The Development and Validation of a One Tier Diagnostic Assessment to Test Premedical Students’ Misconceptions about Traumatic Brain InjuryIqbal, Md Hasan 01 June 2016 (has links)
No description available.
Does Vitamin D Supplementation Enhance Musculoskeletal Performance in Individuals Identified as Vitamin D Deficient through Blood Spot Testing?Murphy, Kellie A. 04 February 2016 (has links)
<p> This thesis investigated possible changes in performance after one month of vitamin D supplementation in individuals found to be vitamin D deficient or insufficient through blood spot testing. Thirty-two males, ages 18-32, participated. Each subject visited the lab three times in one-month, completing four performance tests each session, including an isometric mid-thigh pull and a vertical jump on a force plate, a isometric 90-degree elbow flexion test using a load cell, and a psychomotor vigilance test on a palm pilot. The initial lab included blood spot tests to find vitamin D levels. In a single blind manner, 16 subjects were assigned vitamin D and 16 the placebo. Repeated measures ANOVA analysis did not reveal any main effects for time (F=2.626, p=0.364), treatment (vitamin D3 vs placebo; F=1.282, p=0.999), or interaction effects for treatment by time (F=0.304, p=0.999) for maximum force production during an isometric mid-thigh pull. Repeated measures ANOVA analysis did not reveal any main effects for time (F=1.323, p=0.999), treatment (vitamin D3 vs placebo; F=0.510, p=0.999), or interaction effects for treatment by time (F= 1.625, p=0.860) for rate of force production during a vertical jump. Repeated measures ANOVA analysis did not reveal any main effects for time (F=0.194, p=0.999), treatment (vitamin D3 vs placebo; F=2.452, p=0.513), or interaction effects for treatment by time (F= 1.179, p=0.999) for maximal force production during a 90-degree isometric elbow flexion. Repeated measures ANOVA analysis did not reveal any main effects for time (F=1.710, p=0.804), treatment (vitamin D3 vs placebo; F=1.471, p=0.94), or interaction effects for treatment by time (F= 0.293, p=0.999) for mean reaction time to random stimuli during the psychomotor vigilance test. Repeated measures ANOVA analysis did not reveal any main effects for time (F=0.530, p=0.999), treatment (vitamin D3 vs placebo; F=0.141, p=0.999), or interaction effects for treatment by time (F=0.784 p=0.999) for incidence of minor lapses during the psychomotor vigilance test</p>
Investigating how participatory action research and the use of assessment instruments can support college instructors' science assessment literacyPresley, Morgan L. 21 December 2016 (has links)
<p> The purpose of this dissertation study was to investigate how engaging in participatory action research (PAR) and using assessment instruments can support a college science instructor's science teacher assessment literacy. This study also examined the benefits and challenges college science instructors face when engaging in PAR and using assessment instruments in the college science classroom.</p><p> I used a case study approach within the context of PAR focused on implementing assessment instruments. Multiple data sources were used in this study - interviews, observations, recordings of lesson planning sessions and reflections, and artifacts-to build the case.</p><p> The findings of this study demonstrate that engaging in PAR and using assessment instruments can support the development of science teacher assessment literacy in several ways. This experience helped my participant gain confidence in his beliefs about teaching, learning and assessment, expand his knowledge of formative assessments strategies, and develop his knowledge of interpretation of assessment data. In addition, our PAR collaboration and use of assessment instruments supported the participant in integrating his knowledge in ways that supported changes in his practices. Furthermore, this study illustrates how departmental policies and mandates regarding assessment can constrain this process.</p><p> This study also demonstrates that assessment instruments can be useful resources for college science instructors in several ways. First, assessment instruments can help science faculty develop learning activities and labs that address student misconceptions. Second, assessment instruments can help science faculty incorporate higher level thinking questions into their instruction and assessments. Third, having access to articles on assessment instruments that consequently outline student misconceptions can not only inform but also validate science faculty members' understanding of students.</p><p> This study also demonstrates that engagement in PAR by science faculty and science education researchers can be a feasible and an effective form of professional development that is tailored to the specific needs and unique teaching contexts of faculty members; the participant found this experience preferable to, and much more effective than, attending a workshop.</p><p> This study has implications for science education researchers and science faculty interested in PAR, professional developers and assessment instrument developers. This study raises questions about the extent to which faculty science assessment literacy may be constrained by departmental guidelines and policies for assessment, as well as the degree to which PAR can achieve its emancipatory aims in environments where faculty have limited academic freedom regarding course policies.</p><p> This study highlighted the importance of establishing an open and trusting relationship between science faculty and researchers, the need to understand the teaching context of the science faculty member and the constraints it poses, and explicit discussion of goals for the collaboration. These enhance the ability of PAR to provide professional development that is tailored to the individual faculty member's needs and circumstances.</p><p> This study highlighted several barriers to faculty use of assessment instruments, including access and usability of the instruments themselves. A central database of assessment instruments in formats that can be easily adapted by faculty would enhance the ability of college science faculty to implement these high-quality assessment resources into their practice. </p>
How the use of a school garden learning environment with at-risk high school environmental science students impacts their connection to natureStevens, Serena 29 December 2016 (has links)
<p> The purpose of this research was to see if the use of a school garden to teach Environmental Science students about ecology could increase their connection to nature, and to reduce their fears of undesirable organisms. Students completed an online pre and post survey that measured by a mixed-method. The pre and post quantitative data was analyzed using a 5-point Likert scale to determine if there was a significant difference in scores. Qualitative data was analyzed by identifying frequencies of students that mentioned various aspects of connection to nature, fears of various organisms, and reduction of fears for these same organisms.</p><p> Most research in connection to the use of school gardens in an educational setting focus on elementary age students, and research related to connection to nature rarely focus on fears. Quantitative results showed a statistically significant change in empathy for organisms only. All other categories showed no statistical significant change. Qualitative data revealed more insight, by showing that several students associate nature experiences with enjoyment and gaining an understanding of the purpose to certain organisms reduced some student’s fears. The experiences also revealed that students gained a better academic understanding of ecological concepts.</p>
Students' and Teachers' Conceptions of Surface Area to Volume in Science Contexts: What Factors Influence the Understanding of the Concept of Scale?Taylor, Amy Rebecca 11 March 2008 (has links)
The National Science Education Standards emphasize teaching unifying concepts and processes such as basic functions of living organisms, the living environment, and scale (NRC, 1996). Since the relationship of surface area to volume is a pervasive concept that can be found throughout different sciences, it is important for students to not only understand the association of the two, but to also be able to apply it to various situations. The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors that influence the understanding of the concept of scale involving surface area to volume relationships. The first study reported here describes a pilot study with middle school participants in which the correlation between proportional reasoning ability and a studentâs ability to understand surface area to volume relationships was explored. The results of this study showed there was a statistically significant correlation between proportional reasoning scores and the surface area to volume posttest scores. This correlation was explored further in the second study in which middle school studentsâ, high school studentsâ, and science teachersâ abilities in proportional reasoning, visual-spatial skills, and understanding surface area to volume relationships were assessed. Regression results indicated that all participantsâ proportional reasoning and visual-spatial scores could be a possible predictor for oneâs ability to understand surface area to volume relationships. Discussion of the results is followed by implications for teaching scale concepts such as surface area to volume in the science classroom.
Racial Identity Development & Perceptions of Scientists of Black College Students in Science and Non-Science MajorsGomillion, Crystall Sharee 02 May 2007 (has links)
The focus of this research was to evaluate if differences exist in the racial identity profiles and perceptions of scientists held by 48 Black college students majoring in science (n = 17) and non-science (n = 31) fields. The study was conducted at a large, pre-dominantly White university located in the south. All participants completed the Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) and Draw-a-Scientist Test (DAST); measures used to assess six subscales of individuals? racial identity development (RID) and 16 stereotypical conceptions of scientists respectively. Fourteen volunteers also completed one-on-one interviews with the researcher to discuss information that would elucidate their responses to survey instruments. Findings from the CRIS revealed that significant differences did not exist in the science majors? and non-science majors? racial identity profiles. Both groups expressed strongest agreement with views reflected in Internalization Multiculturalist Inclusive (IMCI) and Pre-Encounter Miseducation (PM) subscales. Conversely, the science majors and non-science majors exhibited least agreement with attitudes depicted in Immersion ? Emersion Anti-White (IEAW) and Pre-Encounter Self-Hatred (PSH) subscales. Results from the DAST demonstrated that both groups illustrated similar perceptions of scientists as observed by an average of four of the 16 stereotypes expressed in their images.
Perceived Needs of Lateral Entry Teachers: A Case Study of Three Initially Licensed Science TeachersSmith, Ralph C 20 March 2003 (has links)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceived needs of initially licensed Lateral Entry science teachers to acquire an understanding of how university courses and mentoring programs can better meet their needs. Three teachers with zero to two years' experience were selected for this study. Their progress through the continuing licensure process, their responses to the challenges of teaching, and the support they received from their schools were determined from monthly interviews conducted throughout one school year. This research is a grounded theory study with a prescribed bounded time frame, utilizing a deductive methodology to derive the interpretation of the teacher comments. The teachers indicated issues with the required coursework including affordability, convenience, practicality, and repetition of course content. The teachers also indicated the type of support needed from mentors, peers, and administrators to further their professional growth. Universities must take the lead in providing solutions to the problems associated with coursework and provide training for mentors and administrators that will enable them to support Lateral Entry teacheers.
The Efficacy of World Wide Web-Mediated Microcomputer-Based Laboratory Activities in the High School Physics ClassroomSlykhuis, David Alan 15 April 2004 (has links)
This research project examined the efficacy of an online microcomputer-based laboratory based (MBL) physics unit. One hundred and fifty physics students from five high schools in North Carolina were divided into an online and classroom group. The classroom group completed the MBL units in small groups with assistance from their teachers. The online groups completed the MBL units in small groups using a website designed for this project for guidance. Pre- and post-unit content tests and surveys were given. Statistical analysis of the content tests showed significant development of conceptual understanding by the online group over the course of the unit. There was not a significant difference between the classroom and online group with relation to the amount of conceptual understanding developed. Correlations with post-test achievement showed that pre-test scores and math background were the most significant correlates with success. Computer related variables were only mildly correlated with the online group. The students? views about the nature of physics, as collected by the surveys, were not well developed before the unit and did not significantly change over the course of the short unit. Examination of the students? conceptions after instruction revealed common alternative conceptions such as confusing position and velocity variables and incorrect interpretations of graphical features such as slope.
Investigating the Effects of Metacognitive Instruction in Learning Primary School Science in Some Schools in EthiopiaSbhatu, Desta Berhe 24 April 2006 (has links)
Metacognition is increasingly recognized as an important component in successful learning. In science, metacognitive instructional interventions have been successfully incorporated to promote conceptual change learning, facilitate negotiating and constructing of meanings, and foster reading and problem solving abilities of learners. The present study investigated the contribution of three metacognitive instructional methods, namely graphic organizers, metacognitive reflection, and metacognitive reading in learning science among primary school students age 10-14 years) in Mekelle, Ethiopia. The metacognitive instructional methods were believed to be efficient to introduce and transform learner-centeredness in science instruction under Ethiopia's primary school settings by allowing students to think productively and regulate their own learning. Qualitative study indicated that the metacognitive instructional methods fostered student conceptual understanding of science topics and enhanced active student participation. Quantitative study of post-scores of Immediate test-groups revealed that graphic organizers had some contribution in helping students perform better in 'application' type tests. Metacognitive reflection activities enabled students to perform better in 'application' and 'transfer' type tests as well as enhancing mean post-test scores. Metacognitive reading activities did not yield any apparent effects on post-intervention tests. The effects of the metacognitive methods were diminished among Delayed post-test groups.
17 April 2003
When viewed as a product rather than a process that aids in student learning, the lab report may become rote, busywork for both students and instructors. Students fail to see the purpose of the lab report, and instructors see them as a heavy grading load. If lab reports are taught as part of a process rather than a product that aims to "get the right answer," they may serve as pedagogical tools in college science courses. In response to these issues, an in-depth, web-based tutorial named LabWrite (www.ncsu.edu/labwrite) was developed to help students and instructors (www.ncsu.edu/labwrite/instructors) understand the purpose of the lab report as grounded in the written discourse and processes of science. The objective of this post-test only quasi-experimental study was to examine the role that in-depth instruction such as LabWrite plays in helping students to develop skills characteristic of scientifically literate individuals. Student lab reports from an introductory-level biology course at NC State University were scored for overall understanding of scientific concepts and scientific ways of thinking. The study also looked at students? attitudes toward science and lab report writing, as well as students? perceptions of lab reports in general. Significant statistical findings from this study show that students using LabWrite were able to write lab reports that showed a greater understanding of scientific investigations (p<.003) and scientific ways of thinking (p<.0001) than students receiving traditional lab report writing instruction. LabWrite also helped students develop positive attitudes toward lab reports as compared to non-LabWrite users (p<.01). Students using LabWrite seemed to perceive the lab report as a valuable tool for determining learning objectives, understanding science concepts, revisiting the lab experience, and documenting their learning.
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