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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

The Effect of Ozonation in Reducing Trihalomethane Formation Potential

Lin, Simon H. 05 1900 (has links)
Trihalomethanes such as chloroform, dichlorobromomethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform are formed when natural water is chlorinated in water treatment. This investigation explores the use of ozone to remove organic precursors from natural water, thus decreasing trihalomethane formation potential. The data suggest a mechanism involving formation of secondary precursors after prolonged contact with ozone, suggesting that trihalomethane precursors may be minimized by using low doses of ozone and short contact time.
2

Generation and detection of ozone and hydroxyl radicals in water

Fung, Wai-kit., 馮偉傑. January 2003 (has links)
published_or_final_version / Chemistry / Master / Master of Philosophy
3

The electrogeneration of hydroxyl radicals for water disinfection.

Mangombo, Zelo January 2006 (has links)
<p>This study has shown that OH˙ radicals can be generated in an Fe/O2 cell from the electrode products via Fenton&rsquo / s reaction and used for water disinfection. The cell system in which the experiments were carried out was open and undivided and contained two electrodes with iron (Fe) as the anode and oxygen (O2) gas diffusion electrode. Typically, 100 ml of Na2SO4.10H2O (0.5M) solution was used as a background electrolyte. OH˙ radicals were produced in-situ in an acidic solution aqueous by oxidation of iron (II), formed by dissolving of the anode, with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The H2O2 was electrogenerated by reduction of oxygen using porous reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) as a catalyst.</p>
4

The electrogeneration of hydroxyl radicals for water disinfection.

Mangombo, Zelo January 2006 (has links)
<p>This study has shown that OH˙ radicals can be generated in an Fe/O2 cell from the electrode products via Fenton&rsquo / s reaction and used for water disinfection. The cell system in which the experiments were carried out was open and undivided and contained two electrodes with iron (Fe) as the anode and oxygen (O2) gas diffusion electrode. Typically, 100 ml of Na2SO4.10H2O (0.5M) solution was used as a background electrolyte. OH˙ radicals were produced in-situ in an acidic solution aqueous by oxidation of iron (II), formed by dissolving of the anode, with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The H2O2 was electrogenerated by reduction of oxygen using porous reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) as a catalyst.</p>
5

Studies on ozone initiated inactivation of pathogenic bacteria in aqueous systems

January 2008 (has links)
The effect of ozone on the inactivation of two Gram-negative strains (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and one Gram-positive endospore (Bacillus subtilis) bacteria, often present in water and the cause of some waterborne diseases was investigated as a function of ozone concentration and ozonation duration. Ozone was generated in situ using corona discharge methods where the ozone concentration ranged from 0.906 - 4.724 mg/L and the inactivation of the three microbes followed pseudo-first order kinetics with respect to the microbes. Three microbes were cultured and the influence of temperature and pH of the aqueous systems on the ozone initiated inactivation rate of the three microbes was also investigated. This study reports that molecular ozone is more effective than hydroxyl radicals initiated by the ozone chain reactions. Two suggested mechanisms for the antimicrobial effectiveness of ozone in water systems from the literature is discussed. The study also found that ozonation significantly decreased the Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) value of natural water. / Thesis (M.Sc.)-University of KwaZulu-Natal, 2008.
6

An investigation of the effects of ozone in a recirculating aquacultural production system

Johnson, William P. 07 April 2009 (has links)
The use of ozone in a recirculating aquacultural production system on a commercial scale was investigated. ozonation was responsible for statistically significant differences in all test parameters, including: heterotrophic plate count, total coliforms, fecal coliforms, total solids, and total volatile solids. Results indicated ozone had a significantly positive effect in the recirculating aquacultural production system. Further study is recommended, however, to better understand the effects of ozone and to justify economically the use of ozone in commercial systems. / Master of Science
7

AN ALTERNATIVE WATER TREATMENT PLAN: MUTAGENIC ACTIVITY OF SELECTED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS TREATED WITH OZONE

Irwin, Leslie Annette January 1982 (has links)
No description available.
8

An integrated computational fluid dynamics an kinetics study of ozonation in water treatment.

Huang, Tzu Hua. January 2005 (has links)
Computational fluid dynamic (CFO) modelling has been applied to examine the operation of the prc-ozonation system at Wiggins Waterworks, operated by Umgeni Water in Durban, South Africa. Ozonation is employed in water treatment process primarily to achieve the oxidation of iron and manganese, the destruction of micro-organisms and the removal of taste and odour causing compounds. It also aids in the reduction of the colour of the final water, enhancement of algae removal and possible reduction of coagulant demand. A hydrodynamic model has been satisfactorily verified by experimental tracer tests. The effect of the gas injection was modelled by increasing the level of turbulence intensity at the ozone contactor inlet. The model prediction of the overall tracer response corresponded closely to the experimental results. The framework of ozone reaction modelling was subsequently established using values of rate constants from the literature. An accurate prediction of the ozone concentration profile requires the application of the correct ozone kinetics involved. In raw waters, the depletion of ozone is influenced by the presence of natural organic matters (NOM). The observed ozone decay was found in good agreement using the pseudo first-order rate law. By measuring the total organic carbon (TOC) as a surrogate for NOM, the experimentally determined rate constants can be calculated to account for the effects of the ozone doses and the water quality. The characterisation study also aimed to provide sufficient information on ozone depletion and to be operated easily, without the lengthy and costly analyses ofa detailed kinetics study. The predicted profile of residual ozone concentration suggests the current operating strategy can be improved to optimise the ozone utilisation. The proposed monitoring point was suggested to be at the end of second companment where most ozone reactions have been completed. By coupling the transport equations of the target compounds with their chemical reaction rates, the concentration profile of these compounds such as ozone can be predicted in order to assist the understanding of an operation and to attain better interpretation of experimental results. / Thesis (Ph.D.)-University of KwaZulu-Natal, 2005.
9

The Photolytic Ozonation of Organics in Aqueous Solutions

Huang, Francis Y. 05 1900 (has links)
The aim of the investigation described in this work is to gain a better understanding of the processes involved in the oxidation of organic compounds by photolytic ozonation in a laboratory scale reactor. The results and discussions are presented in Chapter III. This chapter contains four parts. In the first part, mass transfer efficiency and the calculation of the mass transfer coefficient, KLa, as well as the ozone decomposition rate constant, KD, are presented and compared with those obtained by other investigators. The second part deals with the kinetics of the photolysis of 2,2',4,4',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl both in purified and natural lake water. Mathematical expressions and a discussion of the possible reaction processes involved are given. Kinetic models of ozonation and photolytic ozonation in purified and natural lake water are developed and discussed in part three. Rate constants are calculated from experimental data and used to predict values of substrate destruction with a mathematical model. The fourth part of this chapter deals with the identification of products from the photolysis, ozonation and photolytic ozonation of 2,2'4,4',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl. The products are isolated and identified using combined gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy, and reaction mechanisms are suggested.
10

The effects of ozone treatment on chemical parameters of a recirculating aquaculture system producing hybrid striped bass

Herbst, Jennifer Lynn 17 January 2009 (has links)
The hypothesis tested in this study is that the application of ozone to reuse aquaculture water provides more favorable conditions for hybrid striped bass at production levels. Evaluation of water quality in fish culture systems being treated with ozone was made during a production trial (1200 fish/14,OOO 1). Originally, a control and four ozonated systems with doses of 3, 13, 25, and 45 g O3/kg feed/day supported fish for experimentation but, due to mechanical failure, only the control, the 13 and 25 g O3/kg feed/day treatments completed the full 35 week study. On an equal feeding basis, concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (CBODs), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were lowest in the most heavily ozonated systems. Ozone increased the biodegradation of DOC. Total suspended solids, particle size and distributions were impacted by ozone's flocculating properties. The percentages of particles in the smallest size range, 5-20 microns, were greater in the control system than the ozonated systems during weeks of equal feeding rates. When feeding rates differed, the control system maintained a larger number total particles per kilogram of feed administered. The pH of the ozonated systems was lower than the control which favored the ionized (less toxic) form of ammonia. Enhanced biodegradation of organics in the ozonated systems may have increased carbon dioxide production and caused a decline in pH. Greater nitrification in the ozonated systems may have also decreased the pH. Higher total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) levels were produced in the control on an equal feeding basis. Average weekly TAN t unionized ammonia (NH3), nitrite and nitrate concentrations remained at acceptable levels across treatments and throughout the production trial. Overall, the major indication of improved system conditions due to ozone treatment was that fish raised in the ozonated systems fed steadily throughout the growth trial while the control system's culture experienced periods of reduced feeding. / Master of Science

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