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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

Dyskinesia : An analysis of abnormal involuntary movement types among white psychiatric inmates of Town Hill Hospital, Pietermaritzburg.

Dunn, John Anthony. January 1985 (has links)
An overview of the varied clinico-neurological features of dyskinesias in general is presented, and literature an the epidemiology af tardive dyskinesia since the introduction of antipsychotic drugs in 1950, reviewed. Furthermore reasons for the wide variations in previously published prevalence figures have been critically highlighted, and suggestions based upon the current state of clinical and experimental knowledge put forward concerning the pathogenesis of drug induced movement disorders. The type and prevalence of abnormal or purposeless involuntary movements has been surveyed among a large sample of long term White patients resident in Town Hill Hospital for a period of not less than 4 years, mast af whom were either currently receiving or had received neuroleptic medication. This sample comprised 190 men and 98 women whose ages ranged from the third to the ninth decade. Patients manifesting abnormal movements were grouped into 5 general diagnostic categories for analysis viz. schisophrenic disorders, affective disorders, organic brain disorders and syndromes, defective mental development and discrete neurological disorder. The movements were clinically classified in terms cf the areas of the body involved and semi quantitatively measured according to a standardised duration rating scale procedure. Involuntary movements were noted to be present in a total o-f 83 patients examined, most o-f which were adjudged to correspond to the syndrome currently termed 'tardive dyskinesia'. Subtype analysis o-f movement distribution indicated that 277. of cases manifested classical oro-facial dyskinesia while 527. showed body dyskinesia o-f the type designated ' pseudaakathisia'; the balance o-f the patients presented combinations o-f the two types. Schizophrenic disorders constituted the commonest diagnostic category in the dyskinesia group up to the fifth decade. Functionally obtrusive involuntary movements were observed in only some 77. of the patients with dyskinesia. Prevalence overall was equal between the sexes, and no correlations were discerned between age, sex, diagnosis or dyskinesia subtype of cases and the rating scores obtained. Prevalence rates obtained by this survey are favourably low by comparison with many results of overseas investigators, and are similar in this respect to figures reported in the very few prevalence studies carried out to date in South African institutions. / Thesis (M.Med.)-University of Natal, Durban, 1985.

An Investigation into dopamine function in bipolar and unipolar primary affective disorders measuring prolactin when challenged by chlorpromazine and L-Dihydroxyphenylalanine.

Hart, George Allan Desmond. January 1986 (has links)
This work is the result of an investigation into aspects of prolactin and dopamine in primary affective disorders. It is introduced by a discussion on the need for obtaining good scientific data on the organic and psychosocial aspects of psychiatric illness, and in particular, primary affective disorders. A short perspective of the history of depressive illness preceeds the review of relevant scientific literature on primary affective disorder. The literature survey covers aspects which indicate organic causal factors as well as viewing numerous organic studies which are thought to be relevant to this investigation. The role of dopamine in motor behaviour is considered in some detail. Psychopharmacological evidence that the mesolimbic and nigrostriatal dopaminergic systems are involved in motor regulation is reviewed. The role of dopamine receptors in motor behaviour is important to the conceptual framework of this thesis. Dopamine D 2 and D 1 receptors are considered and the opposing roles of these receptors is thought to be significant. Drugs affecting manic and depressive phases of primary affective disorders are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on dopaminergic aspects of various drugs in primary affective disorders as with pimozide as an antimanic agent, and nomifensine as an antidepressant. The possible role of noradrenaline in learning and mood regulation and in the dialogue with dopamine is looked at from an experimental and clinical point of view. Dopaminergic control of prolactin is reviewed and in particular the nature of the D4 receptor. The fact that these receptors which are on the pituitary mammotrophs have similarities to the D2 receptors is relevant. Thus considerable commonality exists between the dopaminergic regulation of motor behaviour and regulation of prolactin. Prolactin is used as an index of dopamine function in patients with primary affective disorders. Motor behaviour is strongly influenced by affective disorders.The central theme of the study itself was to indirectly evaluate dopamine function in primary affective disorder by measuring prolactin levels. As strong tonic inhibition is exerted by dopamine on prolactin, a series of challenges to the dopamine system was decided upon in order to generate a number of serum prolactin values. A dopamine agonist L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (indirect) and an antagonist, chlorpromazine, were used to stress the system mildly. The procedure was carried out under standard conditions both in the illness phase and upon significant recovery. Both these investigations were conducted in a drug-free state. The data generated was subjected to statistical analysis. The results of the analysis suggests that prolactin levels are low in depressed patients, and increase upon recovery, while manic patients have elevated levels which decrease with recovery. The pattern of the curves obtained from the challenge procedure suggests a possible supersensitivity of dopamine receptors in the manic patients. Blunting of responses of depressed patients remains a possibility but a study against normal controls is required to further assess this aspect. Evidence is therefore found for altered prolactin levels in illness phases of primary affective disorders. This is thought to be due to an abnormality in the dopamine regulation of prolactin. A discussion on the possible mechanisms and significance of these changes involves Beta-endorphin in an attempt to tie motor changes to mood regulation. Shortcomings of the study and future implications and developments are considered. / Thesis (M.D.)-University of Natal, Durban, 1986.

Structural violence and schizophrenia : psychosocial, economic and cultural impacts on the onset of psychoses.

Burns, Jonathan Kenneth. January 2010 (has links)
Schizophrenia is a common and serious mental disorder affecting approximately 1% of the population (WHO, 1973). That genetic and other developmental factors give rise to a predisposition or vulnerability to schizophrenia is well recognized. However, the role of the environment in conferring risk for the disorder is now indisputable. Psychosocial, economic and cultural factors all impact on risk as evidenced by recent epidemiological studies reporting variable incidence in relation to factors including unemployment, urbanicity, migration and trauma. Complex gene-gene and gene-environment (GxE) interactions lie at the origin of this common human disorder and account for the diversity of epidemiological findings and clinical presentations that we encounter in research and clinical practice. This thesis comprises of six research papers and includes data from two separate studies of first-episode psychosis (FEP) conducted in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The first study (Chapter 2) explored the impact of income inequality and poverty on the incidence of FEP and the results provide the first evidence for an association between increasing income inequality and increased incidence of FEP. The second study (Chapter 3) investigated the impact of a number of psychosocial, economic and cultural factors on the clinical presentation of FEP. Previous experiences of trauma were associated with positive and affective symptoms at psychosis onset, while cannabis use was associated with clinical features of FEP that previously have been associated with better outcome. Cultural factors such as spiritual attributions of cause and previous consultation with traditional healers may delay entry to psychiatric care and thereby negatively impact on prognosis of FEP. Chapter 4 addresses the issue of how the environment acts through GxE interactions to modify risk and alter the clinical presentation and course of schizophrenia. In this paper, new epidemiological findings are integrated with an evolutionary genetic theory of schizophrenia. In Chapter 5, I present a human rights perspective on the inequities and inequalities that characterize the lives of those with serious mental disorders such as schizophrenia, resulting from psychosocial, political, economic and cultural forces in the environment. The concluding chapter draws all of the data together, highlights key findings and conclusions from the thesis, addresses weaknesses and limitations of these conclusions and identifies priority areas for future research in this field. / Thesis (Ph.D.)-University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, 2010.

A study of the characteristics of crimes committed by mentally ill offenders.

Boyes, Sharon Wynne. January 1992 (has links)
There is ongoing controversy concerning the relationship between crime, violence and mental illness. Studies from the first half of the century reported low arrest rates amongst the mentally ill. However recent researchers have suggested an increase in crime amongst the mentally ill since the advent of deinstitutionalisation, while other studies have implicated social factors, inadequate community facilities and prior criminality to account for this apparent trend. A longitudinal prospective and descriptive study was therefore planned to investigate the relationship between crime and mental illness. All consecutive admissions to the Midlands Hospital Observation Unit during a six month period were included in this study. Relevant information was obtained from personal interviews by the author and from court records. The final study sample consisted of those in whom a final finding was made in terms of Section 78(2) of the Criminal Procedures Act 51 of 1977. The significant findings were: DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS. The majority of mentally ill offenders were young males in the age range 20-29 years. CHARACTERISTICS OF CRIMES COMMITTED BY MENTALLY ILL OFFENDERS. The majority of mentally ill offenders were apprehended for property offences, theft being most common. Chi square analysis produced the following statistically significant findings pertaining to mentally ill offenders: 1. Mentally ill offenders committed significantly more property offences. Crimes were significantly less dangerous and less physically violent. 2. Fewer crimes involved use of a weapon. 3. Significantly more crimes were seemingly without a motive or in response to an hallucination or delusion. 4. Offences were seldom planned. 5. Crimes were more visible, most occurring during the day, with little attempt made to conceal the act. In conclusion most mentally ill offenders committed commonplace offences which due to their greater visibility may have predisposed them being channelled through the criminal justice system. Investigation revealed a need for further research into this controversial sub-group of mentally ill patients. / Thesis (M.Med.)-University of Natal, Durban, 1992.

Symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder

Lochner, Christine 12 1900 (has links)
Thesis (PhD (Psychiatry))--University of Stellenbsoch, 2005. / Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a neuropsychiatric condition characterized by significant heterogeneity. It has been suggested that classification of OCD into more homogeneous subtypes, and identification of their associations with etiological factors (e.g. genetic variants, or psychological trauma), and outcome (e.g. disability and treatment response), may be useful. The identified subtypes are not definitive yet and continue to be subject to revision. The overall objective of this dissertation was to assess comprehensively a sample of OCD patients, and to use cluster analytic methods to delineate valid OCD subtypes. Methods: Patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for a primary diagnosis of OCD (N=261) on the Structured Clinical Interview for Axis I Disorders - Patient Version (SCID-I/P), with ages ranging from 16 to 71, took part in the study. The newly developed Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnosis of putative Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders (SCIDOCSD) was administered to assess OCD-related conditions not covered by the SCID-I/P. OCD subtyping, based on OCD symptomatology (assessed with the Yale-Brown Obsessive- Compulsive Symptom Checklist [YBOCS-CL]), and based on comorbidity with the OCD spectrum of disorders (assessed with the SCID-OCSD), proceeded along the following lines: Firstly, latent class cluster analysis (LCA), a categorical analogue to traditional factor analysis (FA), and with many advantages compared to FA, was implemented with the (nine) most frequently endorsed OC symptoms. Secondly, in an attempt to remedy some of the limitations of the LCA (e.g. increased potential for computational instability when additional indicators / symptoms were included), cluster analyses (Ward’s method) were performed on all of the items of the YBOCS-CL and SCID-OCSD, respectively, for all OCD patients. The associations of cluster scores with demographic variables (age, gender), clinical variables (age of onset, obsessive-compulsive symptom severity and dimensions, level of insight, temperament, childhood trauma, treatment response) and genotypes were then examined, using Spearman correlation coefficients, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Mann- Whitney U-tests, where appropriate. Results: The findings suggested that increased presentation of symptoms characteristic of each of the clusters of cases was associated with specific demographic and clinical characteristics, which substantiated the presence of distinct clinical subtypes of OCD. Cluster analysis of the 45 selected items of the YBOCS-CL in this sample of OCD patients identified 6 separate clusters; these clusters were labelled “Contamination fears / washing”, “Hoarding / collecting”, “Symmetry / ordering / counting / arranging / repeating”, “Sexual”, “Somatic, religious and diverse” and “Harm-related”. Increased presentation of symptoms characteristic of each of the clusters was associated with specific demographic, clinical and, in some cases, genetic characteristics. Of note, the findings indicated the L/L (met/met) genotype of COMT Val158Met polymorphism plays a major role in the increased manifestation of sexual, somatic, religious and diverse, and harm-related symptoms of OCD, as such contributing to the relatively limited data on OC symptom subtypes and genetics. However, the fact that the associated features did not clearly and uniquely differentiate clusters and that clusters were significantly correlated with one another suggested that the delineation of the OCD complex into OC symptom clusters is not the only way to approach the heterogeneity characteristic of OCD. Nevertheless, the significant comorbidity with OCSD’s in the identified clusters (e.g. tics associated with sexual obsessions / compulsions) highlighted the significant relationship of OCD with the OCSD’s. This again raised the question about the way in which the OCSD’s “fit” with the standard OC symptomatology outlined in the YBOCS-CL. A cluster analysis of OCSD’s in OCD patients identified a Tourette’s syndrome / tics subtype of OCD (part of the so-called “reward deficiency” cluster), as well as an impulsivity subtype, and a somatic subtype – each associated with specific clinical and demographic variables. Here, a significant relationship between the identified clusters and the investigated dopaminergic and serotonergic polymorphisms was not found, suggesting that variants in other genes in these systems should also be explored. Conclusion: The main finding was that OCD is indeed a heterogeneous disorder that may be subtyped into different symptom dimensions. The identified OCD subtypes with their associated features were to a large extent consistent with previously published data. However, in contrast to factor analysis, LCA provided a novel, appropriate and advantageous statistical analysis strategy for the data. Furthermore, to our knowledge, the attempt to classifiy OCD according to comorbid OCSD’s was the first cluster analysis based on a prospective comprehensive interview investigating a range of OCSD’s. As such, although the dimensional structure of OCD is still not entirely understood, the categorization of our OCD patients into different groups and the investigation of their respective features have gone beyond the literature and thus add another dimension to the increasing efforts to fully delineate OCD subtypes.

Investigating the molecular aetiology of Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and clinically-defined subsets of OCD

Hemmings, S.M.J. 03 1900 (has links)
Thesis (PhD (Psychiatry))-- Stellenbosch University, 2006. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), a debilitating psychiatric disorder, affects 2-3% of the general population, and represents a global health problem. Evidence from family studies suggests that genetic factors play a role in mediating disease development. However, the pattern of inheritance is not consistent with monogenic disorders, but is “genetically complex”. Case-control association analysis, which facilitates dissection of the genetic aetiology of complex disorders, has yielded many inconsistent results in OCD studies, making identification of predisposing alleles difficult. These discrepant findings can largely be attributed to inappropriate statistical methodology and the lack of OCD phenotypic resolution. Although classified as a single clinical entity according to structured algorithms, OCD probably represents a final common outcome of multiple underlying aetiologies. Thus, numerous clinical subtypes of the disorder have been proposed; these “intermediate” phenotypes may be more closely related to a particular genetic substrate than the higher order construct of OCD. Furthermore, although genes encoding serotonergic (5-HT) and dopaminergic components are most commonly investigated, it is likely that the behavioural manifestations of OCD are mediated by a broader network of interconnected neurotransmitter and signalling pathways. Consequently, the aim of the present study was two-fold: to address the factors that may have confounded previous genetic case-control association studies and to investigate the genetic aetiology of OCD phenotypes while accounting for these factors. Case and control individuals were drawn from the reportedly genetically homogeneous Afrikaner population. However, as no empirical evidence existed to support the absence of genetic substructure, which would confound genetic association studies, a Bayesian modelbased clustering algorithm (Structure), that groups individuals on the basis of observed genotype data, was employed to assess population stratification in both case and control Afrikaner subjects. OCD patients were clinically stratified by gender, symptom severity, age at onset, the presence of selected co-morbid disorders and the presence of selected symptom dimensions, to facilitate the identification of susceptibility genes more closely related with these subtypes. Candidate genes included those coding for components of the 5-HT (5-HT receptors 1Dβ, 2A, 2C and 6), dopaminergic (dopamine receptors 1, 2, 3 and 4, dopamine transporter and catechol-O-methyltransferase [COMT]), glutamatergic (glutamate receptor subunit 2B [GRIN2B]) and neurodevelopmental pathways (brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF] and homeobox 8 [HoxB8]), as well as previously uninvestigated genes (angiotensinconverting enzyme I, inositol-trisphosphate, phospholipase-C-gamma 1 and estrogen receptor alpha). The relationship between variants in these genes and OCD (or OCD subtypes) was investigated in a single locus and a haplotype context, while meta-analyses using published population-based case-control association data were also conducted. Significant associations noted between distinct COMT variants and OCD implicated COMT in the development of a genetically discrete, gender-dependant, early-onset, tic-related phenotype in males. Furthermore, investigations of variations in BDNF and GRIN2B point towards a genetically distinct, neurodevelopmental subtype of the disorder, mediated, in males at least, primarily by dysfunctions in BDNF. The striking gender dimorphism noted in these associations indicates the possibility of an epigenetic hormonal influence. Moreover, the significant association of polymorphisms within GRIN2B, in both a single locus and haplotype context, suggests the involvement of this gene in mediating a phenotypic subtype characterised by an early-onset, more severe form of the disorder. The present investigation forms part of ongoing research to elucidate genetic components involved in the aetiopathology of OCD and OCD-related subtypes. Such studies may pave the way towards more efficacious pharmacotherapeutic strategies, which will ease the suffering of individuals who are afflicted with this incapacitating condition. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Obsessiewe-kompulsiewe steuring (OKS) is 'n aftakelende psigiatriese siektetoestand wat 2- 3% van die algemene bevolking affekteer en 'n globale gesondheidsprobleem verteenwoordig. Familiestudies dui daarop dat genetiese faktore 'n rol in die ontwikkeling van hierdie siekte speel. Die patroon van oorerwing is egter nie verenigbaar met dié van monogeniese siektes nie, maar is geneties "kompleks". Geval-kontrole assosiasie-ontleding, wat die disseksie van die genetiese etiologie van komplekse siektes fasiliteer, het teenstrydige resultate in OKS gelewer en dit bemoeilik die identifikasie van predisponerende allele. Die teenstrydige bevindings kan grootliks aan ontoepaslike statistiese metodiek en die gebrek aan fenotipiese differensiasie in OKS toegeskryf word. Alhoewel dit volgens gestruktureer algoritmes as 'n enkele kliniese entiteit geklassifiseer word, verteenwoordig OKS waarskynlik die eindresultaat van veelvoudige onderliggende oorsake. Baie kliniese subtipes van die toestand is al voorgestel en dié "intermediêre' fenotipes mag nader verwant aan 'n spesifieke genetiese substraat as die hoër orde konsep van OKS wees. Verder, alhoewel die gene wat die serotonergiese (5-HT) en dopaminergiese komponente kodeer meestalondersoek word, is dit waarskynlik dat die gedragsmanifestasies van OKS deur 'n breër netwerk van intergekonnekteerde neuro-oordragstof- en seinoordragpaaie meegebring word Gevolglik was die doel van die huidige studie tweevoudig: om faktore wat vorige genetiese geval-kontrole assossiasie-studies verwar het aan te spreek en om die genetiese etiologie van OKS-fenotipes te ondersoek met in ag neming van hierdie faktore. Geval- en kontrole-individue is gekies uit die Afrikaner-bevolking wat as geneties homogeen beskryf kan word. Daar was geen empiriese bewyse vir die afwesigheid van 'n genetiese substruktuur (wat genetiese assossiasie-studies sou verwar),nie. Daarom is 'n Bayesiese model-gebaseerde groeperings-algoritme (Structure), wat individue op grond van waargenome genotipiese data groepeer, gebruik om die populasie-stratifikasie is beide gevalen kontrole- Afrikaner-individue te bepaal. OKS-pasiënte is klinies gestratifiseer volgens geslag, ernstigheid van simptome, ouderdom by aanvang van simptome, die teenwoordigheid van geselekteerde komorbiede siektetoestande en die teenwoordigheid van geselekteerde simptoomdimensies of -groepe, om die identifikasie van moontlike vatbaarheidsgene wat nader verwant is aan die verskillende subtipes te fasiliteer/vergemaklik. Kandidaatgene het ingesluit: dié wat kodeer vir komponente van die 5-HT-(5-HT reseptore IDB, 2A, 2C and 6), dopaminergiese (dopamienreseptore 1, 2, 3 and 4, dopamien-transporter and katesjol-O-metieltransferase [COMTJ), glutamatergiese (glutamaat-reseptor subeenheid 2B [GRIN2B]) and neuro-ontwikkelingspaaie (brein-gederiveerde neurotrofiese faktor [BDNF] en homeobox 8 [HoxB8]), sowel as die gene wat nie voorheen ondersoek is nie (angiotensien-omsettingsensiem I, inositol-trisfosfaat, fosfolipase-C-gamma 1 en estrogeen-reseptor alpha). Die verhouding tussen variante in hierdie gene en OKS (of OKS-subtipes) is ondersoek in 'n enkel-lokus en haplotipe konteks, en meta-analises, wat gepubliseerde bevolkings-gebaseerde geval-kontrole ontledingsdata gebruik het, is ook gedoen. Beduidende assosiasies gevind tussen spesifieke COMT-variante en OKS in mans, het daarop gedui dat COMT in die ontwikkeling van geneties-diskrete, vroeë-aanvang, senutrekking ("tics") -verwante fenotipe in mans betrokke is. Verder het ondersoeke van variasies in BDNF en GRIN2B daarop gedui dat 'n geneties-afsonderlike, neuro-ontwikkelings-subtipe van.OKS wat, ten minste in mans, primêr deur wanfunksie van BDNF meegebring word. Die opvallende geslags verskil wat in hierdie assosiasies gesien word, dui op die moontlikheid van 'n epigenetiese hormonale invloed. Bowendien, die beduidende assosiasie van polimorfismes in GRIN2B in beide die enkel-lokus en haplotipe konteks, dui op die betrokkenheid van hierdie geen in die meebring van 'n fenotipiese subtipe wat deur 'n vroeë aanvang, en meer ernstige vorm van die siekte gekenmerk word. Die huidige ondersoek vorm deel van voortgesette navorsmg om die genetiese komponente wat betrokke is by die etiopatologie van OKS en OKS-subtipes, bloot te lê. Sodanige studies kan die weg baan na meer doeltreffende farmakoterapeutiese strategieë wat die lyding van indi vidue wat deur hierdie aftakelende toestand geraak word, kan verlig.

The neuropsychiatry and neuropsychology of Lipoid Proteinosis

Thornton, H. B. 12 1900 (has links)
Thesis (PhD (Psychiatry))--University of Stellenbosch, 2006. / Lipoid Proteinosis (LiP) is a rare hereditary disease, which often results in bilateral, symmetrical and circumscribed calcifications in the mesial temporal region (especially the amygdala). While several case studies have been published on individuals with this illness, there have been few systematic investigations of the neuropsychiatry and neuropsychology of a series of patients. Thirty-seven LiP patients were extensively assessed with standardized neuropsychiatric and neuropsychological measures. Of these, 27 patients from the Northern Cape in South Africa were matched (for age, gender, education, language, geographical area) with 53 controls. There was a high incidence of neuropsychiatric disorders in LiP (more than half of the subjects reported a history of depression or anxiety and 12% had a diagnosis of schizophrenia). Despite a wide variance, LiP subjects performed poorly on facial recognition for emotions and on most neuropsychological measures including intelligence, recall and executive functioning. These findings are consistent with involvement of the mesial temporal areas in mood, anxiety, and psychotic symptoms, and in the cognitive-affective processes. Future work aimed at delineating the associations between the clinical and neuropsychological findings reported here, for example, with brain-imaging techniques, is needed.

Alcohol Induced Psychotic Disorder: a comparitive study in patients with alcohol dependance, schizophrenia and normal controls

Jordaan, Gerhard, Emsley, R. A. 12 1900 (has links)
Thesis(DMed (Psychiatry))-- University of Stellenbosch, 2007. / Alcohol-induced psychotic disorder (also known as alcohol hallucinosis) is a complication of alcohol abuse that requires clinical differentiation from alcohol withdrawal delirium and schizophrenia. Although extensively described, few studies utilized standardized research instruments and brain-imaging has thus far been limited to case reports. The aim of this study was to prospectively compare four population groups (ie. patients with alcohol-induced psychotic disorder, schizophrenia, uncomplicated alcohol dependence and a healthy volunteer group) according to demographic, psychopathological and brainimaging variables utilizing (i) rating scales and (ii) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The third component of the study was designed to investigate the (iii) effect of anti-psychotic treatment on the psychopathology and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) before and after six weeks of treatment with haloperidol. Effort was made to ensure exclusion of comorbid medical disorders, including substance abuse. The study provides further supportive evidence that alcohol-induced psychotic disorder can be distinguished from schizophrenia. Statistically significant differences in rCBF were demonstrated between the alcohol-induced psychotic disorder and other groups. Changes in frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital, thalamic and cerebellar rCBF showed statistically significant negative correlations with post-treatment improvement on psychopathological variables and imply dysfunction of these areas in alcohol-induced psychotic disorder. The study was unable to distinguish between pharmacological effects and improvement acccomplished by abstinence from alcohol. / Stellenbosch: Stellenbosch University

Validation of a rating scale for bedside cognitive assessment

Roos, Annerine 04 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MMed)--University of Stellenbosch, 2004. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Numerous tests exist for the assessment of general cognitive functioning. Most of these tests were developed within the discipline of psychology. Neuropsychological tests are very useful, but have some limitations. Administration of the tests is limited to a psychologist, is very timeconsuming in that it can take 3-8 hours to administer and often need specialized equipment. At the other end of the continuum are very brief screening tests. General practitioners, psychiatrists and occupational therapists, in addition to psychologists, also use these tests. Although useful, the short tests only provide limited information. An intermediate level test streamlining the assessment process between the very short and longer neuropsychological tests is therefore introduced by this study. The Bedside Cognitive Assessment Battery (BCAB) was developed in 1995 and are since used, at Tygerberg Hospital's Memory Clinic, to assess patients and teach students. The test comprehensively assesses the six main classes of cognitive functioning, namely attention and concentration, speech, memory, motor functioning, perceptual functioning and executive functioning. Approximately 35-45 minutes is required for administration and training is needed to administer the BCAB. No specialized equipment is needed for administration. The battery can therefore be used at the bedside, in the office or at old age homes. The aims of this study were to validate the BCAB for use with people aged eighteen years and older, and provide normative values for use in clinical settings. The test was revised in 1997 and 2001, and extensively so in 2002, but was never formally evaluated for validity. Well-known single tests were used to compile the BCAB. Most of these tests have proven validity and reliability, but only for foreign populations. In addition, some items were reformulated and others created by the researchers. The introduction of normative values would also be useful to assist in the delineation of cognitively intact and impaired individuals. This study succeeded in providing a table of normative values. One-hundred-and-sixty Afrikaans and English participants, and fourteen Xhosa participants were assessed in their mother tongue language. This project thus also introduced a Xhosa version of the BCAB. The purpose of the Xhosa version was to address the lack of culturally relevant cognitive assessment instruments. Results were evaluated for the effects of the variables' language, gender, age and education. The effect of language was most noticeable in the Xhosa group. Gender did not affect results as dramatically as age and especially, education. These significant effects on the aforementioned variables have been described in previous reports. The BCAB is thus relevant and useful as a detector of mild to moderate impairment. It can also be used to identify specific impairment. This can narrow down the investigation of psychologists, thus saving time and money. In addition, medical and nonmedical staff can use the BCAB. Some limitations were also identified. The sample used may limit the generalization of results. Some test items also need revision, along with further validation studies. Clinicians are therefore advised to use the BCAB only in addition to complete clinical examinations when making decisions regarding a patient's cognitive status. The BCAB appears to be a valid tool for bedside assessment. However, this study could only set the stage for further research, especially studies concerned with establishing normative values. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Verskeie toetse bestaan vir die evaluering van algemene kognitiewe funksionering, waarvan die meeste ontwikkel is binne die sielkunde. Neuro-sielkundige toetse is baie bruikbaar, maar het sekere beperkings. Administrasie van die toetse is beperk tot sielkundiges, maar tydrowend weens 'n tydsduur van drie tot agt uur, en verg dikwels gespesialiseerde toerusting. Aan die ander kant is heelwat kart siftings-toetse beskikbaar. Aigemene praktisyns, sielkundiges en arbeidsterapeute, asook sielkundiges, gebruik dit. Hoewel bruikbaar, bied die kart toetse beperkte inligting. 'n lntermediere vlak toets om die evaluerings-proses tussen kart en langer neuro-sielkundige toetse te integreer word met hierdie studie beoog. Die Bedkant Kognitiewe Evaluasie Battery (BKEB) is in 1995 ontwikkel en gebruik in die Geheue-kliniek van die Tygerberg Hospitaal om pasiente te evalueer en studente op te lei. Die toets is gerig op die omvattende evaluering van die ses hoof-klasse van kognitiewe funksionering. Hierdie klasse omvat aandag en konsentrasie, spraak, geheue, motoriese funksionering, perseptuele funksionering en uitvoerende funksionering. Sowat 35 tot 45 minute word benodig vir administrasie terwyl opleiding vereis word vir die neem van die toets. Geen gespesialiseerde toerusting is nodig nie. Die battery kan dus by die bedkant, in die kantoor of in ouetehuise gebruik word. Die doelwitte van hierdie studie is om die BKEB te evalueer in gebruik by 18-jariges en ouer, en normatiewe waardes te bepaal vir gebruik in kliniese omgewings. Die toets is in 1997 en 2001 hersien. In 2002 is dit uitvoerig hersien, maar nooit ge-evalueer vir geldigheid nie. Bekende enkel-toetse is gebruik am die BKEB saam te stel. Dit is as geldig en betroubaar bewys, hoewel slegs onder buitelandse bevolkingsgroepe. Hierbenewens is sekere items herformuleer en ander bygewerk deur die navorsers. Normatiewe waardes sal oak handig wees in die afbakening van kognitief normaal-funksionerende en kognitief-ingekorte individue. Hierdie studie het daarin geslaag am 'n tabel van normatiewe waardes daar te stel. Een-honderd-en-sestig Afrikaans- en Engels-sprekendes, en 14 Xhosa-sprekendes is tydens hierdie studie in hulle moedertaal ge-evalueer. Hierdie projek het dus oak 'n Xhosaweergawe van die BKEB geskep. Die doel van die Xhosa-weergawe was am die gebrek aan 'n kultureel toepaslike kognitiewe instrument te beklemtoon. Resultate is ge-evalueer gedagtig aan veranderlikes soos taal, geslag, ouderdom en opleidingsvlak. Taal het die grootste invloed gehad op uitslae van Xhosa-deelnemers. Geslag het nie die uitslae so dramaties bernvloed soos ouderdom, en veral opleidingsvlak nie. Literatuur het meestal die groot uitwerking van hierdie veranderlikes bevestig. Die BKEB is dus relevant en handig in die naspeuring van ligte tot matige kognitiewe ingekortheid. Dit kan ook gebruik word om spesifieke kognitiewe ingekortheid te identifiseer. Die kan die omvang van ondersoek deur sielkundiges vernou, wat kan lei tot In groot besparing in tyd en geld. Hierbenewens kan mediese en nie-mediese personeel aangewend word in die gebruik van die BKEB. Sekere tekortkominge is ge·,dentifiseer. Die steekproef mag egter die veralgemening van die uitslae beperk. Sekere toets-items mag ook hersiening vereis, tesame met verdere geldigheid-studies. Kliniese praktisyns word daarom aangeraai om die BKEB slegs in aanvulling tot omvattende kliniese ondersoeke te gebruik vir besluite m.b.t. In pasient se kognitiewe status. Die BKEB kom voor as In geldige instrument vir bedkant evaluering. Hierdie studie kon egter slegs die tafel dek vir verdere ondersoek, veral t.o.v. studies wat poog om normatiewe waardes daar te stel.

A Cultural study of auditory hallucinations in psychotic Indian males from the Durban area.

Kajee, Abdool Haq Suleman. January 1985 (has links)
The aim of this project was to study the phenomenology of auditory hallucinations in Indians. The sample investigated consisted of thirty adult Indian males domiciled in the Durban area, attending neuroclinics, who had been diagnosed as having suffered from a psychosis and who had experienced auditory hallucinations. The patients were examined by the author and in addition relevant data was extracted from their case files. This included religion, previous diagnosis, age at onset of illness and present age, mother tongue, language of daily usage, language of hallucinations, source of hallucinations, comprehensibi1ity of hallucinations, content of hallucinations, patient's initial reaction to hallucinations, time when hallucinations were experienced, media of transmission, direction of voices and whether the patient had consulted a traditional healer. The findings were that a significant majority of patients: 1) described their hallucinations as being voices coming from supernatural beings (84%). 2) did not attribute their hallucinations to being voices belonging to their deceased ancestors (88%). 3) did not attribute their hallucinations to voices which were being relayed by technical transmitting apparatuses (88%) . 4) diagnosed as suffering from schizophrenia initially, found their hallucinations to be distressful (89%) whereas 80% of the patients diagnosed as suffering from manic depressive psychosis found their hallucinations to be pleasant. 5) did not ascribe their hallucinations to animals (100%). 6) had visited a traditional healer (100%). Hallucinations were generally thought by the majority of patients to have occurred as a result of being possessed by spirits and that the possession had occurred following some "evil" done to them by enemies, rivals, or other persons who wanted the patient to come to harm. Their belief in spirits was derived both from religion and from folk-lore. Its connection with auditory hallucinations arose from the notion that evil spirits can invade human beings causing abnormal behaviour and also symptoms of mental illness including auditory hallucinations. All the patients had visited traditional healers presumably to exorcise the spirits that had possessed them. The Durban Indian community has been reported to be a deculturing community with many of its members adopting Western cultural attitudes and values. The following factors (religion, language grouping, and beliefs derived from folk-lore), specific to Indian culture, appear to have an important influence in shaping some aspects of the phenomenology of auditory hallucinations of psychotic Indian males. / Thesis (M.Med.)-University of Natal, Durban, 1985.

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