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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Trust or not: the role of self-construal in the perceptions of trustworthiness toward salesclerks

Guo, Wenxia 12 June 2012 (has links)
People usually have favorable evaluations when incoming information matches with their self view, which has been evidenced in cross-cultural research on advertisement appeals. However, the current paper demonstrates a counterintuitive finding in a retailing context. Results show that when an interdependent self-construal is made salient situationally, individually focused persuasion attempts (i.e. uniqueness) have a more positive impact on consumers’ trustworthiness toward the salesclerk and need for uniqueness than interpersonally focused persuasion attempts (i.e. connectedness). However, when an independent self-construal is activated situationally, persuasion attempts used by a salesclerk have no influence on consumers’ perceptions of trustworthiness toward the salesclerk and need for uniqueness. Five studies are presented that test these propositions and investigate their underlying processes. Study 1 conducted in Canada supported the hypothesized effects. Study 2 provided evidence for the robustness of the effect observed in Study 1 by conducting a similar experiment in China. Study 3, a field study, further supported the propositions when measuring self-construal as an individual difference. Study 4 provided support for the proposed underlying mechanism. That is, the observed effect in Study 1, 2 & 3 is due to persuasion knowledge through deliberate processing. Study 5 extended this result by recruiting participants from four different countries (France, Canada, China, and Israel).
2

Trust or not: the role of self-construal in the perceptions of trustworthiness toward salesclerks

Guo, Wenxia 12 June 2012 (has links)
People usually have favorable evaluations when incoming information matches with their self view, which has been evidenced in cross-cultural research on advertisement appeals. However, the current paper demonstrates a counterintuitive finding in a retailing context. Results show that when an interdependent self-construal is made salient situationally, individually focused persuasion attempts (i.e. uniqueness) have a more positive impact on consumers’ trustworthiness toward the salesclerk and need for uniqueness than interpersonally focused persuasion attempts (i.e. connectedness). However, when an independent self-construal is activated situationally, persuasion attempts used by a salesclerk have no influence on consumers’ perceptions of trustworthiness toward the salesclerk and need for uniqueness. Five studies are presented that test these propositions and investigate their underlying processes. Study 1 conducted in Canada supported the hypothesized effects. Study 2 provided evidence for the robustness of the effect observed in Study 1 by conducting a similar experiment in China. Study 3, a field study, further supported the propositions when measuring self-construal as an individual difference. Study 4 provided support for the proposed underlying mechanism. That is, the observed effect in Study 1, 2 & 3 is due to persuasion knowledge through deliberate processing. Study 5 extended this result by recruiting participants from four different countries (France, Canada, China, and Israel).
3

Adult attachment and self-construal: a cross-cultural analysis

Friedman, Michael David 02 June 2009 (has links)
A cross-cultural survey study examined the impact of adult attachment and self-construal on relationship and mental health outcomes in Hong Kong, Mexico, and the United States. Approximately 200 university students (each currently involved in a romantic relationship) from each culture were recruited to participate. Participants completed self-report measures of adult attachment style, self-construal and several questionnaires about their romantic relationships. The dependent measures examined were relationship satisfaction, commitment, and perceived social support, along with the mental health variable of depressive symptoms. Both universal and culture-specific patterns of adult attachment were observed. Attachment insecurity was negatively related to relationship and mental health outcomes in all cultures under study, providing support for a universal interpretation of attachment theory. However, the negative effects of avoidant attachment on relationship outcomes were found to be stronger in Hong Kong and in Mexico. These findings provide support for a degree of cultural specificity to attachment processes. Additional findings centered on self-construal, and showed that independent self-construal was particularly detrimental to relationship outcomes in Hong Kong. Implications for attachment theory and self-construal research are discussed.
4

Does unfairness have a ripple effect? The impact of independent and interdependent self-construals

Goreham, Katrina January 2009 (has links)
In the present research, I examine whether independent and interdependent self-construals influence behaviour toward innocent others following unfair treatment from an authority. Fairness researchers have documented many negative effects of unfair treatment on recipients’ thoughts, feelings, and behaviours. From the recipient’s perspective, unfair treatment is a sign that the recipient is inferior and unworthy of respect, leading to decreased self-esteem (e.g., Tyler, Degoey, & Smith, 1996). Although this decrease in self-esteem among recipients of unfair treatment may be universal, individual differences in behavioural reactions to unfairness are evident. Prior research and theory suggest that the need to maintain one’s self-esteem is fundamental (e.g., Maslow, 1968; Rogers, 1961; Rosenberg, 1979), and that individuals engage in a wide range of behaviours to maintain their self-esteem (Steele, 1988). Recent research suggests that the types of behaviours individuals use to restore their self-esteem following unfairness vary according to the source of their self-esteem. Specifically, individuals with a stronger independent self-construal, who derive self-esteem from being unique and getting ahead, may be more likely to enact revenge against those who treat them unfairly (Zdaniuk & Bobocel, 2009). Conversely, those with a stronger interdependent self-construal, who derive self-esteem from maintaining harmonious relationships, may be more likely to forgive (Bobocel & Zdaniuk, 2009). At times, engaging in revenge or forgiveness toward the perpetrator of unfairness may be difficult, especially if the perpetrator is an authority. In these situations, recipients of unfairness may maintain their self-esteem by engaging in unfair or fair behaviours directed toward innocent others. I predicted that after experiencing unfair treatment from an authority, individuals with a strong (versus weak) independent self-construal would be more likely to act unfairly toward fellow group members, and that individuals with a strong (versus weak) interdependent self-construal would be more likely to act fairly. These predictions were tested in two laboratory studies and one field study. Although the results were not consistent across the three studies, some support was found for both predictions. In addition, the findings are consistent with the notion that self-esteem maintenance was a mechanism underlying the predicted effects of the self-construals. The implications of the current findings for the fairness literature are discussed, and directions for future research are proposed. To avoid ripple effects of unfairness in the workplace, organizational authorities are advised to promote an interdependent, rather than independent, work environment.
5

Does unfairness have a ripple effect? The impact of independent and interdependent self-construals

Goreham, Katrina January 2009 (has links)
In the present research, I examine whether independent and interdependent self-construals influence behaviour toward innocent others following unfair treatment from an authority. Fairness researchers have documented many negative effects of unfair treatment on recipients’ thoughts, feelings, and behaviours. From the recipient’s perspective, unfair treatment is a sign that the recipient is inferior and unworthy of respect, leading to decreased self-esteem (e.g., Tyler, Degoey, & Smith, 1996). Although this decrease in self-esteem among recipients of unfair treatment may be universal, individual differences in behavioural reactions to unfairness are evident. Prior research and theory suggest that the need to maintain one’s self-esteem is fundamental (e.g., Maslow, 1968; Rogers, 1961; Rosenberg, 1979), and that individuals engage in a wide range of behaviours to maintain their self-esteem (Steele, 1988). Recent research suggests that the types of behaviours individuals use to restore their self-esteem following unfairness vary according to the source of their self-esteem. Specifically, individuals with a stronger independent self-construal, who derive self-esteem from being unique and getting ahead, may be more likely to enact revenge against those who treat them unfairly (Zdaniuk & Bobocel, 2009). Conversely, those with a stronger interdependent self-construal, who derive self-esteem from maintaining harmonious relationships, may be more likely to forgive (Bobocel & Zdaniuk, 2009). At times, engaging in revenge or forgiveness toward the perpetrator of unfairness may be difficult, especially if the perpetrator is an authority. In these situations, recipients of unfairness may maintain their self-esteem by engaging in unfair or fair behaviours directed toward innocent others. I predicted that after experiencing unfair treatment from an authority, individuals with a strong (versus weak) independent self-construal would be more likely to act unfairly toward fellow group members, and that individuals with a strong (versus weak) interdependent self-construal would be more likely to act fairly. These predictions were tested in two laboratory studies and one field study. Although the results were not consistent across the three studies, some support was found for both predictions. In addition, the findings are consistent with the notion that self-esteem maintenance was a mechanism underlying the predicted effects of the self-construals. The implications of the current findings for the fairness literature are discussed, and directions for future research are proposed. To avoid ripple effects of unfairness in the workplace, organizational authorities are advised to promote an interdependent, rather than independent, work environment.
6

Adult attachment and self-construal: a cross-cultural analysis

Friedman, Michael David 02 June 2009 (has links)
A cross-cultural survey study examined the impact of adult attachment and self-construal on relationship and mental health outcomes in Hong Kong, Mexico, and the United States. Approximately 200 university students (each currently involved in a romantic relationship) from each culture were recruited to participate. Participants completed self-report measures of adult attachment style, self-construal and several questionnaires about their romantic relationships. The dependent measures examined were relationship satisfaction, commitment, and perceived social support, along with the mental health variable of depressive symptoms. Both universal and culture-specific patterns of adult attachment were observed. Attachment insecurity was negatively related to relationship and mental health outcomes in all cultures under study, providing support for a universal interpretation of attachment theory. However, the negative effects of avoidant attachment on relationship outcomes were found to be stronger in Hong Kong and in Mexico. These findings provide support for a degree of cultural specificity to attachment processes. Additional findings centered on self-construal, and showed that independent self-construal was particularly detrimental to relationship outcomes in Hong Kong. Implications for attachment theory and self-construal research are discussed.
7

The antecedents and psychological outcomes of perceived rejection from one's heritage culture

Ferenczi, Nelli January 2015 (has links)
What factors predict whether we perceive rejection from our heritage culture? Few studies have examined the antecedents and outcomes of intragroup marginalisation – perceived rejection due to not conforming to the expectations of one’s heritage culture – in spite of its implications for the psychological functioning of bicultural individuals. The broad aims of this thesis are twofold: to provide a holistic insight into the predictors of intragroup marginalisation and, in turn, to investigate its impact on psychological adjustment and functioning. The General Introduction reviews existing acculturation and marginalisation research and situates intragroup marginalisation within the Social Identity Theory framework. It is noted that previous research on the marginalised experiences of bicultural individuals has centred on either their choice of dis-identifying with their heritage culture, or being prevented from identifying with the heritage culture by the mainstream culture. The role of the heritage culture in-group in rejecting non-conforming members has largely been neglected. The predictors of this perceived rejection from one’s heritage culture were chosen because of their importance in shaping interpersonal interactions and goals: attachment orientations, selfconstrual, and conservation values. In addition, perceived cultural distance between the heritage and mainstream cultures was included as a factor which may heighten the tension between one’s cultural identities. To provide broad insight into the detrimental impact of intragroup marginalisation, outcome variables were chosen that represent general psychological functioning: psychological adjustment (conceptualised as acculturative stress, subjective well-being, and flourishing), an integrated bicultural identity, and extreme progroup behaviour. Study 1 found that anxious and avoidant attachment orientations were associated with greater intragroup marginalisation and, in turn, with lower psychological adjustment. Study 2 experimentally primed attachment representations; results further supported the link between chronic attachment orientations and decreased intragroup marginalisation. Study 3 further supported the link between attachment avoidance and anxiety and increased intragroup marginalisation. Furthermore, support was found for the indirect effects of avoidant attachment through intragroup marginalisation on greater endorsement of extreme pro-group behaviours. Study 4 increased the cognitive accessibility of independent and interdependent self-construals through a priming manipulation. Primed interdependent self-construal exerted a protective effect against the link between intragroup marginalisation and poor psychological adjustment and a conflicted bicultural identity, whilst primed independent self-construal was linked with increased intragroup marginalisation, and, in turn, decreased psychological adjustment. Study 5 indicated that valuing security and perceiving cultural distance decreased intragroup marginalisation, whilst valuing tradition marginally increased perceptions of intragroup marginalisation. Study 6 examined intragroup marginalisation experiences longitudinally. Results indicated that an increase in intragroup marginalisation from Time 1 to Time 2 was associated with an increase in acculturative stress. The General Discussion reviews the general findings, discusses implications for bicultural individuals, and sets further directions for research.
8

The effects of self-construal and religious fundamentalism on terror management effects

Friedman, Michael David 30 September 2004 (has links)
Two experiments were conducted to assess the effects of self-construal and religious fundamentalism on terror management processes. It was found that both interdependent self-construal and religious fundamentalist beliefs offer protection against death-related thoughts and worldview defense following mortality salience. The implications for terror management theory are discussed.
9

An Examination of Coping Processes within the Context of Water-based Recreation

Yoon, Jee In 2012 May 1900 (has links)
Many outdoor recreation settings present stressful situations that directly influence the quality of one's leisure experience. Some recreationists are able to maintain their enjoyment by adopting various coping strategies. In conditions that induce stress, recreationists can select from a combination of behavioral coping strategies (e.g., substitution of recreational setting or activity) and/or cognitive coping strategies (e.g., rationalization). Previous coping research has indicated that the key to understanding the stress -- coping process is how one appraises the stressors. In spite of the acknowledged importance of individual appraisals, however, there is scant empirical evidence available documenting this mediating effect. To explore the role of appraisal in the stress - coping relationship, I drew upon Lazarus and Folkman's transactional theory of stress and coping. Using data collected from recreationists boating in Texas and Korea, I tested a model where the relationship between stress and coping was hypothesized to be mediated by individual's appraisals within the context of water-based recreational activities. Data were collected from recreationists residing near Lake Granbury in Texas (n=186) and recreationists at Lake Chung-pyung in South Korea (n=462). Initial testing of the model illustrated poor fit. I then tested the model independently for the two groups. For Korean respondents, results showed that one's evaluative process (appraisal) mediated the relationship between stress level and selected coping strategies. Further, the degree of involvement with a recreational activity, attachment to a setting, and self-construal moderated the stress -- appraisal -- coping relationship. Model testing for American respondents showed that the factor structure deviated from what was originally hypothesized. Subsequent testing produced an alternate factor structure; direct action, disengagement, temporal substitution, and cognitive coping. However, there was no mediating role of appraisal in the relationship between stress and coping for this group. Moreover, there was no moderating effect of place attachment, leisure activity involvement, and self-construal for American respondents. In short, the results of this study partially supported the transactional theory of stress and coping. For both groups, positive appraisal was more strongly related to behavioral coping, while cognitive coping (rationalization) was influenced by respondents' negative appraisal of the boating conditions. Even under potentially stressful conditions, some recreationists consider the situation controllable. Future investigations should also consider exploring and comparing the coping processes of different user groups, across age cohorts, and among recreationists within similar contexts.
10

The effects of self-construal and religious fundamentalism on terror management effects

Friedman, Michael David 30 September 2004 (has links)
Two experiments were conducted to assess the effects of self-construal and religious fundamentalism on terror management processes. It was found that both interdependent self-construal and religious fundamentalist beliefs offer protection against death-related thoughts and worldview defense following mortality salience. The implications for terror management theory are discussed.

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