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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Special design features of a steam heating installation in Istanbul, Turkey /

Ozipek, Kamran Abdurrahim. January 1948 (has links)
Thesis (M.S.)--Oregon State College, 1948. / Typescript. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 94-95). Also available via the World Wide Web.
2

The effect of steam conditioning practices on pellet quality and growing broiler nutritional value

Cutlip, Sarah Elizabeth. January 1900 (has links)
Thesis (M.S.)--West Virginia University, 2007. / Title from document title page. Document formatted into pages; contains v, 46 p. : col. ill. Includes abstract. Includes bibliographical references.
3

Heat transfer studies of steam/air mixtures for food processing in retort pouches

Ramaswamy, Hosahalli Subrayasastry January 1983 (has links)
Heat transfer characteristics associated with steam/air mixtures were studied in two pilot scale batch type steam/air retorts: a vertical positive flow retort and a horizontal forced circulation Lagarde retort. A method employing transient heat conduction into rectangular bricks of aluminum and stainless steel was developed to evaluate the surface heat transfer coefficient (h) of steam/air mixtures. A system was designed to facilitate an instantaneous drop of the test brick, from an insulated box inside the retort, into a specified steam/air medium after the come-up period. The influences of steam content, temperature, flow rate and flow direction of the heating medium and orientation of test bricks on the associated h values, temperature distribution and pressure stability in the retorts were studied. In addition, thermal processing efficacy was evaluated by measuring the rate of heat penetration into bricks of silicone rubber and rigid nylon which have thermal diffusivities in the range common for foods. In both retorts, steam content (S) of the mixture was found to be the major factor influencing h (p<0.05); however, temperature had no significant effect (p>0.05). Further, the flow direction and flow rate of the heating media in the positive flow retort, and brick orientation in the Lagarde retort also influenced h (p<0.05). The general relationship between h and S was exponential: h = a exp(bS). In the positive flow retort with the test brick in the vertical orientation, the values of a and b were 153 W/m²C and 0.0421 respectively, for steam/air media flowing in an upward direction, and were 337 W/m²C and 0.0355 respectively, for the media flowing downward. The surface heat transfer coefficient was also found to increase linearly with the medium flow rate. With the Lagarde retort, steam/air flow was always horizontal and flow rate was not adjustable. In this case, h was influenced by the test brick orientation. For bricks in the vertical orientation, the exponential parameters, a and b, were 1011 W/m²c and 0.0226 respectively, whereas in the horizontal orientation, these were 1669 W/m²C and 0.0132 Temperature distribution studies in the positive flow retort indicated that the overall standard deviation of the medium temperature at several locations during the cook period (excluding come-up) increased (p<0.05) with a decrease in the steam content and flow rate of the heating media. The effects of temperature and flow direction were nonsignificant (p>0.05). In the Lagarde retort, the temperature distribution was not influenced either by steam content or temperature of the steam/air medium. Pressure stability studies indicated that the air content and temperature of the medium increased (p<0.05) the standard deviations of retort pressure during the cook period. Based on the temperature and pressure deviations in the two retorts, steam/air mixtures with 86-90% steam contents were considered to provide satisfactory overriding air pressures for processing of retort pouches at 105-120°C. Heat penetration studies in the positive flow retort using nonpackaged test bricks of silicone rubber and nylon revealed an increase of up to 11% (p<0.05) in the heating rate index (f) of test bricks when the steam content of the media decreased from 100% to 50%. Heating of bricks at 120°C resulted in f values that were 5.5% larger (p<0.05) than those for bricks heated at 105°C. In the Lagarde retort, the effects of temperature and steam content of the media on f values were not significant. Heating bricks in the vertical orientation resulted in higher f values than in horizontal orientation in some tests, while a reverse trend was observed in others. The influence of entrapped air (15-30 mL per pouch) in retort pouches containing the bricks on f values was small when using a vertical rack that tightly constrained the bricks, whereas up to 260% higher values of f resulted when using an unconstraining horizontal rack while processing at 105-120°C in media of steam contents above 65%. These increases in f value could be prevented by using overriding air pressures of 70-100 kPa during the retort operation. The lag factor, j, was generally in the range of 0.5-1.0 for test bricks, with or without packaging, in the positive flow retort, and 0.8-1.1 in the Lagarde retort, when evaluated at 42% effectiveness for the come-up time. It was observed that in order for the j values to match the theoretical value of 1.27 for an infinite plate, the effectiveness was in the range of 60-90%. / Land and Food Systems, Faculty of / Graduate
4

Optimized Control Of Steam Heating Coils

Ali, Mir Muddassir 2011 December 1900 (has links)
Steam has been widely used as the source of heating in commercial buildings and industries throughout the twentieth century. Even though contemporary designers have moved to hot water as the primary choice for heating, a large number of facilities still use steam for heating. Medical campuses with on-site steam generation and extensive distribution systems often serve a number of buildings designed prior to the mid-1980s. The steam is typically used for preheat as its high thermal content helps in heating the air faster and prevents coils from freezing in locations with extreme weather conditions during winter. The present work provides a comprehensive description of the various types of steam heating systems, steam coils, and valves to facilitate the engineer's understanding of these steam systems. A large percentage of the steam coils used in buildings are provided with medium pressure steam. Veterans Integrated Service Network and Army Medical Command Medical Facilities are examples which use medium pressure steam for heating. The current design manual for these medical facilities recommends steam at 30psig be provided to these coils. In certain cases although the steam heating coil is designed for a 5psig steam pressure, it is observed that higher pressure steam is supplied at the coil. A higher steam pressure may lead to excessive heating, system inefficiency due to increased heat loss, simultaneous heating and cooling, and increased maintenance cost. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of lowering steam pressure on the system performance. A 16% reduction in temperature rise across the coil was found when the steam pressure in the coil was reduced from 15psig to 5psig. The rise in temperature with lower pressure steam was sufficient to prevent coil freeze-up even in the most severe weather conditions. Additional benefits of reduced steam pressure are reduced flash steam losses (flash steam is vapor or secondary steam formed when hot condensate from the coil is discharged into a lower pressure area, i.e., the condensate return line) and radiation losses, increased flow of air through the coil thereby reducing air stratification and reduced energy losses in the event of actuator failure. The work also involved evaluating the existing control strategies for the steam heating system. New control strategies were developed and tested to address the short comings of existing sequences. Improved temperature control and occupant comfort; elimination of valve hunting and reduced energy consumption were benefits realized by implementing these measures.
5

A computer simulation and performance evaluation of the Virginia Tech steam heating system

Beard, Gordon Van Zandt January 1984 (has links)
A computer simulation program was developed to simulate the Virginia Tech low pressure steam heating system. Based on the total heat available to the buildings and the buildings' relative transmission heat losses, this program will determine the distribution of the heat produced by the steam plant and determine the conditions of the steam at the buildings and along the pipeline. The above distribution of heat consists of heat lost from the pipeline and heat delivered to the buildings. This program was used to perform a preliminary performance evaluation of the steam heating system during the 1983-84 heating season, and for the coldest day (12/24/83) and day of maximum steam load (2/29/84) in particular. During this heating season 2.397 x 10¹¹ Btu was delivered by the steam plant to the buildings. Also, about 3% of the total heat delivered by the steam plant was lost through the pipeline. To enhance the usefulness of this program two actions were recommended. First, the steam pipeline and the buildings should be instrumented to allow for verification of the program results. Second, in order to produce more accurate results the program's data should be based on more accurate measurements of the pipeline characteristics and the building heating loads. / Master of Science

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