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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Die rol van salutogeniese faktore in die voorkoms van heimwee

Martin, Suretha 10 September 2012 (has links)
M.A. / New job and study opportunities were created for many people because of political changes in South Africa. This implied that many people left their homes and moved to new areas. Research indicated that 60% to 70% of first year students suffered from homesickness during their first semester at university. For some of them it was only a light experience; for others it was an intense negative experience with serious social-, academic-, and financial implications which could result in illness or even death. The role of salutogenic factors (factors that contribute to health) in the occurrence of homesickness, experienced by Afrikaans- and English speaking male and female first year students at the Rand Afrikaans Universiy, was investigated. It was found that the experience of homesickness was diminished by the salutogenic factors "sense of coherence", "self-efficacy", learned resourcefulness" and social support. These factors thus contributed to health. The factor "hardiness" did not play a salutogenic role in this study. Although the multicultural context of South Africa was not taken into account, the study should be useful in identifying students who would be prone to homesickness and illness during their first year at university.
2

A biobehavioral analysis of alexithymia /

Martin, John B. (John Blanchard), 1958- January 1985 (has links)
No description available.
3

A biobehavioral analysis of alexithymia /

Martin, John B. (John Blanchard), 1958- January 1985 (has links)
No description available.
4

Early assessment of stress and illness proneness

Willey, Juliet 13 September 2012 (has links)
M.Sc. / The current study sought to investigate the relationship between stress and illness, while examining the effects of daily stressors, depression, hardiness, social support and coping skills on this relationship. The information gathered was then used to design a time and cost effective questionnaire to predict people prone to stress-related illness. This questionnaire has been called the Stress Fitness Scale. The subjects (n = 44) were split into three groups (healthy, ill, and neither ill nor healthy) according to their scores on Gurin's Psychosomatic Symptom List for non-parametric statistical analysis. Scores on the Hardiness Scale, Perceived Social Support Friends and Family, Beck Depression Inventory, COPE, Hassles and Uplifts Scale and Life Experiences were analysed and significant differences were found between the ill and healthy groups in all five areas using a Mann-Whitney U test. An intercorrelation matrix was performed and significant correlation was found between Stress Fitness and the other scales, although not for all the sub-scales. Many of these correlations corresponded with the differences found between the two groups using the Mann-Whitney U test. Item analysis was performed on the Stress Fitness Scale. Significant inter correlation was found for all the items of the Prone sub-scale, and all but three items of the Protect sub-scale. Although further research is necessary, from this limited study the Stress Fitness Scale appears to provide a time and cost effective way of predicting people prone to stress-related illness.
5

Stress-related immunosuppression in the elderly : a life change perspective

Neser, C.A. 22 August 2012 (has links)
M.A. / Clayton (1996) cites studies of stress experienced by the elderly, such as rape (Frank et al. 1984) o catastrophic financial loss (Ganzini et al. 1990) (such as in burglary or hijacking) that have indicate( that these stresses may result in the onset of major depressive disorder and generalised anxiety disorder response is depression. This study will attempt to compare elderly persons (Group 1) having been admitted to an old age facility less than two years prior, with a matched sample of same (Group 2) having been resident a the same facility for longer than that. This subdivision into Groups 1 and 2 will be the independen variable. The dependent variables will be various psychometric measures, being the Rotter Locus o Control Test, Beck Depression Test, Wallston Health Locus of Control Test and the Simmons Self. Image Scale. Respondents will also have an erythrocyte sedimentation test performed, which is simple non-specific blood test that is also an excellent measure of overall health and concomitarr stress levels. Manipulation of the results will support or refute the detailed hypotheses as set out it the Methodology chapter. The aim of this study is to build on studies such as those of Meyerson anc Haggerty (1962) (in Ader, 1981) and Heyman (1992) by introducing the differentiating factor 01 institutionalisation and locus of control as a factor to be considered in primary health care.
6

An exploratory study to identify the range of occupational stressors that occur among ambulance workers in Johannesburg

Green, Rosanne 13 September 2012 (has links)
M.A. / This study looks into the types of stressors specific to the Emergency Medical Services. The study was undertaken over a period of two years with the following objectives: • A literature survey regarding stress, organisational stress in general and stress in the context of Emergency Medical Services in particular. • An investigation of the personnel of the Emergency Medical Services to ascertain the stressors perceived as stressful by them. • Recommendations on how to prevent or lower stress in the Emergency Medical Services. The first part of this study is devoted to a theoretical investigation which gives an overview of stress in its broadest sense as well as stress in organisations which includes cumulative stress/burnout. Critical Incident Stress and Post Traumatic Stress are also closely examined, as well as the personality characteristics of members of the Emergency Medical Services. The point of departure for the researcher is an ecosystemic perspective where objectivity itself is questionable. Therefore, qualitative research was called for and the transactional/interactional model of Richard Lazarus was used to categorise stressors. The research results suggest that what the Emergency Medical Service personnel perceive as stressful are mainly organisational stressors but they acknowledge that in the long term the continual dealing with death and trauma starts to take its toll. Criticisms that could be levelled against the study are that the results are only generalisable to the personnel of the Johannesburg Emergency Services, whose demographic characteristics and backgrounds differ, for instance, from those who work at Bryanston, or Pretoria. As the study relied solely on personal disclosure and observation the results can be seen as somewhat subjective in nature. What was communicated as stress-related events was what was perceived as stressful by the personnel as well as the researcher's subjective perception of whether certain events were perceived as stressful for the personnel. After working on the ambulance with these personnel for over three years, the researcher is an accepted part of their system, and became subject to the same blunting of affect and depersonalisation of victims as the Emergency workers. Over an extended period in time, it became harder to divorce the researcher from the "worker" while on duty, to maintain a scientific perspective and to write objectively. However, the findings of this study concur with those done by previous researchers on this subject such as Sparrius (1992) and Du Toit & Botes (1996).
7

Cue incubation in posttraumatic stress disorder amongst members of the South African Police

Feldmann, Olaf Theodor 16 April 2014 (has links)
M.A. (Psychology) / The present study was undertaken in an attempt to understand and ascertain the nature of PTSD in the South African Police leading to chronic illness and work-related dysfunctions as well as to investigate the possibility of triggering events leading to the loss of latency in PTSD. The specific hypothesis for this study was that a significant proportion of members of the SAP who report for medical treatment of stress-related physical or psychological complaints, will show PTSD in conjunction with a triggering stimulus event prior to the manifestations of the first clinical signs of PTSD. The testing of the hypothesis, entailed utilizing an experimental group. consisting of a number of police officers, who had been referred for psychological and/or medical treatment for work-related disorders. None of these subjects had previously been diagnosed with PTSD. A control group was used that consisted of police officers who had not seen active duty in an area where a traumatic stress disorder event could take place. These subjects were subjected to assessment of PTSD by means of the Mississippi Scale for Combat-Related PTSD, and concomitant stress-related events by means of the Life Experiences Survey. Alienation was assessed by the means of the VSVA. Indices of psychophysiological reactivity were obtained by means of galvanic skin response deviation and heart rate deviation to specific stimuli, including neutral stimuli, war-related stimuli and stimuli with political content.
8

ALTERATIONS IN THE SEEKING AND SELF-ADMINISTRATION OF ETHANOL AND ANXIETY-LIKE BEHAVIOR FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO YOHIMBINE IN RATS SELECTIVELY BRED FOR HIGH ALCOHOL INTAKE

Bertholomey, Megan Lee 16 August 2011 (has links)
Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) / Stress has been shown to contribute to alcohol drinking; however, inconsistencies in both the clinical and pre-clinical literature speak to the need for better paradigms to study this interaction. The present experiments compared animal models of the propensity to consume ethanol, the selectively bred alcohol-preferring (P) and high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) rat lines, in their response to yohimbine on ethanol seeking and self-administration and anxiety-like behavior. The P and HAD lines consume similar amounts of ethanol, yet differ in apparent motivation to drink ethanol, in anxiety-like behavior, and response to stress in alcohol drinking. Therefore, it was of interest to determine whether stress may differentially affect ethanol-motivated behaviors between the P and HAD lines. Acute administration of yohimbine, an α-2 adrenoreceptor antagonist that increases anxiety and activate stress systems, increased operant ethanol self-administration and reinstatement of ethanol seeking in P rats, and free-choice ethanol drinking in both P and HAD rats. However, acute yohimbine administration decreased ethanol drinking when given limited access in the home cage, an effect that was diminished by extending the pre-treatment interval or increasing the number of ethanol exposure sessions. Yohimbine did not alter appetitive responding during a non-reinforced trial, nor did yohimbine alter the acquisition of free-choice ethanol drinking. Exposure to alcohol deprivation resulted in modest increases in ethanol intake, but yohimbine did not potentiate this effect. While acute yohimbine administration increased anxiety-like behavior, prior experience with repeated yohimbine exposures or with repeated deprivation periods did not. P rats were shown to be more active and less anxious and to display greater responding during a non-reinforced trial than HAD rats. Taken together, the results of these experiments demonstrate that the timing of yohimbine exposure relative to ethanol access is a critical component to determining its effects on ethanol seeking and self-administration and anxiety-like behavior. Further investigation into the parameters under which stress alters the motivation to seek and consume ethanol between these selectively bred lines is warranted, and future work that incorporates therapeutic agents aimed at reducing stress reactivity and alcohol drinking could elucidate effective strategies in the treatment of alcoholism.
9

Die effek van 'n pre-operatiewe streshanteringsprogram op pasient-ervaring van algemene narkose

Strydom, Anna Conelia 17 August 2012 (has links)
M.A. / Die doel van hierdie studie was tweeledig van aard. Die eerste doelstelling was om 'n behoeftebepaling te doen ten einde vas te stel wat die pasiente se algemene behoeftes is ten opsigte van narkose. Die tweede doelstelling was om 'n streshanteringsprogram te ontwikkel, toe te pas op toepaslike proefpersone, en te evalueer aan die hand van vier afhanklike veranderlikes, naamlik angsvlak, pynvlak, irrasionele kognisies en lokus van kontrole. Hierdie streshanteringsprogram is ontwikkel om prakties uitvoerbaar en pasi ntvriendelik gerig te wees sodat die effektiwiteit. vir toekomstige volgehoue gebruik getoets kon word.
10

Type A behaviour and endometriosis

Alberts, Magdalene Suzanne 21 August 2012 (has links)
D.Litt. et Phil. / Endometriosis is among the most common gynaecological maladies affecting women's reproductive health and is also known to be associated with infertility. The pathogenesis of endometriosis is however not well understood. Altered immunity has been indicated in the pathophysiology of this puzzling disease. Over the last decade or more the research evidence suggesting that stress might play a role in the pathogenesis of various illnesses has grown significantly. According to certain tenets of psychoneuroimmunology, behaviour and cognitive therapy, by changing an individual's reaction to stress and increasing the ability to cope with stress, thereby altering immune function, may have an effect on the proliferation of a specific illness, in the case of this study, endometriosis. Various behaviour patterns used by individuals to deal with personal and environmental stressors, have been identified. The incessant struggle to overcome real and imagined obstacles imposed by events, time and the actions of other people typifies the Type A behaviour pattern. The aims of this study were to detemine, whether there were, in a randomly chosen group of patients with endometriosis, persons with high indices of Type A behaviour; to determine whether the modification of Type A behaviour in these patients had a positive effect on their biopsychosocial functioning and finally, whether the modification of Type A behaviour had a positive effect on these patients' endometriosis-related infertility. Endometriosis patients being treated at an infertility clinic were invited to participate in the study. Forty-two subjects were recruited. A psychometric test battery was administered to all the participants. Based on the results of the Videotaped Structured Interview, the subjects were equally divided into three groups: a low index Type A group, a high index Type A group and a middle group. Experimental groups 1 and 2 received counseling aimed at reducing Type A behaviour, using the revised version of the SARCPP, which was originally used with coronary heart disease patients. The test battery was again administered after the intervention. It was found that a subset of endometriosis patients did show higher indices of Type A behaviour. Furthermore an intervention that was found to be successful in reducing the Type A behaviour intensity and frequency in subjects with coronary heart disease was also found to be similarly successful in a subset of women with endometriosis. The most significant finding was the increase in pregnancies among the group of subjects who had been exposed to the treatment. Type A behaviour modification was indeed found to be effective in the treatment of infertility in couples where the female experienced endometriosis-related infertility.

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