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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

Wax characterisation by instrumental analysis

Webber, Glenda Vanessa 12 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2000. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Various companies produce waxes, which are used extensively in various applications, either as produced or as chemically or physically modified value-added products. They are used in the traditional candle industry and applications including hot melt adhesives, inks, plastics, polishes and emulsions for rust prevention or fruit coating. Insight into the properties of these waxes is required to assist the applications chemist in understanding the role of the wax component in a specific formulation. Analytical techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TG), rheometry, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), high temperature gas chromatography (HTGC) and infra-red spectroscopy (IR) were used to characterise Fischer Tropsch, polyethylene, natural and petroleum waxes. Property profiles were formulated by integrating the results from the various techniques. The results of traditional wax analyses (e.g. congealing point, melting point, penetration, density and viscosity) were also correlated to relevant analytical results obtained from the instrumental techniques. Structure-property relationships have been proposed. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Verskeie maatskappye vervaardig wasse, wat in menige toepassings gebruik word - of direk, of as chemies- of fisies- veranderde produkte van hoër waarde. Benewens die tradisionele kersbedryf, word die wasse in toepassings soos warmsmeltkleefmiddels, ink, plastiek, roeswerende- en vrugtebedekkings- emulsies en politoere gebruik. Wetenskaplikes betrokke by die formuleering van wasse vir verskillende toepassings sal baat vind by beter inligting van waseienskappe en die rol van waskomponente in formulasies. Tegnieke, bv. differensialeskandeerkalorimetrie (DSC), termogravimetrie (TG), reologie, gelpermeasiechromotografie (GPC), hoëtemperatuurgaschromatografie (HTGC) en infrarooispektroskopie (IR), is gebruik om Fischer Tropsch-, polietileen-, petroleum- en natuurlike wasse te karakteriseer. Profiele van waseienskappe is geformuleer deur die integrasie van die data verkry van die verskillende analitiese tegnieke. Die resultate van tradisionële wasanalises (bv. stolpunt, smeltpunt, penetrasie, digtheid, viskositieit en olie-inhoud) word ook in verband gebring met die resultate van die instrumentele analises. Verbande tussen struktuur en waseienskappe word ook voorgestel.

Polymerisation of 1,5-hexadienes

Smit, Madri 12 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2001. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In this study, the feasibility of the non-conjugated 1,5-hexadiene as monomer in metallocene catalised cyclopolymerizations was considered. Homopolymers and copolymers with ethylene, propylene, 1-pentene, 1-hexene and 2-methyl-1,5- hexadiene as comonomers were synthesised in the presence of Cp2ZrCh and rac-Et(lnd)2Zrh. The microstructure (stereoregularity and cyclisation) and number-average molecular weight were determined from NMR analysis. Crystalline oligomers with functional (eg -OH) and vinylidene end groups were obtained. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die studie behels die ondersoek rakende die gebruik van ongekonjugeerde 1,5- heksadieen as monomeer in metalloseengekataliseerde polimerisasies. Homopolimere, sowel as kopolimere van etlieen, propileen, 1-penteen, 1- hekseen en 2-metiel-1,5-heksadieen, is in die teenwoordigheid van Cp2ZrChen rac-Et(lnd)2ZrCI2 gepolimeriseer. Die mikrostruktuur (stereochemie en siklisering) en die getal-gemiddelde molekulêre gewig van die gesintetiseerde polimere is met behulp van KMR spektroskopie ondersoek. Die studie het getoon dat kristallyne oligomere met funksionele (bv -OH) en vinilideen endgroepe gesintetiseer is.

New monomer for hydrophobic acrylic copolymers and their novel properties

De Vries, Andrew Robert 12 1900 (has links)
Thesis (DSc (Chemistry and Polymer Science))--University of Stellenbsoch, 2006. / The synthesis and characterization of a new tertiary alcohol (2-octyl-2-dodecanol) and “bushy-tailed”, hydrophobic acrylic monomer (2-octyl-dodecyl acrylate) from a 1-decene dimer (2-octyl-1-dodecene) precursor that was synthesized with metallocene technology is reported. Some preliminary applications of the newly synthesized 2-octyl-dodecyl acrylate were investigated. These applications included the use of 2-octyl-dodecyl acrylate as a reactive hydrophobe in mini-emulsion polymerizations, and as a reactive (internal) plasticizer. In an attempt to selectively dimerize 1-decene, the effect of various factors on the oligomerization of 1-decene was investigated. These factors include the following: i. Different temperatures: 5, 35, 70 and 90°C ii. Different co-catalyst [methylaluminoxane (MAO)] concentrations iii. Different catalysts: bis(cyclopentadienyl)zirconium dichloride (Cp2ZrCl2) and bis(cyclopentadienyl)hafnium dichloride (Cp2HfCl2) iv. Different reaction times. In all instances the final product obtained, under the abovementioned conditions, was a mixture of residual monomer, the dimer and trimer of 1-decene. These findings were corroborated with GC-MS and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The isolation and further processing of the dimer of 1-decene (2-octyl-1-dodecene) was investigated. The efficiency, in terms of the final product-composition for the amount of catalyst used and reaction time, of Cp2ZrCl2 compared to bis(cyclopentadienyl)hafnium dichloride (Cp2HfCl2; hafnocene) as catalyst for the oligomerization of 1-decene is also reported on. The results obtained indicated that Cp2ZrCl2 is the more efficient catalyst for the oligomerization of 1-decene. The effect of different reaction times (1, 3, 6, 24 hours) on the final product-composition for the oligomerization of 1-decene was also investigated. Longer reaction times (24 hours) seemed to be excessive. A reaction time of 6 hours was optimal. The purified 1-decene dimer (2-octyl-1-dodecene) was converted to the new tertiary alcohol (2-octyl-2-dodecanol) using the oxymercuration-demercuration procedure. The 2-octyl-dodecyl acrylate was synthesized by the esterification of the tertiary alcohol with acryloyl chloride in the presence of triethylamine. The new tertiary alcohol and acrylate were characterized by FT-IR and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Stable polymer latex particles were successfully synthesized with the novel reactive hydrophobe 2-octyl-dodecyl acrylate in the mini-emulsion polymerization of butyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate and styrene. Phase-separation experiments showed that the presence of 2-octyl-dodecyl acrylate in the dispersed phase retards Ostwald ripening. The novel acrylic monomer, 2-octyl-dodecyl acrylate, was copolymerized with styrene via conventional free radical polymerization. Both low and high molecular weight copolymers were prepared. Thermal analysis of the copolymers showed that 2-octyl-dodecyl acrylate does act as a reactive (internal) plasticizer. Blends of commercial virgin polystyrene and the synthesized low and high molecular weight copolymers were prepared. Partially miscible blends were obtained. Decreases in the glass transition temperatures of the blends compared to the virgin polystyrene were observed. The higher molecular mass styrene/2-octyl-dodecyl acrylate copolymers produced larger decreases in glass-transition temperatures.

Synthesis and characterization of tailored polyurethane coatings

Seboa, Sharrief 12 1900 (has links)
Thesis (DSc (Chemistry and Polymer Science))--University of Stellenbosch, 2005. / Aqueous polyurethane (PU) dispersions were synthesized for use in paper coatings. These PUs contained a polyester polyol soft segment (content of between 65 to 75%) and a urethane hard segment (content of between 30 to 35%). Triethylamine (TEA) was used as the neutralizing agent. The polyester polyol segment consisted of neopentyl glycol (NPG), adipic acid, 1,4-cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid (1,4-CHDCA) and 2-phosphonobutane- 1,2,4-tricarboxylic acid (PBTCA), while the urethane hard segment consisted of toluene diisocyanate (TDI), dimethylolproponic acid (DMPA) and ethylene glycol (EG) as a chain extender for increasing the hard segment content. Waxes and fillers were incorporated into the PU coating mixtures to investigate their effect on the barrier properties of the PU. Two types of fillers were used: nano-fillers and micro-fillers. The nano-fillers used included the Cloisite nano-clays NC15A, NC93A and NC30B, and the micro-fillers used included talc, kaolin clay and barium sulfate. Two different polyester polyols were synthesized: one containing a phosphate and the other containing no phosphate. The polyols were characterized in terms of their acid value, hydroxyl value and molecular mass. The PUs synthesized from the polyol containing no phosphate showed unfavourable barrier properties compared to results achieved with the phosphate-containing PU. The PU dispersions were applied to paperboard, and then dried at a maximum temperature of 130oC for 15 to 60 seconds, depending on the coating volume. The PU-coated paperboard was characterized primarily by determining the moisture vapour transmission rate (MVTR), and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). PU films (stand alone, not supported by paper) were prepared by heating the concurrent PU dispersion in Teflon holders over three different temperature stages (60, 90 and 120oC) for about 2 days. The dried films were then characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The PU coatings showed self-assembly properties, which were affected primarily by the ionic content (comprising of DMPA, PBTCA and excess TEA) and emulsion viscosity. These self-assembly properties were analyzed by static contact angle (SCA) and MVTR measurements. It was found that the final coating properties were affected by the self-assembly mechanism of the PU. Generally, the phosphated PU coatings had lower MVTR values than the non-phosphated PU coatings. SEM analysis showed that the phosphated PU coatings had no pinholes, while the non-phosphated PU coatings had pinholes. DMA analysis showed that the phosphated PUs had higher Tg values than the non-phosphated PUs. Further, the inclusion of the phosphate monomer increased the emulsion stability and the compatibility between the hard and soft segments of the PU. Also, the exfoliated PU nanocomposites at 1% filler loading gave much better MVTR results compared to the PU microcomposites. It also rendered the coating to be non-blocking, with minimal change in MVTR.

Novel analytical approaches for studying degradation in polypropylene and propylene-1-pentene copolymers

De Goede, Stefan 03 1900 (has links)
Thesis (DSc (Chemistry and Polymer Science))--University of Stellenbosch, 2006. / Commercial polyolefins degrade under the influence of light, heat, chemical and mechanical factors. They are therefore stabilised to ensure that they maintain performance characteristics during their service life. Degradation results in changes in the molar mass, molar mass distribution, chemical composition and chemical composition distribution. Classical analytical techniques only provide averaged values of these properties. Much information is available in the open literature on the changes in molar mass, molar mass distribution and chemical composition of polypropylene upon degradation, but no information was available on the changes in chemical composition distribution (CCD) during degradation. This study describes the use of the following analytical techniques to study this: temperature rising elution fractionation (TREF), crystallisation analysis fractionation (CRYSTAF) and coupled size exclusion chromatography-Fourier transform infrared analysis (SEC-FTIR). The CRYSTAF results complimented those obtained by classical techniques: there was a broadening of the crystallisation peak (CCD), an increase in the soluble fraction and a decrease in crystallisation temperatures. SEC-FTIR analysis showed that most of the degraded products were concentrated in the low molar mass regions. TREF analysis was used to separate a degraded sample into fractions of different degrees of degradation. It was then possible to study the spatial heterogeneity in a thick, degraded polypropylene sample using SEC, FTIR and CRYSTAF. The degradation behaviour of selected Sasol propylene-1-pentene random copolymers was investigated. CRYSTAF, SEC-FTIR and TREF analyses provided information on the thermo-oxidative degradation behaviour differences between unstabilised polypropylene homopolymers and these propylene-1-pentene copolymers. It was found that the pentene copolymers degraded significantly faster compared to the homopolymers, even at low levels of pentene (< 3%). The reduction in stability was virtually linear with an increase in pentene content (up to 8 mol% pentene), indicating that higher levels of primary stabilisers are needed to ensure similar life spans for the Sasol propylene-1-pentene copolymers. The extrusion stability of the propylene-1-pentene copolymers was, however, similar to that of the polypropylene homopolymers, indicating that similar processing stabiliser packages may be used.

Structure/property relationships of commercial propylene/1-pentene random copolymers

Lutz, Marietjie 03 1900 (has links)
Thesis (PhD (Chemistry and Polymer Science))--University of Stellenbosch, 2006. / Propylene/1-pentene random copolymers are a relatively new family of random copolymers being prepared by Sasol Polymers and reveals high impact strength, good tensile properties, excellent optical properties, good rheological properties and a large pool of processing possibilities. These commercial copolymers are being prepared with stereospecific heterogeneous Ziegler-Natta catalytic systems containing multiple active sites and therefore producing copolymers with a varying degree of stereoregularity. Two different groups of propylene/1-pentene random copolymers were received by Sasol Polymers and investigated in this project. The first group (Group 1, Polymers A - F) consisted of six totally different batches of commercial propylene/1-pentene copolymers which were produced by different catalyst systems. All had different melt flow indices (MFIs) and different 1-pentene contents and all of the copolymers, except for one, were nucleated. The second group (Group 2, Polymers G - J) were produced by the same catalyst, but with varying donor:catalyst ratios and also differing in their 1-pentene content. Investigation of the Group 1 copolymers was used in order to construct a “molecular toolbox” which was then used to study the Group 2 copolymers. The original commercial copolymers were all studied by various analytical techniques: high-temperature carbon thirteen nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C-NMR), high-temperature gel permeation chromatoghraphy (HT-GPC), crystallization analysis fractionation (CRYSTAF), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). The random copolymers were all fractionated by preparative TREF and the fractions analyzed utilizing the following analytical techniques: 13C-NMR, HT-GPC, CRYSTAF and DSC. The results of these analyses were used to investigate inter alia the distribution of 1-pentene in the copolymers. In order to investigate the low molecular weight material of the copolymers, which were part of the room temperature fraction during TREF, solvent extractions were carried out using different solvents and different extraction techniques. A complete structural analysis study was carried out on the extracts. The percentages of xylene-solubles were also determined during the quantitative xylene extraction study of the copolymers. Characterization of the xylene non-soluble material was carried out using 13C-NMR, HT-GPC, CRYSTAF, DSC and WAXD in order to compare the properties of the unextracted copolymers with the material after removal of the xylene soluble fraction. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) was used as an alternative investigation method for the Group 1 copolymers and their XNS fractions in order to determine what type of information this novel analytical method could generate and how the results compared with those of previous PALS studies on poly-olefins. A new fractionation technique, preparative solution fractionation (SF), was developed and evaluated. The commercial propylene/1-pentene copolymers were fractionated using this novel technique, the fractions were analyzed by 13C-NMR, HT-GPC, CRYSTAF and DSC and the results were compared with previously existing fractionation methods, namely TREF and CRYSTAF. A final study was done on the random copolymers by blending one of the commercial Ziegler-Natta catalyzed propylene/1-pentene copolymers with a tailored, low 1-pentene content, metallocene propylene/1-pentene copolymer in different ratios. The blends were analyzed by molecular weight, thermal and crystal phase analysis in order to investigate the effect of the tailored, highly isotactic propylene/1-pentene copolymer on the properties the commercial random copolymers. Throughout the project the influence of the 1-pentene as well as the donor:catalyst ratio on the copolymers was investigated. This study, in its entirety, therefore allow a better understanding of the effects that the commercial, heterogeneous, transition metal catalysts have on the make up of the copolymers and, by extension, the ultimate properties of the materials.

The structure-property relationships of polyolefins

Harding, Gareth 03 1900 (has links)
Thesis (PhD (Chemistry and Polymer Science))--University of Stellenbosch, 2009 / Polypropylene is an extremely versatile material and has a broad spectrum of applications due to the variations in properties which are possible with this material. The variations in the properties of the material are governed by the microstructure of the chains constituting the polymer. The microstructure varies according to the production methods, i.e. the polymerisation conditions. Varying the manner in which the polymer is produced therefore changes the properties of the material allowing the polymers’ use for different applications. The most important factor affecting the way in which the polymers are produced is the nature of the active sites on the catalyst. Changing the chemical environment of the active sites changes the way in which the polymerisation is controlled and greatly affects the types of chains produced and thus polymer properties. The study examines the structure-property relationships of polyolefins with specific focus on the polypropylene homopolymer. The temperature rising elution fractionation (TREF) technique is used extensively in order to isolate specific fractions of the polymer. The importance of specific TREF fractions is investigated via a two pronged investigative methodology. On the one hand specific TREF fractions are removed from a sample, allowing the analysis of the properties of the material without that specific fraction, thereby revealing the influence which the fraction in question has on the properties. The other branch of the study investigates the chemical modification of the active sites of a Ziegler-Natta catalyst so as to be able to modify the properties of the polymer in the reactor, in a similar manner to physically removing fractions. The techniques are related and it was discovered that the amount of the fractions of the polymer, found to be important using the one technique, also turned out to be important using the other method. Initial method development work utilised a polypropylene-1-pentene copolymer since the molecular heterogeneity of this material is such that large differences are observed upon removal of fractions. The technique was then applied to a Ziegler-Natta catalysed polypropylene homopolymer. Each TREF fraction is successively removed and the residual material analysed. Specific TREF fractions were found to play a significant role in determining the polymer properties since there was a drastic reduction in properties upon removal of these fractions. The polymerisation of propylene was also performed at a variety of conditions in order to investigate different ways in which the catalyst system could be modified. Specific reaction conditions were chosen for in-depth analysis and structure-property correlation. The chemical modification of the active sites was accomplished via the introduction of an external Lewis base (electron donor) to the polymerisation system, and also by varying the external donor/catalyst ratio used. Two different external donors were used during the study namely Diphenyl-dimethoxysilane (DPDMS) and methyl-phenyl-dimethoxysilane (MPDMS). It is observed that there are definite links between the amounts of specific fractions present in the polymer and the polymer properties, as observed via both the physical removal of fractions and the chemical modification of active sites.

New synthetic and characterization strategies for polyolefins

Luruli, Nyambeni 03 1900 (has links)
Thesis (PhD)--University of Stellenbosch, 2006. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Metalloxycarbene complexes [(CO)5M1=O(R)M2(Cl)L2] (M1 = Cr , W; M2 = Zr, Hf; L = Cp, Cp*) were synthesized from the reaction between anionic Fischer-type carbene complex salts [(CO)5M1=C(O)R][NEt4] and metallocene chlorides. The molecular and crystal structures of [(CO)5W=C(Me)OZr(Cp)2Cl], [(CO)5Cr=C(Me)OZr(Cp)2Cl] and [(CO)5W=C(Ph)OHf(Cl)Cp2] determined by X-ray methods, show a short Ccarbene-O and relatively long O-Zr and O-Hf separations. Metalloxycarbene complexes in the presence of MAO are active catalysts for homo- and copolymerization of -olefins and produce polymers with heterogeneous properties. 1-Pentene oligomers, homopolymers of ethylene and ethylene/1-pentene copolymers were successfully synthesized using metalloxycarbenes/MAO and the results obtained were critically compared with those synthesized with metallocene/MAO catalysts. The GC and GPC show that 1-pentene oligomers produced with both metalloxycarbenes and metallocenes catalysts range from simple dimers to more complicated high molecular weight (2 600 g/mol) products. The properties of polyethylene and ethylene/1-pentene copolymers were evaluated by, among others, GPC, SEC-FTIR, preparative molecular weight fractionation and HPer DSC. Generally the polymers obtained using metalloxycarbene/MAO catalysts have broad and bimodal molecular weight distributions. The copolymers have higher concentration of 1- pentene in the lower molecular weight fraction than those produced with metallocene/MAO as shown by SEC-FTIR. Consequently, HPer DSC shows a decrease of melting and crystallization temperature towards the low molecular weight fractions. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Metaaloksikarbeenkomplekse [(CO)5M1=C(R)OM2(Cl)L2] (M1 = Cr , W; M2 = Zr, Hf; L = Cp, Cp*] is gesintetiseer in die reaksie tussen anioniese Fischer-tipe karbeenkomplekssoute, [(CO)5M1=C(O)R][NEt4], en metalloseen dichloriedes. Die molekulêre- en kristalstrukture van [(CO)5W=C(Me)OZr(Cp)2Cl], [(CO)5Cr=C(Me)OZr(Cp)2Cl] en [(CO)5W=C(Ph)OHf(Cl)Cp2] bepaal deur X-straalkristallografiese metodes, toon die aanwesigheid van kort Ckarbeen-O- en relatief lang O-Zr- en O-Hf-bindings. Metaaloksikarbeenkomplekse, in die aanwesigheid van MAO, is aktiewe katalisatore vir die homo- en ko-polimerisering van α-olefiene en is verantwoordelik vir die vorming van polimere met heterogene eienskappe. 1-Penteen oligomere, homopolimere van etileen en etileen/1-penteen ko-polimere is suksesvol gesintetiseer met metaaloksikarbeenkomplekse/MAO en die resultate sodoende verkry, is krities vergelyk met produkte gesintetiseer vanuit metalloseen/MAO prekatalisatore. Die GC en GPC resultate toon dat die 1-penteen oligomere, geproduseer met beide metaaloksikarbeenkomplekse en metallosene, kan wissel van eenvoudige dimere tot meer komplekse, hoë molekulêre massa (2 600g/mol) produkte. Die polietileen en etileen/1- penteen ko-polimere is gekarakteriseer deur onder andere gevorderde, GPC, SEC-FTIR, preparatiewe molekulêre massa fraksionering en HPer DSC. In die algemeen het die polimere verkry met metaaloksikarbeen/MAO katalisatore, breë en bimodale molekulêre massaverspreidings. Die ko-polimere bevat hoër konsentrasies van 1-penteen in die lae molekulêre massa fraksie in vergelyking met dié gevorm vanuit metalloseen/MAO–gekataliseerde mengsels, soos aangedui deur SEC-FTIR-analise. HperDSC wys 'n verlaging in smelt- en kristallisasietemperature in die laer molekulêre massa fraksies.

Synthesis, polymerisation and characterisation of a novel olefin-modified acrylate monomer, 1-methyl-1-propyl-hexel acrylate

Mange, Siyabonga 03 1900 (has links)
Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2005. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Finding use for byproducts from the chemical industry holds many advantages for a country's economy. Synthesis of new monomers from such byproducts adds value to otherwise otherwise low-value material. The synthesis of a new olefin-modified acrylate monomer, 1-methyl-1-propyl-hexyl acrylate (1-MPHA), derived from 1-pentene, is reported. Homopolymerisation of the monomer 1-MPHA was carried out in both benzene and in toluene. The products of full-conversion of the homopolymer poly-(1-MPHA) were characterised by GPC, NMR, TGA and DMA. Kinetic studies of the homopolymerisation process of 1- MPHAwere also undertaken. The monomer 1-methyl-1-propyl-hexyl acrylate (1-MPHA) was copolymerised with methyl methacrylate (MMA). Samples obtained from full conversion copolymerisations at various 1-MPHAIMMAfeed ratios were characterised by GPC, NMR, TGA and DMA. Reactivity ratios of the two monomers were obtained from in situ 1H NMR kinetic studies. 1-MPHA was also copolymerised with vinyl acetate (VAc). Samples obtained from full conversion copolymerisation with a 1-MPHA content ranging from 2 to 16 wt% were characterised by GPC, NMR, TGA and DMA. The solubility parameter and the hydrophobicity of the VAc/1-MPHA copolymers were also determined. Reactivity ratios of the two monomers were obtained from in situ 1HNMR kinetic studies. Further copolymerisation studies with styrene and glycidyl methacrylate as comonomers were undertaken. The chemical analysis and thermogravimetric analysis of the copolymers are reported. In conclusion, the use of 1-methyl-1-propyl-hexyl acrylate as a comonomer results in a reduction in the glass transition temperature, better thermal stability, increased hydrophobicity with an insignificant loss in stiffness of the copolymers. These properties are due to the long and branched chain structure of the 1-MPHA monomer. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Gebruik van byprodukte van die chemiese nywerheid hou groot voordele in vir die land se ekonomie. Sintese van nuwe monomere vanuit sulke byprodukte dra by tot waardetoevoeging tot andersins lae-waarde byprodukte. Die sintese van 'n nuwe olefien-gewysigde akrilaatmonomeer afkomstig van 1-penteen, naamlik 1-metiel-1-propiel-heksielakrilaat (1-MPHA), word hier beskryf. Homopolimerisasie van die monomeer 1-MPHA is uitgevoer in beide benseen en tolueen. Die produkte van die volledige omskakeling van die homopolimeer is met behulp van GPC, KMR, TGA en DMA gekarakteriseer. Die reaksiekinetika van die homopolimerisasie van 1-MPHA is ook ondersoek. Die monomeer 1-MPHA is met metielmetakrilaat (MMA) gekopolimeriseer. Monsters van die volledig omgeskakelde kopolimere met verskeie 1- MPHNMMA voerverhoudings is m.b.v. GPC, KMR,' TGA en DMA gekarakteriseer. Die reaktiwiteitsverhoudings van die twee monomere is vanaf 1HKMR-studies bepaat. 1-MPHA is ook met vinielasetaat (VAc) gekopolimeriseer. Monsters van die produk van die volledige kopolimerisasie met 1-MPHA , met 'n inhoud van 2- 16 massa 0/0, is ook m.b.v. GPC, KMR, TGA en DMA gekarakteriseer. Die 1- MPHA het die hidrofobisiteit van VAc/1-MPHA aansienlik verhoog. Die reaktiwiteitsverhoudings van die twee monomere is vanaf in situ 1H KMRstudies bepaal. Verdere kopolimerisasiestudies met stireen en glisidielmetakrilaat as komonomere is onderneem. Chemiese- en termogravimetriese analises van die kopolimere is gedoen en gerapporteer. Ter afsluiting, die gebruik van 1-metiel-1-propiel-heksielakrilaat as komonomeer het 'n verlaging in die glasoorgangstemperatuur, verhoogde termiesestabiliteit, verhoogde hidrofobisiteit, en 'n klein verlies in die stewigheid (Eng. stiffness) van die kopolimeer tot gevolg. Hierdie eienskappe is as gevolg van die lang, vertakte kettingstruktuur van die 1-MPHA monomeer.

Directed synthesis of polymer mesostructures

Faul, C. F. J. (Charles Frederick James) 12 1900 (has links)
Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2000. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The objective of this research was to produce discrete, nano-shaped polymeric structures on the same length scale as, or one to one copies of, templates, deformable templates or structure-directing hosts. Polymerisation of hydrophobic organic monomers in high concentration surfactant solutions, leads to the formation of shaped particles (rod-like, plank-like and ribbon-like particles) in the micrometer size range. The origin of these regularly shaped particles was investigated. It is proposed that they were not polymeric in nature, but formed by the crystallisation of the surfactant in the presence of electrolytes and ethanol as solvent. The polymeric particles that were formed were found to be of spherical shape, and no directing of the shape was detected. Mesostructured hosts were then investigated for their possible use as structure-directing agents. A series of polyelectrolyte-surfactant complexes of polydiallylammonium chloride with sodium sulphate surfactants (ranging from C10 to C16) were synthesised and characterised in terms of their thermal, mechanical and structural properties. The complex of polydiallylammonium chloride and sodium dodecyl sulphate was selected as an appropriate self-assembled model system for investigations into the structure-directing properties of these new materials. The polymerisation of hydrophobic organic monomers, such as styrene and the di-functional monomer m-diisopropenylbenzene (m-DIB), within the above mesoscopically structured polyelectrolyte-surfactant complex as host, lead to the formation of unconventionally shaped polymeric particles. The influence of the presence of monomers and guest polymers on the phase morphology of the host was investigated by small angle X-ray analyses (SAXS) and dynamic mechanical analyses (DMA). SAXS analyses showed that these new, stable hosts can hold up to 17 % guest polymer before phase disruption is encountered. These findings were supported by changes in the mechanical properties, as determined by DMA. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of particles obtained after polymerisation showed very clearly that the poly-(m-DIB) did not form a continuous copy of the 3D hexagonal structure of the host, but rather colloidal copies of a part of the host structure that swelled the most. The shapes of the polymer mesostructures were dictated by the morphology of the phase of the structure-directing host, to produce nanosized wires (dimensions 4 by 100 nm), cigar-shaped particles (dimensions 8 by 50 nm) and fibrillar bent shapes (larger than 200 nm), as revealed by TEM. According to literature these are the first shaped, polymer nano-particles produced in a soft, selfassembled, organic templating host. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die doel van hierdie navorsing was om diskrete, nano-gevormde polimeriese partikels van dieselfde lengteskaal as, of direkte een tot een kopië van, 'n templaat, 'n vervormbare of struktuur-rigtende gasheersisteem te produseer. Die polimerisasie van hidrofobiese organiese monomere in seep oplossings van hoë konsentrasie, het gelei tot die produksie van gevormde partikels. Die oorsprong van hierdie partikels is ondersoek. Dit word voorgestel dat die partikels nie polimeries van aard is nie, maar gevorm is deur die kristallisasie van die seep in die teenwoordigheid van elekotroliete en etanol as oplosmiddel. Die polimeriese partikels wat wel geproduseer is, was sferies in vorm, en geen rigtende invloed op die vorm van die partikels is waargeneem nie. Meso-gestruktureerde gasheersisteme is ook ondersoek vir moontlike gebruik as struktuur-rigtende agente. 'n Reeks poliëlektroliet-seep komplekse van polidiallielammoniumchloried en natriumsulfaat sepe (van C10 tot C16) is gesintetiseer en gekarakteriseer in terme van hul termiese, meganiese en strukturele eienskappe. Die kompleks van polidiallielammoniumchloried en natrium dodekielsulfaat is gekies as 'n toepaslike self-organiserende modelsisteem vir die ondersoeke na die struktuur-rigtende eienskappe van hierdie nuwe materiale. Polimerisasie van hidrofobiese organiese monomere, soos byvoorbeeld stireen en die di-funksionele monomeer m-di-isopropenielbenseen (m-DIB), in hierdie mesoskopies-gestruktureerde poliëlektroliet-seep kompleks, het gelei tot die vorming van nie-konvensionele gevormde polimeriese partikels. Die invloed van die teenwoordigheid van monomere en gaspolimere op die fasemorfologie van die gasheersisteem is ondersoek d.m.v. kleinhoek X-straal diffraksie (Eng. SAXS) en dinamiese meganiese analise (DMA). SAXS analises het aangetoon dat hierdie nuwe, stabiele gasheersisteem tot 17 % gaspolimeer kan inkorporeer voordat fasevernietiging plaasvind. Hierdie resultate is verder ondersteun deur veranderinge in die meganiese eienskappe soos waargeneem deur DMA. Transmissie elektronmikroskopie (TEM) afbeeldinge van partikels geïsoleer na polimerisasie het baie duidelik gewys dat, in die geval van poli-(m-DIB), die gaspolimeer nie 'n kontinue kopie van die drie dimensionele heksagonale struktuur van die gasheersisteem produseer nie. Daar word eerder 'kolloïdale kopieë' van dele van die gasheersisteem wat die meeste swel gevorm. Die vorms van die polimeer mesostrukture word dus bepaal deur die morfologie van die fase van die struktuur-rigtende gasheer, om nanogrootte draadjies (dimensies 4 x 100 nm), sigaarvormige partikels (8 x 50 nm) en fibrillêre gebuigde vorms (groter as 200 nm) te vorm, soos waargeneem met TEM. Volgens die literatuur is hierdie die eerste geval van gevormde polimeer nanopartikels geproduseer in 'n self-organiserende templaat gasheersisteem.

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