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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

Faktorer av betydelse för hur personer med multipel skleros upplever sin livskvalitet

Eriksson, Hanna, Olofsson, Louise January 2007 (has links)
Bakgrund: Multipel skleros är en kronisk sjukdom som leder till att livet på ett eller annat sätt troligtvis kommer att förändras. I Sverige lider 12000 svenskar av multipel skleros (MS), två tredjedelar av dessa är kvinnor. MS är en livslång och handikappande sjukdom hos yngre vuxna som ofta påverkar livskvaliteten. Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att belysa faktorer av betydelse för hur personer med multipel skleros upplever sin livskvalitet. Metod: Metoden som användes var en litteraturstudie som baserades på tretton vetenskapliga artiklar. Analysen gjordes med inspiration av Graneheim och Lundmans syn på innehållsanalys. Resultat: I resultatet framkom åtta kategorier, Att ha ett arbete, Begränsningar till följd av kognitiva försämringar, Att vara delaktig i stödgrupper, Relationen till närstående, Förändrad fysisk förmåga, Symtomens påverkan, Sjukdomens varaktighet och Skillnader mellan könen.

The use of different statistical approaches in examining the longitudinal change in quality of life

王曉暉, Wong, Hiu-fai, Jennifer. January 2012 (has links)
Quality of life (QoL) is now firmly recognized as a significant outcome measure in public health, clinical and patient care research (1, 2). Despite a growing trend in conducting longitudinal QoL studies, the longitudinal changes in QoL in the general population remain poorly understood due to the limited number of studies. Furthermore, few studies have discussed the use of different statistical methods in analyzing the longitudinal change in QoL. This paper aimed to discuss the application of traditional statistical approach: R-ANOVA and newer statistical approaches: LMM and LGCA in analyzing the longitudinal change in QoL. The underlying assumptions, characteristics and specifications of each of the statistical methods were explained. Different public health studies that examined the longitudinal change of QoL would be elaborated in order to show how the criterions of each statistical method were fulfilled in the research analysis. Additionally, the limitations of applying the traditional statistical approach: R-ANOVA and the newer statistical approaches: LMM and LGCA in analyzing longitudinal QoL data will be discussed with the emphasis on how each analytical method overcome the weaknesses of one another. The understanding of the application of different statistical approaches in analyzing the longitudinal change in QoL can advance the future development of a robust statistical approach for QoL research. / published_or_final_version / Community Medicine / Master / Master of Public Health

Sub-health and health-related quality of life

Huang, Wenwei, 黄文伟 January 2013 (has links)
Sub-health has been used to describe an intermediate state between health and disease. The impact of SH on HRQOL deserves more attention because HRQOL is an important goal of health care, and a significant determinant of health service utilization. The aim of this study was to establish the epidemiology of Sub-health and explore the relationship between SH and HRQOL. Two studies were conducted in Hong Kong. The first study was to develop and validate a Sub-health questionnaire (SHQ) for classifying people into Health, SH & Disease. The standard 7-step method of development of a psychometric measure was used to develop the SHQ. The initial SHQ, was then field tested on a sample of 13 Chinese adults. Pilot testing of the final version was conducted on 55 Chinese adults to confirm. Psychometric testing by a longitudinal survey on 353 Chinese adults who completed the SHQ, the SF-12v2 Health Survey and a structured questionnaire on sociodemographic data, and health service utilization at baseline, 2 to 4 weeks and 3-month. All HS items had Content Validity Index (CVI) on clarity and relevance of > 75%. The HS items demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha=0.82). The overall test-retest reliabilities of classification of the health state were moderate with Kappa > 0.57. The SHQ was responsive in detecting a change in health states in 36.4% subjects in 3 months. Item scores of HS scales had significant correlation (r>0.4) with corresponding SF-12v2 scores, and there were significant differences in SF-12v2 summary scores between SHQ groups. The second was a longitudinal study on Sub-health and HRQOL of general population to evaluate the validity and psychometric property of SHQ, to establish determine the epidemiology SH, and to explore the relationship between HRQOL of SH. 1231 Chinese adults were randomly selected from the general population by telephone survey with the SHQ, SF-12 Health Survey and a structured questionnaire on demographics and service utilization. 353 subjects had completed 3 to 12 months follow up surveys. The prevalence of Sub-health is 40.67% in Hong Kong. There were significant differences in SF-12v2 scores in that SH group had higher scores than those of disease group but lower scores than those of health group. SH was associated with higher use of medical resources than health. Conclusively, the SHQ is a useful screening tool for the diagnosis of SH. There is a linear relationship between change in health status and changes in HRQOL or health service utilizations. It preliminary explored the clinical relevance of the SH to a culture and health care system that is different from that of mainland China where the concept originated. The results would be useful in populations worldwide if the SHQ could be cross-culturally adapted to identify the SH epidemiology. The study has also, provided evidence supporting the conceptual base of SH in the Chinese medicine context, which may be modifiable by treatment based on TCM Body Constitution classification. / published_or_final_version / Family Medicine and Primary Care / Doctoral / Doctor of Philosophy

Neurocognitive and psychopathology correlates of subjective quality of life in first episode remitted psychosis

Lee, Lai-fan, 李麗芬 January 2013 (has links)
Subjective quality of life (QOL) has been measured as one of the important clinical outcomes of schizophrenia. Many studies on examining the relationship between subjective QOL and symptomatology as well as neurocognitive functions were reported. Consistent data have suggested that the severity of depressive symptoms contributed to poor subjective QOL of schizophrenia. However, reports on the relationship of subjective QOL with negative symptoms, neurocognitive functions, and duration of untreated psychosis were largely inconsistent. The current study on the examination of subjective QOL in schizophrenia, is to emphasize the importance of inner experiences of schizophrenia but do not treat them as Freedman (1974) called “average schizophrenic”, in order to find out a more effective intervention for improving subjective QOL of schizophrenia. The purpose of the present cross-sectional study was to replicate these previous studies on investigating factors related to subjective QOL of schizophrenia including, positive symptoms, negative symptoms, neurocognitive functions, as well as duration of untreated psychosis. Besides, as most previous studies focused on chronic schizophrenia, this study involved first episode remitted psychosis patients, and to test whether it was the same phenomenon between chronic schizophrenia and first episode remitted psychosis on subjective QOL. The study result can contribute to propose suitable treatment for improving QOL of persons with schizophrenia. In this study, 140 subjects with first episode remitted schizophrenia were examined. Significant associations between subjective QOL and psychopathology, neurocognitive functions were found; modest correlation of duration of untreated psychosis was also reported. Also, subjective QOL was associated with self-perception on the illness outlook in the first episode population. / published_or_final_version / Psychological Medicine / Master / Master of Psychological Medicine

Are fixed dental prostheses better than conventional removable prostheses in terms of quality of life improvement : a systematic review

Poon, Man-wai, Albert, 潘文偉 January 2013 (has links)
Background Dental prostheses have seen a major change since the advent of dental implants in 1965. The osseointegration property of titanium fixtures enables dentists to place a dental prosthesis at almost everywhere intra-orally provided there is sufficient bone to support it. The novel treatment modality had attracted attention of clinicians who had made multiple innovations on their use. Meanwhile, there has also been a shift of focus in the medical field from disease-centered outcome to subjective patient-centered outcome in the measurement of health status. Quality of Life (QoL) measurements are one of the subjective measurements of health status. They provided a means for clinicians to compare different prostheses, including dental prostheses. Aim and Objectives This systematic review seeks to identify evidence that proves the superiority of the new treatment modality in improving QoL or Oral Health Related QoL and to briefly discuss their implications for public health policies in Hong Kong. Methods Researches which compare conventional removable dental prostheses and the fixed alternatives in terms of improving QoL were identified. The evidence was scrutinized, critically analyzed and a summary was made. Results Current evidence is only strong enough to support the superiority of the new implanted supported prostheses over the conventional type for patients without lower teeth. Discussion and Conclusions It is concluded in this systematic review that the new implant-fixed or supported dental prostheses are superior to conventional removable dental prostheses for patients without lower teeth. However, it is so far inconclusive as to whether dental implants have greater impact on QoL of partially dentate patients than conventional removable dental prostheses. The cost-effectiveness of this treatment modality in improving QoL is also unclear yet. / published_or_final_version / Medicine / Master / Master of Public Health

Health-related quality of life measures for women with menopausal symptoms : a systematic review

Choi, Wai-ki, 蔡瑋琦 January 2013 (has links)
Background and Objectives Menopause is a natural transition, an important life event that represents the end of reproductive phase in women at age of 50. Menopausal symptoms or hormone replacement treatment (HRT) may influence women’s quality of life (QOL). Different health-related quality of life (HRQOL) scales are developed to demonstrate the effects of menopausal symptoms or treatment. The aim of this review is to identify the menopause-related measures and evaluate the psychometric properties of these scales. Method Literature search using the keyword: “menopause” or “menopausal” or “perimenopausal” or “climacteric symptoms” or “vasomotor symptoms” AND “menopause-related quality of life measures” or “menopause-related quality of life instruments” or “menopausal health-related quality of life measures” or “menopausal health-related quality of life instruments” or “menopause-related health status measurement” or “menopause-related health functioning” AND “women”. Results Total 5 menopause-related quality of life measures were identified: -the MENCAV Quality of Life Scale (MENCAV) -Menopause-specific QOL Questionnaire (MENQOL) -Menopause-specific QOL Questionnaire-Intervention (MENQOL-Intervention) -Menopausal Quality of Life Scale (MQOL) -Utian Quality of Life Scale (UQOL) All measurement scales have good internal consistency shown. Construct validity was reported in all measures. Known-groups validity was evaluated in MQOL and MENCAV. Content validity was shown in MQOL and UQOL by focus group meeting with menopausal women. Construct validity was reported in all measures. Convergent validity was reported in MQOL, MENCAV, UQOL and MENQOL-Intervention, the relationships between scores were evaluated. Discriminant validity was assessed in MENQOL. All measures reviewed either convergent or discriminant validity and no measure reviewed both. All measures except UQOL have reported responsiveness. Conclusion MENCAV is the best measure and supposed to be the most updated one developed in 2008. This measure is not as popular as UQOL, MENQOL etc. It demonstrated the highest psychometric quality score in this review. Standardization of measurement scales for comparison of the menopausal symptoms and QOL can reduce the anxiety of participants who answer different questionnaires with same domain. Further research on extensive psychometric evaluation across ethnicities may be beneficial to menopausal women. / published_or_final_version / Public Health / Master / Master of Public Health

Quality of life, self-transcendence, illness distress, and fatigue in liver transplant recipients

Wright, Kathy Baker 28 August 2008 (has links)
Not available / text

Social development in Kerala, India: illusionor reality?

Ramanatha Iyer, Sundara Rajan. January 1996 (has links)
published_or_final_version / Social Work and Social Administration / Master / Master of Philosophy


Buchanan, MAUREEN 18 January 2010 (has links)
Leg ulceration negatively affects quality of life (QOL). The relationship between important clinical attributes such as ulcer severity, pain and health related quality of life (HRQL) is poorly understood. The Wilson and Cleary model of Health Related Quality of Life (WC model) is a guiding framework that links clinical measures to QOL. Thesis Objectives: I describe the relationship between ulcer severity, comorbidity, etiology and pain and HRQL. Methods: An integrative mixed-methods approach was used: a systematic review of studies that examined the relationship between clinical variables and HRQL or QOL as outlined in the WC model (n=22); a review of studies (n=11) that compared the HRQL of persons with leg ulcers to population normative scores; and, an analysis of the relationship between clinical factors and HRQL in a cohort of 564 persons with venous leg ulcers drawn from two randomized control trials. Results: There is empirical support for the causal linkages between disease severity, symptoms, function, health perception and QOL that comprise the causal pathway as outlined in the WC model. Venous ulcers are associated with a poor quality of life, and numerous aspects of functioning are impaired, in particular physical function. In 564 individuals with venous ulcers, pain was present in 78.8%. Those younger than 65 years were 1.5 times more likely to be in the higher pain group compared to those 65 and older. Physical HRQL was significantly impaired. Predictors of poor physical HRQL included venous-arterial ulcers, a more severe ulcer, arthritis and a higher level of pain. Poor mental HRQL was associated with the younger age group, a comorbid condition and a higher level of pain. Increasing ulcer duration negatively affected mental state, but the findings were of borderline significance. Conclusion: The WC model is a clinically useful framework to select variables to represent HRQL and to base hypotheses about causal associations between clinical variables and QOL. Future research should focus on specifying the measurement models to represent disease severity, symptom status and functional status. Clinically the WC model is a useful bedside heuristic to explore the impact on leg ulceration on daily life and wellbeing. / Thesis (Master, Nursing) -- Queen's University, 2010-01-16 13:11:38.045

Quality of life in cities

Lanteigne, Cynthia Anne January 2005 (has links)
Quality of life (QOL) studies are abundant within the research and popular literature. Rankings are produced on national, state/province, city and municipal levels. Yet, there is not a widely supported simple index that is applicable to the city level. Using lessons derived from the Human Development Index and a review of the recent QOL literature, an index is developed for city-level comparisons and applied to 30 cities across Canada and the New England states. The QOL index is composed of the dimensions of Economy, Safety, Social Environment, and Education and uses the indicators of average income, crime rate, divorce rate, and educational attainment. Two alternate indices are developed and applied to measure the sensitivity of the index formulation based on the addition of the dimensions of Health (QOL2) and Housing (QOL3). The study indicates that city rankings are not dependent upon population size and that high-ranking cities consistently rank within the top levels of each of the developed indices. Statistical analysis (p<0.001) indicates that there is significant rank correlation between the two additional enlarged indices, QOL2 and QOL3, and the original more simple QOL index suggested in this study, thereby supporting the implementation of a simple, transparent and well-supported index.

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