/line parameters and dynamic such as, status of circuit breakers/isolators, transformer tap positions, active/reactive power flows, generator active/reactive power outputs etc. PSSE involves solving an over determined set of nonlinear equations by minimizing a weighted norm of the measurement residuals. Typically, the L1 and L2 norms are employed. The use of L2 norm leads to state estimation based on the weighted least squares (WLS) criterion. This method is known to exhibit efficient filtering capability when the errors are Gaussian but fails in the case of presence of bad data. The method of hypothesis testing identification can be incorporated into the WLS estimator to detect and identify bad data. Nevertheless, it is prone to failure when the measurement is a leverage point. On the other hand state estimation based on the weighted least absolute value (WLAV) criterion using L1 norm, has superior bad data suppression capability. But it also fails in rejecting bad data measurements associated with leverage points. Leverage points are highly influential measurements that attract the state estimator solution towards them. Consequently, much research effort has focused recently, on producing a LAV estimator that remains robust in the presence of bad leverage measurements. This problem has been addressed in the thesis work. Two methods, which aims development of robust estimator that are insensitive to bad leverage points, have been proposed viz.,
(i) The objective function used here is obtained by linearizing L2 norm of the error function. In addition to the constraints corresponding to measurement set, constraints corresponding to bounds of state variables are also involved. Linear programming (LP) optimization is carried out using upper bound optimization technique.
(ii) A hybrid optimization algorithm which is combination of”upper bound optimization technique” and ”an improved algorithm for discrete l1 linear approximation”, to restrict the state variables not to leave the basis during optimization process. Linear programming optimization, with bounds of state variables as additional constraints is carried out using the proposed hybrid optimization algorithm.
The proposed state estimator algorithms are tested on 24bus EHV equivalent of southern power network, 36bus EHV equivalent of western grid, 205bus interconnected grid system of southern region and IEEE39 bus New England system. Performances of the proposed two methods are compared with the WLAV estimator in the presence of bad data associated with leverage points. Also, the effect of bad leverage measurements on the interacting bad data, which are nonleverage, has been compared. Results show that proposed state estimator algorithms rejects bad data associated with leverage points efficiently.

8 
Erros não detectáveis no processo de estimação de estado em sistemas elétricos de potência / Undetectable errors in power system state estimationLizandra Castilho Fabio 28 July 2006 (has links)
Na tentativa de contornar os problemas ainda existentes para a detecção e identificação de erros grosseiros (EGs) no processo de estimação de estado em sistemas elétricos de potência (EESEP), realizase, neste trabalho, uma análise da formulação dos estimadores aplicados a sistemas elétricos de potência, em especial, o de mínimos quadrados ponderados, tendo em vista evidenciar as limitações dos mesmos para o tratamento de EGs. Em razão da dificuldade de detectar EGs em medidas pontos de alavancamento, foram também analisadas as metodologias desenvolvidas para identificação de medidas pontos de alavancamento. Através da formulação do processo de EESEP como um problema de álgebra linear, demonstrase o porquê da impossibilidade de detectar EGs em determinadas medidas redundantes, sendo proposto, na seqüência, um método para identificação de medidas pontos de alavancamento. Para reduzir os efeitos maléficos dessas medidas no processo de EESEP verificase a possibilidade de aplicar outras técnicas estatísticas para o processamento de EGs, bem como técnicas para obtenção de uma matriz de ponderação adequada. / To overcome the problems still existent for gross errors (GEs) detection and identification in the process of power system state estimation (PSSE), the formulations of the estimators applied to power systems are analyzed, specially, the formulation of the weighted squares estimator. These analyses were performed to show the limitations of these estimators for GEs processing. As leverage points (LP) represent a problem for GEs processing, methodologies for LP identification were also verified. By means of the linear formulation of the PSSE process, the reason for the impossibility of GEs detection in some redundant measurements is shown and a method for LP identification is proposed. To minimize the bad effects of the LP to the PSSE process, the possibility of applying other statistic techniques for GEs processing, as well as techniques to estimate an weighting matrix are also analyzed.

9 
Development Of Algorithms For Applications In Energy Control CentresNagaraja, R 03 1900 (has links) (PDF)
No description available.

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