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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Kreativt tänkande, psykologiskt geografiskt avstånd och mätmetoder : - Ett experiment bland universitetsstudenter / Creative thinking, psychological geographical distance and measurement methods : - An experiment among university students

Håkansson, Frida January 2014 (has links)
No description available.
2

Motivation och self-efficacy i omställningsstödet : En kvalitativ analys

Lagerling, Louise January 2011 (has links)
No description available.
3

Safety margins in the driver

Nilsson, Rickard January 2001 (has links)
The primary aim of this thesis is to highlight the most important features of driving and to describe the models that have attempted to conceptualise these features. The discussion focuses on the concept of "safety margin." The concept is elaborated upon in an effort to enhance its usefulness as an empirical tool in traffic research. In this study, safety margin is defined as a threshold value that informs the driver when to undertake an action to minimise the risk of a car accident. Three separate studies of various driver behaviours are presented as illustrations of how this view can be applied in a real highway traffic setting. One study (Study I), consisting of three independent but related experiments, examines car following; a second study (Study II) explores gap acceptance at a T-crossing; and a third study (Study III) investigates drivers’ braking decisions. The overall findings of the present studies suggest that it is valid to model driver behaviour as a concern related to the control of safety margins. It was shown that the driver controls time-distance dynamics to leading and following cars when driving in a queue. A bias in the drivers’ impressions of distances to leading and following vehicles that has safety promoting implications was also found. There was no evidence for the hypothesised use of the limit for dissolution of time-distance to oncoming vehicles for merging decisions at a T-junction. Drivers’ rules for establishing braking decisions were successfully assessed in a field study using linear regression.
4

New Tools and Technology for the Study of Human Performance in Simulator Experiments

Drøivoldsmo, Asgeir January 2003 (has links)
This thesis suggests that new tools and technology can be used for production of relevant data and insights from the study of human performance in simulator and field experiments. It examines some of the theoretical perspectives behind data collection and human performance assessment, and argues for a high resemblance of the real world and use of subject matter expertise in simulator studies. A model is proposed, suggesting that human performance measurement should be tightly coupled to the topic of study and have a close connection to the time line. This coupling requires new techniques for continuous data collection, and eye movement tracking has been identified as a promising basis for this type of measures. One way of improving realism is to create virtual environments allowing for controlling more of the environment surrounding the test subjects. New application areas for virtual environments are discussed for use in control room and field studies. The combination of wearable computing, virtual and augmented (the use of computers to overlay virtual information onto the real world) reality provides many new possibilities to present information to operators. In two experiments, virtual and augmented reality techniques were used to visualise radiation fields for operators in a contaminated nuclear environment. This way the operators could train for and execute their tasks in a way that minimised radiation exposure to the individual operator. Both experiments were successful in proving the concept of radiation visualisation. Virtual environments allow for early end-user feedback in the design and refurbishment of control room man-machine interfaces. The practical usability of VR in the control room setting was tested in two control room design experiments. The results show that with the right tools for solving the tasks under test, even desktop presentations of the virtual environment can provide sufficient resemblance of the real world. Computerised data collection was identified as a key factor for efficient data handling in simulator and field experiments. An Internet based questionnaire system was specified and implemented in parallel with the experimental work, and functionality was developed to fulfil the special needs of each new experimental setting. The result is a computer platform independent system capable of handling most types of data and test situations for data collection by Internet or local computer networks.
5

The Prediction of Traffic Accident Involvement from Driving Behavior

af Wåhlberg, Anders January 2006 (has links)
The aim of the studies was to predict individual traffic accident involvement by the quantification of driving style in terms of speed changes, using bus drivers as subjects. An accident database was constructed from the archives of the bus company whose drivers were used as subjects. The dependent variable was also discussed regarding whether responsibility for crashes should be included, and what time period to use for optimal prediction. A new theory was constructed about how accidents are caused by driver behavior, more specifically the control movements of the driver, i.e. all actions taken which influence the relative motion of the vehicle in a level plane when v>0. This theory states that all traffic safety related behavior can be measured as celerations (change of speed of the vehicle in any direction of a level plane) and summed. This theoretical total sum is a measure of a person's liability to cause accidents over the same time period within a homogenous traffic environment and a similarly homogenous driving population. Empirically, the theory predicts a positive correlation between mean driver celeration behavior and accident record. The theory was tested in three empirical studies. The first tested equipment and methods, the second studied the question whether driver celeration behavior is stable over time. Celeration behavior turned out to be rather variable between days, and repeated measurements were therefore needed to stabilize the measure. In the third study, a much larger amount of data brought out correlations of sizes sufficient to lend some credibility to the theory. However, the predictive power did not extend beyond two years of time. The reported results would seem to imply that the celeration variable can predict accident involvement (at least for bus drivers), and is practical to use, as it is easily and objectively measured and semi-stable over time.
6

New Tools and Technology for the Study of Human Performance in Simulator Experiments

Drøivoldsmo, Asgeir January 2003 (has links)
<p>This thesis suggests that new tools and technology can be used for production of relevant data and insights from the study of human performance in simulator and field experiments. It examines some of the theoretical perspectives behind data collection and human performance assessment, and argues for a high resemblance of the real world and use of subject matter expertise in simulator studies. A model is proposed, suggesting that human performance measurement should be tightly coupled to the topic of study and have a close connection to the time line. This coupling requires new techniques for continuous data collection, and eye movement tracking has been identified as a promising basis for this type of measures.</p><p>One way of improving realism is to create virtual environments allowing for controlling more of the environment surrounding the test subjects. New application areas for virtual environments are discussed for use in control room and field studies.</p><p>The combination of wearable computing, virtual and augmented (the use of computers to overlay virtual information onto the real world) reality provides many new possibilities to present information to operators. In two experiments, virtual and augmented reality techniques were used to visualise radiation fields for operators in a contaminated nuclear environment. This way the operators could train for and execute their tasks in a way that minimised radiation exposure to the individual operator. Both experiments were successful in proving the concept of radiation visualisation.</p><p>Virtual environments allow for early end-user feedback in the design and refurbishment of control room man-machine interfaces. The practical usability of VR in the control room setting was tested in two control room design experiments. The results show that with the right tools for solving the tasks under test, even desktop presentations of the virtual environment can provide sufficient resemblance of the real world.</p><p>Computerised data collection was identified as a key factor for efficient data handling in simulator and field experiments. An Internet based questionnaire system was specified and implemented in parallel with the experimental work, and functionality was developed to fulfil the special needs of each new experimental setting. The result is a computer platform independent system capable of handling most types of data and test situations for data collection by Internet or local computer networks.</p>
7

Safety margins in the driver

Nilsson, Rickard January 2001 (has links)
<p>The primary aim of this thesis is to highlight the most important features of driving and to describe the models that have attempted to conceptualise these features. The discussion focuses on the concept of "safety margin." The concept is elaborated upon in an effort to enhance its usefulness as an empirical tool in traffic research. In this study, safety margin is defined as a threshold value that informs the driver when to undertake an action to minimise the risk of a car accident. Three separate studies of various driver behaviours are presented as illustrations of how this view can be applied in a real highway traffic setting. One study (Study I), consisting of three independent but related experiments, examines car following; a second study (Study II) explores gap acceptance at a T-crossing; and a third study (Study III) investigates drivers’ braking decisions.</p><p>The overall findings of the present studies suggest that it is valid to model driver behaviour as a concern related to the control of safety margins. It was shown that the driver controls time-distance dynamics to leading and following cars when driving in a queue. A bias in the drivers’ impressions of distances to leading and following vehicles that has safety promoting implications was also found. There was no evidence for the hypothesised use of the limit for dissolution of time-distance to oncoming vehicles for merging decisions at a T-junction. Drivers’ rules for establishing braking decisions were successfully assessed in a field study using linear regression. </p>
8

Kan sinnesstämning påverka verbal överskuggning vid ansiktsigenkänning?

Svelander, Angelica January 2012 (has links)
Brottsvittnens utsagor om gärningsmän är oftast avgörande för att identifiera gärningsmannen. Det är av vikt att undersöka hur dessa vittnen bör behandlas och förhöras för att dessa ska kunna ge en så korrekt beskrivning som möjligt av gärningsmannen. Forskning tyder på att användandet av den så kallade kognitiva intervjun ger mer korrekt information från vittnena än ett standardpolisförhör. Dock finns en effekt kallad verbal överskuggning vilken gör att vittnena får svårt att identifiera ansiktet om identifieringen sker nära inpå den kognitiva intervjun. Denna studie undersöker om effekten av verbal överskuggning går att påverka genom affekt, då affekt tidigare har visats påverka hur människor processar visuell information och ansikten. 40 studenter exponerades för ett ansikte som senare, efter att de satts i en viss sinnesstämning och gjort en kognitiv intervju, skulle identifieras. Resultaten uppgav ej någon effekt av verbal överskuggning och därmed gick det ej att undersöka huruvida affekt påverkar effekten av verbal överskuggning.
9

Inlärningseffekter av upprepade test jämfört med gruppdiskussioner

Reinikainen, Peter January 2012 (has links)
Upprepad testning vid inlärning förstärker långtidsminnet. Fenomenet är även känt som testeffekten (Roediger &amp; Karpicke, 2006). Huvudsyftet med föreliggande studie var att undersöka testeffekten och jämföra den med inlärningseffekter av gruppdiskussioner. Andra syften var att undersöka om inlärning påverkades av individuella skillnader samt av testfrågornas komplexitet. Experiment genomfördes under fyra tillfällen och sammanlagt tolv studenter medverkade. Resulta en visade att upprepade test ger signifikant bättre effekt på inlärning jämfört med gruppdiskussioner. Inlärningen påverkades av testfrågornas komplexitet. Mindre komplexa faktafrågor tenderade falla lättare i glömska i jämförelse med komplexare förståelsefrågor. Individuella skillnader i kognitiva förmågor och arbetsinsatser påverkade däremot inte inlärningen.
10

Intensiv beteendeterapi för förskolebarn med autism: Utvärdering i en klinisk verksamhet

Silverskiöld, Cecilia, Larberg, Matilda January 2012 (has links)
No description available.

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