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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

"We Just Built It|" Code Enforcement, Local Politics, and the Informal Housing Market in Southeast Los Angeles County

Wegmann, Jacob Anthony George 24 July 2015 (has links)
<p> This dissertation is an exploration of the role of informality in the housing market in southeast Los Angeles County. While informality has long been the subject of scholarship in cases from the Global South, and increasingly in the United States, examinations of <i>housing</i> informality in the US thus far have largely been situated in rural and peri-urban areas. This work seeks to interrogate informality in housing processes unfolding within the very heart of northern North America's leading industrial metropolis. </p><p> After a brief preface, the dissertation's second chapter reviews literature on various aspects of informality and on <i>Accessory Dwelling Units, </i> or additions or conversions of living quarters on residential properties. Chapter 3 introduces the work's methodological pillars, and describes the four major, mixed methods relied upon. These are a survey of code enforcement officers; interviews and direct observation; and analyses of rental and property sales markets. Two other, minor, methods employed are an analysis of building footprints and the analysis of secondary data. </p><p> Chapter 4 introduces the single case used in the dissertation. This is a group of 14 communities, with a total population of 700,000, that are collectively referred to via the neologism <i>City of Gateway.</i> Next follows a historical overview of the area. Following a discussion of the 1965 Watts riots as a historical watershed, trends in the City of Gateway's economy and population that have driven a dramatic <i>informalization</i> of the housing stock since that time are examined. </p><p> Chapter 5 describes the physical expression of the informal housing market in the City of Gateway, in seven extralegal modes that involve either the <i> conversion</i> of existing space or the <i>addition</i> of new space, and the tactics used to effect them. Chapter 5 closes with a quantification and discussion of the consequences of the characteristic urban form produced by the informal housing market, <i>horizontal density,</i> which is the addition of density by more intensively covering lots with buildings rather than building upwards. </p><p> Chapter 6 describes the "nuts and bolts" of the informal housing market. It presents evidence that extralegal rentals are, on balance, generally (though not always) cheaper for their occupants than formal market alternatives. It examines <i>presale ordinances</i> that some cities have passed to try to disrupt the informal housing market by intervening in the sale of residential property. It discusses the important role of appraisers in providing or denying mortgage credit to current or would-be homeowners with extralegal space. An analysis of property sales transactions provides evidence that extralegal space does not appear to be capitalized in property values. Finally, the chapter discusses barriers imposed by the current US mortgage system to financing the construction of rentable space on residential properties. </p><p> Chapter 7 is an examination of the role played by <i>code enforcement </i> in shaping the informal housing market in the City of Gateway. Specifically, it examines how code enforcement departments allocate their time and effort given that there are far more potential enforcement actions than their capacity allows. The chapter presents arguments that code enforcement reshapes the informal housing market while failing to suppress it; that it is applied unevenly; and that it paradoxically helps maintain the informal order of the informal housing market. </p><p> Chapter 8 begins by arguing that issues related to informal housing, when they are discussed at all in the local political sphere, tend to be filtered through the reductive frame of <i>law and order.</i> The chapter presents reasons for this state of affairs, both ones specific to the City of Gateway and others that are more general and potentially applicable to other places in the US. Chapter 8 closes with a summary of high-profile local debates in which informal housing's influence is considerable but rarely acknowledged: fair share housing, water and sewer utility capacity, parking, and school crowding. </p><p> The conclusion, Chapter 9, begins by assessing the positive and negative attributes of the informal housing system. A normative judgment is made that the former outweigh the latter, although the drawbacks are considerable and in need of urgent attention. A multiscalar palette of policy interventions intended to usefully and justly intervene in the informal housing system is put forth. Many of these are within the ambit of local government, but action in other spheres&mdash;in state and even federal government, and within the housing NGO sector&mdash;is needed. Next, lessons for advocates, policymakers, and researchers drawn from the broader implications of this dissertation are presented. After that follows a speculative discussion about the role of culture in comparison with economic necessity in driving the informal housing market in the City of Gateway. Next, informed speculation about the future of the City of Gateway's housing market is presented. The dissertation closes with a discussion of these trends' implications for the City of Gateway's continued existence as that increasingly rare of type of place, a working class enclave in the heart of a vast global metropolis.</p>

Planning for the Energy Transition: Solar Photovoltaics in Arizona

January 2018 (has links)
abstract: Arizona’s population has been increasing quickly in recent decades and is expected to rise an additional 40%-80% by 2050. In response, the total annual energy demand would increase by an additional 30-60 TWh (terawatt-hours). Development of solar photovoltaic (PV) can sustainably contribute to meet this growing energy demand. This dissertation focuses on solar PV development at three different spatial planning levels: the state level (state of Arizona); the metropolitan level (Phoenix Metropolitan Statistical Area); and the city level. At the State level, this thesis answers how much suitable land is available for utility-scale PV development and how future land cover changes may affect the availability of this land. Less than two percent of Arizona's land is considered Excellent for PV development, most of which is private or state trust land. If this suitable land is not set-aside, Arizona would then have to depend on less suitable lands, look for multi-purpose land use options and distributed PV deployments to meet its future energy need. At the Metropolitan Level, ‘agrivoltaic’ system development is proposed within Phoenix Metropolitan Statistical Area. The study finds that private agricultural lands in the APS (Arizona Public Service) service territory can generate 3.4 times the current total energy requirements of the MSA. Most of the agricultural land lies within 1 mile of the 230 and 500 kV transmission lines. Analysis shows that about 50% of the agricultural land sales would have made up for the price of the sale within 2 years with agrivoltaic systems. At the City Level, the relationship between rooftop PV development and demographic variables is analyzed. The relationship of solar PV installation with household income and unemployment rate remain consistent in cities of Phoenix and Tucson while it varies with other demographic parameters. Household income and owner occupancy shows very strong correlations with PV installation in most cities. A consistent spatial pattern of rooftop PV development based on demographic variables is difficult to discern. Analysis of solar PV development at three different planning levels would help in proposing future policies for both large scale and rooftop solar PV in the state of Arizona. / Dissertation/Thesis / Doctoral Dissertation Urban Planning 2018

Water provision beyond the private/public debate: a study of the water strategies of poor communities, water vendors, and the state in rapidly-changing urban India

Luxion, Mona January 2018 (has links)
No description available.

The Effects of Urban Containment Policies on Commuting Patterns

Kwon, Sung Moon 27 August 2015 (has links)
<p> During the past several decades, most U.S. metropolitan areas have experienced strong suburbanization of housing and jobs (i.e., urban sprawl). The sprawl that arises from urban growth has become a big issue in many metropolitan areas in the U.S. In response, there has been increased interest in urban containment policies. There are contrasting views (planning-oriented vs. market-oriented) of urban sprawl and urban containment policies. Planning-oriented scholars asserted the problems of `geographic sprawl (GS)' and the positive effects of urban containment polices, while market-oriented scholars asserted the problems of `economic sprawl (ES)' and the negative or negligible effects of urban containment policies. Therefore, this dissertation analyzed whether urban containment policies affect urban sprawl, employment center formation, and urban commuting. </p><p> The results of this dissertation indicate that urban containment policies play an important role in affecting urban sprawl, employment center formation, and urban commuting, as well as explaining the contrasting views (planning-oriented vs. market-oriented) of urban containment policies. Implementing urban containment policies can produce positive effects such as compact development, which can promote J-H balance. However, as seen in the relationship between urban containment policies, urban sprawl and housing values, stronger urban containment policies can produce negative effects, such as traffic congestion and an increase in housing prices.</p>

Child-Friendly Cities and Neighborhoods: An Evaluation Framework for Planners

January 2011 (has links)
abstract: The increasing isolation and segregation of children in American cities and suburbs is of special significance. This has meant a loss of freedom for children to explore their neighborhood and city as they get older, their exclusion from varied contacts with diverse adults in a variety of settings, and their consequent inability to learn from personal experience and observation, so essential to social and emotional development. The purpose of this study is to measure the differences in child-friendliness between neighborhoods with different income levels by developing an indicator framework that can be used by planning departments and other local authorities based on available data. The research also focus on what other factor (besides income) influences child-friendliness in a city at the neighborhood level. If a relationship does exist, how big is the difference in terms of child-friendliness between low-income and high-income neighborhoods, and what indicators play the most important role in creating the difference? Neighborhoods in the city of Glendale, Arizona serve as case studies to aid in refining the assessment method, and show the potential for how cities can become more child-friendly. The neighborhoods were selected based on income, same size and different location. / Dissertation/Thesis / M.U.E.P. Urban and Environmental Planning 2011

Are Dense Neighborhoods More Equitable? Evidence from King County, Washington

January 2014 (has links)
abstract: The aims of the study are to investigate the relationship between density and social equity. Social equity is an important social goal with regard to urban development, especially smart growth and sustainable development; however, a definition of the concept of social equity from an urban planning perspective was still lacking. In response to these deficiencies, the study used quantitative and qualitative methods and synthesized multiple social and spatial perspectives to provide guidance for density and social equity planning, community design, and public policy. This study used data for the area of King County, Washington to explore the empirical relationship between density and social equity at the neighborhood level. In examining access to several facilities, this study found that distances to parks and grocery stores were shorter than those to other facilities, such as the library, hospital, police station, and fire station. In terms of the relationship between density and accessibility, the results show that higher density is associated with better accessibility in neighborhoods. Density is also positively associated with both income diversity and affordable housing for low-income families. In terms of the relationship between density and crime, density is positively associated with violent crime, while density is negatively associated with property crime. The findings of this study can aid in the development and evaluation of urban policy and density planning aimed at promoting social benefits in urban space. Therefore, this study is useful to a range of stakeholders, including urban planners, policy makers, residents, and social science researchers across different disciplines. / Dissertation/Thesis / Ph.D. Geography 2014

Understanding the Urban Heat Impact of Proposed Changes to Urban Form in Cincinnati, Ohio Between 1907 and 1948

Morgan, Sarah January 2021 (has links)
No description available.

Spatial Differences in Flows and Costs of Residential Mortgage Capital during Boom and Bust in Ohio

Nagase, Daisuke January 2018 (has links)
No description available.

Retail Evolution: Return to the City

Noppenberger, Regan 25 July 2019 (has links)
No description available.

Immigrants Utilizing Parks in Columbus Ohio

Saleh , Safa January 2020 (has links)
No description available.

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