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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Rheological and colloidal properties of commercial brewing yeast suspensions

Speers, Robert Alexander January 1991 (has links)
A three part study was carried out to examine rheological, colloidal and floe microstructural aspects of industrial brewing yeast strains. Following a review of the literature, the rheological properties of four yeast strains (two flocculent ale and lager types and their non-flocculent variants) were examined. In related colloidal studies, orthokinetic flocculation rates of these strains as well as their cell surface charge were determined. Floc microstructure was characterized using both light and scanning electron microscopy. In a summary chapter, the cell floc model (a modification of Hunter's elastic floc model) was used to the explain the rheological and colloidal behaviour of brewing yeast suspensions. Flow behaviour studies of the commercial yeast suspensions suspended in a calcium-containing sodium acetate buffer revealed that yeast flocculent characteristics had an important influence on their suspension flow behaviour. As cell concentrations increased, suspension flow properties become increasingly non-Newtonian and could be described by the Casson model at low rates of shear and the Bingham model at shear rates above 100 s⁻¹. The cell floc model was proposed to explain the Bingham flow behaviour of these csuspensions. The Bingham yield stress in these suspensions was believed to be a function of the orthokinetic capture coefficient, cell volume and the energy to break up doublet cells. Increasing temperature tended to lower the Bingham yield stress in lager strains and increase the yield stress in ale strains. A semi-empirical explanation for the viscosity increase of deflocculated cell suspensions and the estimation of pseudo-capture coefficients was presented. Furthermore, studies of the flow behaviour of yeast strains suspended in decarbonated ale and lager beer revealed that: 1) suspensions of flocculent strains show higher yield stress values than their non-flocculent variants, 2) ale strain suspensions tended to have higher yield values than the lager strains and 3) yeast dispersed in beer had higher yield stress values than when suspended in buffered calcium suspensions. This last observation was believed to reflect the influence of ethanol on the cell binding process which has important implications for future measurements of yeast flocculation. Colloidal studies revealed for the first time, that the orthokinetic rate of flocculation of brewing yeast cells could be modelled by a first order equation, as predicted by fundamental colloid theory. While subject to considerable variation, measured rate constants led to the calculation of orthokinetic capture coefficients. Yeast cell zeta potential values generally agreed with literature data but could not be employed in the DLVO model of colloid flocculation to explain measured orthokinetic capture coefficient values. Examination of the cell zeta potential data indicated that the data had non-normal distributions. SEM examination of the four industrial yeast strains suggested that a number of distinct structures mediated cell-to-cell interaction and that intra-strain differences occurred. These findings, along with the observation of non-normal surface charge distributions, indicated that these industrially pure strains had undergone substantial variation. Treatment of the flocculent cells with pronase tended to reduce cell-to-cell contacts. In the summary chapter the cell floe model was employed to describe the rheological behaviour of the yeast suspensions. Estimation of the force needed to separate doublet yeast cells were made using critical shear rate data (i.e., the point at which Bingham flow begins). This estimate was similar to that reported for single antibody bonds and may be due to the presence of lectin-like structures on the yeast cell wall. / Land and Food Systems, Faculty of / Graduate
2

Production of emulsifier by Torulopsis petrophilum

Rizzi, John January 1987 (has links)
No description available.
3

Production of emulsifier by Torulopsis petrophilum

Rizzi, John January 1987 (has links)
No description available.
4

Inheritance of a killer reaction in yeast

Makower, M. January 1964 (has links)
No description available.
5

Development of synthetic signal sequences for heterologous protein secretion from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Kriel, Johan Hendrik 12 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2003. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Protein secretion and intracellular transport are highly regulated processes and involve the interplay of a multitude of proteins. A unique collection of thermosensitive secretory mutants allowed scientists to demonstrate that the secretory pathway of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is very similar to that of the higher eukaryotes. All proteins commence their journey in the endoplasmic reticulum, where they undergo amino-linked core glycosyl modification. After passage through the Golgi apparatus, where the remodelling of the glycosyl chains is completed, proteins are transported to their final destinations, which are either the cell surface, periplasmic space or the vacuole. Proteins destined for secretion are usually synthesised with a transient amino-terminal secretion leader of varying length and hydrophobicity, which plays a crucial role in the targeting and translocation of their protein cargo. Considerable effort has been made to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in these processes, especially due to their relevance in a rapidly expanding biotech industry. The advantages of S. cerevisiae as a host for the expression of recombinant proteins are well documented. Unfortunately, S. cerevisiae is also subject to a number of drawbacks, with a relative low product yield being one of the major disadvantages. Bearing this in mind, different secretion leaders were compared with the aim of improving the secretion of the LKA 1 and LKA2 a-amylase enzymes from the S. cerevisiae secretion system. The yeast Lipomyces kononenkoae is well known for its ability to degrade raw starch and an improved secretion of its amylase enzymes from S. cerevisiae paves the way for a potential one-step starch utilisation process. Three sets of constructs were prepared containing the LKA 1 and LKA2 genes separately under secretory direction of either their native secretion leader, the S. cerevisiae mating pheromone a-factor (MFa1) secretion leader, or the MFa1 secretion leader containing a synthetic C-terminal spacer peptide (EEGEPK). The inclusion of a spacer peptide in the latter set of constructs ensured improved Kex2p proteolytic processing of the leader/protein fusion. Strains expressing the amylase genes under their native secretion leaders resulted in the highest saccharolytic activity in the culture medium. In contrast to this, strains utilising the synthetic secretion leader produced the highest fermentation yield, but had a lower than expected extracellular activity. We hypothesise that the native amylase leaders may function as intramolecular chaperones in the folding and processing of their passenger proteins, thereby increasing processing efficiency and concomitant enzyme activity. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Proteïensekresie en intrasellulêre transport is hoogs gereguleerde prosesse en betrek die onderlinge wisselwerking van 'n verskeidenheid proteïene. 'n Unieke versameling van temperatuur-sensitiewe sekresiemutante het wetenskaplikes in staat gestelom die ooreenkoms tussen die sekresiepad van die gis Saccharomyces cerevisiae en dié van komplekser eukariote aan te toon. Alle proteïene begin hul reis in die endoplasmiese retikulum, waartydens hulle ook amino-gekoppelde kernglikosielveranderings ondergaan. Nadat die proteïene deur die Golgi-apparaat beweeg het, waar die laaste veranderings aan die glikosielkettings plaasvind, word hulle na hul finale bestemmings, waaronder die seloppervlak, die periplasmiese ruimte of die vakuool, vervoer. Proteïene wat vir sekresie bestem is, word gewoonlik met 'n tydelike, amino-eindpuntsekresiesein, wat 'n kritiese rol in die teiken en translokasie van hul proteïenvrag speel, gesintetiseer. Heelwat pogings is in hierdie studie aangewend om die molekulêre meganismes betrokke by hierdie prosesse te ontrafel, veral as gevolg van hul toepaslikheid in 'n vinnig groeiende biotegnologiebedryf. Die voordele van S. cerevisiae as 'n gasheer vir die uitdruk van rekombinante proteïene is alombekend. S. cerevisiae het egter ook verskeie nadele, waaronder die relatiewe lae produkopbrengs die belangrikste is. Teen hierdie agtergrond, is verskillende sekresieseine met mekaar vergelyk met die doelom die sekresie van die LKA 1 en LKA2 a-amilasegene vanuit die S. cerevisiae-uitdrukkingsisteem te verbeter. Die gis Lipomyces kononenkoae is bekend vir sy vermoeë om rou stysel af te breek en 'n verbeterde sekresie van sy amilasegene vanuit S. cerevisiae baan die weg vir 'n moontlike een-stap styselgebruiksproses. Drie stelle konstrukte is gemaak wat die LKA 1- en LKA2- gene onafhanklik onder sekresiebeheer van onderskeidelik hul inheemse sekresiesein, die S. cerevisiae paringsferomoonsekresiesein (MFa1) of die MFa1-sekresiesein met 'n sintetiese koppelingspeptied aan die C-eindpunt (EEGEPK), plaas. Die insluiting van 'n koppelingspeptied in die laasgenoemde stel konstrukte verseker verbeterde Kex2p proteolitiese prosessering van die sein/proteïenfusie. Rasse wat die amilasegene onder beheer van hul inheemse sekresieseine uitdruk, het die beste saccharolitiese aktiwiteit in die kultuurmedia getoon. In teenstelling hiermee, het rasse wat van die sintetiese sekresiesein gebruik maak, die beste fermentasie-opbrengs getoon, maar met 'n laer as verwagte ekstrasellulêre aktiwiteit. Ons vermoed dat die inheemse amilaseseine as intramolekulêre begeleiers optree in die vou en prosessering van hul proteïenpassasiers, wat lei tot verbeterde prosessering en ensiemaktiwiteit.
6

Bioaccumulation of metal cations by yeast and yeast cell components

Brady, Dean January 1993 (has links)
The aim of the project was to determine whether a by-product of industrial fermentations, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, could be utilized to bioaccumulate heavy metal cations and to partially define the mechanism of accumulation. S. cerevisiae cells were found to be capable of accumulating Cu²⁺in a manner that was proportional to the external Cu²⁺ concentration and inversely proportional to the concentration of biomass. The accumulation process was only minimally affected by temperature variations between 5 and 40°C or high ambient concentrations of sodium chloride. The accumulation process was however considerably affected by variations in pH, bioaccumulation being most efficient at pH 5 - 9 but becoming rapidly less so at either extreme of pH. Selection for copper resistant or tolerant yeast diminished the yeast's capacity for Cu²⁺ accumulation. For this and other reasons the development of heavy metal tolerance in yeasts was deemed to be generally counterproductive to heavy metal bioaccumulation. The yeast biomass was also capable of accumulating other heavy metal cations such as c0²⁺ or Cd²⁺. The yeast biomass could be harvested after bioaccumulation by tangential filtration methods, or alternatively could be packed into hollow fibre microfilter membrane cartridges and used as a fixed-bed bioaccumulator. By immobilizing the yeast in polyacrylamide gel and packing this material into columns, cu²⁺, C0²⁺ or Cd²⁺ could be removed from influent aqueous solutions yielding effluents with no detectable heavy metal, until breakthrough point was reached. This capacity was hypothesized to be a function of numerous "theoretical plates of equilibrium" within the column. The immobilized biomass could be eluted with EDTA and recycled for further bioaccumulation processes with minor loss of bioaccumulation capacity. Yeast cells were fractionated to permit identification of the major cell fractions and molecular components responsible for metal binding. Isolation of the yeast cell walls permitted investigation of their role in heavy metal accumulation. Although the amino groups of chitosan and proteins, the carboxyl groups of proteins, and the phosphate groups of phosphomannans were found to be efficient groups for the accumulation of copper, the less effective hydroxyl groups of the carbohydrate polymers (glucans and mannans) had a similar overall capacity for copper accumulation owing to their predominance in the yeast cell wall. The outer (protein-mannan) layer of the yeast cell wall was found to be a better Cu²⁺ chelator than the inner (chitinglucan) layer. It appeared that the physical condition of the cell wall may be more important than the individual macromolecular components of the cell wall in metal accumulation. It was apparent that the cell wall was the major, if not the sole contributor to heavy metal accumulation at low ambient heavy metal concentrations. At higher ambient metal concentrations the cytosol and vacuole become involved in bioaccumulation. Copper and other metals caused rapid loss of 70% of the intracellular potassium, implying permeation of the plasma membrane. This was followed by a slower "leakage" of magnesium from the vacuole which paralleled Cu²⁺ accumulation, suggesting that it may represent some form of ion-exchange. An intracellular copper chelating agent of approximately 2 kDalton molecular mass was isolated from copper tolerant yeast. This chelator was not a metallothionein and bound relatively low molar equivalents of copper compared to those reported for metallothionein. Treatment of the biomass with hot alkali yielded two biosorbents, one soluble (which could be used as a heavy metal flocculent), and an insoluble biosorbent which could be formed into a granular product to be used in fixed-bed biosorption columns. The granular biosorbent could accumulate a wide range of heavy metal cations in a semispecific manner and could be stored in a dehydrated form indefinitely, and rehydrated when required. Bioaccumulation by live algae was investigated as an alternative to yeast based processes. Various strains of algae, of which Scenedesmus and Selenastrum were the most effective, were found to be capable of accumulating heavy metals such as Cu²⁺, Pb²⁺ and Cr³⁺.
7

Characterisation and improvement of whiskey yeast

La Grange-Nel, Karin 03 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2003. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Scotch whiskey is of two main types, namely Scotch malt whiskey, made from malted barley alone, or Scotch grain whiskey, made from cereals, such as wheat or maize, together with malted barley. In both processes, the enzymes from the barley are responsible for starch conversion and should always be derived entirely from the malted barley. No exogenous enzymes are allowed to be added to any mashing. The enzymes involved in the conversion process to fermentable sugars, are the aand p-amylases, limit dextrinase and p-glucosidase. Maize, on the other hand, contains no enzyme activity, therefore enzymes need to be added when producing whiskey from maize alone. In other whiskey-producing countries where maize is freely available and cheaper than barley, the use of exogenous enzymes are allowed in the mashing process and is crucial for the formation of fermentable sugars from complex carbohydrates. The cost of the enzymes, however, can push the production cost of whiskey to higher levels. Saccharomyces cerevisiae does not have any amylolytic activity, but is an excellent fermenter and produces favourable organoleptic notes, which makes it very suitable for producing potable spirit. Efforts have been made to genetically improve industrial strains, relying on classical genetic techniques followed by the selection of broad traits, such as ethanol tolerance, absence of off-flavours and carbohydrate/starch utilisation. No strain has thus far been selected for total starch degradation during the fermentation of whiskey mash. Over the last decade, considerable progress has been made in the development of genetically improved strains for the distilling, wine, brewing and baking industries. The expression of heterologous genes introduced a new dimension in approaches to the genetic improvement of industrial strains. It would therefore be cost-effective to use a yeast strain that can produce active and sufficient enzymes to ferment raw starch efficiently to alcohol without lowering the quality of the end product. No such strain has been developed to date, but the continuous improvement of starch-utilising strains has made this goal more achievable. Two a-amylase genes, namely LKA 1 and LKA2, were previously isolated from Lipomyces kanonenkoae. In this study, we selected 4 strains on the basis of criteria that are important for whiskey-specific strains. The selected strains were transformed with LKA 1, as well as with a combination of LKA 1 and LKA2 genes. The wine yeast VIN13 was included in the transformation of LKA1 and LKA2 because of its rapid fermentation rate. The genes were integrated into the genomes of the yeast strains and were stable after many generations. Assays showed that a significant increase in enzyme activity was induced in the whiskey strains, compared to the untransformed strains. The strains also showed good fermentation ability in whiskey fermentations, although optimum alcohol production was still not achieved. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Skotse whiskey bestaan uit 2 tipes, nl. mout whiskey, gemaak slegs van mout d.w.s. gars wat die mout proses ondergaan het, en graan whiskey wat gemaak word van gewasse soos mielies of koring, waarby mout gevoeg word. Die ensieme afkomstig van die mout is verantwoordelik vir die omsetting van stysel na fermenteerbare suikers en geen eksogene ensieme mag by die gars- of graanmengsel gevoeg word nie. Die ensieme wat betrokke is by die omsetting van stysel, is die a- en ~- arnitases, limiet dekstrinase en ~-glukosidase. Mielies bevat geen ensiemaktiwiteit nie, dus moet ensieme by die proses gevoeg word indien slegs mielies vir die vervaardiging van whiskey gebruik word. In whiskey produserende lande waar mielies vryelik beskikbaar is en goedkoper is as gars, word eksogene ensieme by die graanmengsel gevoeg vir die vrystelling van fermenteerbare suikers vanaf komplekse koolhidrate. Die hoë koste van die ensieme kan egter die produksiekoste van whiskey verhoog. Saccharomyces cerevisiae besit geen amilolitiese aktiwiteit nie, maar is 'n uitstekende fermenteerder en produseer gewensde organoleptiese geure. Om hierdie redes is S. cerevisiae baie geskik vir die produksie van drinkbare etanol. Navorsingspogings om industriële rasse geneties m.b.v. klassieke genetiese metodes te verbeter, kom wydverspreid in die literatuur voor. Dit sluit in die seleksie van rasse met 'n verskeidenheid van eienskappe soos etanol toleransie, die afwesigheid van afgeur produksie en koolhidraat/stysel benutting. Geen ras is egter tot op hede geselekteer vir totale stysel afbraak gedurende fermentasie nie. Groot vordering is gedurende die laaste dekade gemaak in die ontwikkeling van genetiese verbeterde rasse vir die wyn- stokery- en brouers industrieë. Die uitdruk van heterogene gene in gisrasse gee 'n nuwe dimensie aan die genetiese verbetering van industriële rasse. Die gebruik van 'n gisras wat aktiewe en genoegsame ensieme produseer om rou stysel te fermenteer, sonder om die kwalitiet van die eindproduk nadelig te beïnvloed, kan die produksiekoste van whiskey aansienlik verminder. Geen gisras met hierdie eienskap is tot op hede ontwikkel nie, maar die voortdurende verbetering van rasse om stysel af te breek maak hierdie doel meer bereikbaar. Twee a-amilase gene, nl. LKA 1 en LKA2 is voorheen uit Lipomyces kononenkoae geïsoleer. In hierdie studie is 4 gisrasse geselekteer op grond van die kriteria wat nodig is vir whiskey giste. Die geselekteerde rasse is getransformeer met LKA 1 sowel as 'n kombinasie van LKA 1 en LKA2 gene. Die wyngis VIN13 is ingesluit by die transformasie met die LKA1 en LKA2 gene, omrede VIN13 bekend is as 'n vinnige fermenteerder. Die gene is geïntegreer in die genoom van die verskillende gisrasse en is stabiel na vele generasies. Die getransformeerde rasse het 'n betekenisvolle verhoging in ensiemaktiwiteit teenoor die nie-getransformeerde rasse getoon. AI die transformante het ook goeie fermentasie vermoë getoon in whiskey fermentasie proewe. Optimum alkoholproduksie is egter nie verkry nie.
8

Mathematical modelling of the dynamical interactions between killer and sensitive wine yeast subjected to nutritional stress.

Vadasz, Alisa S. January 2000 (has links)
No abstract available. / Thesis (M.Sc.Eng.)-University of Durban-Westville, 2000.
9

The use of fluorescent flow cytometry to evaluate the inactivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by sequential application of ultrsound (20kHz) and heat

Wordon, Brett Arthur January 2009 (has links)
Thesis (MTech (Food Technology)--Cape Peninsula University of Technology, 2009 / The primary aim of this study was to establish the effects of both cavitation, (20 KHZ), and heat (55°C or 60•C) on Saccharomyces cerevisiae GC210 (MATa lys2) suspended in physiological saline. Fluorescent flow cytometry was used to determine the effects of moist heat and acoustic cavitation on S. cerevisiae cells. Results from this study could be used as a guide for use by the food industry for the combined use of heat and sonication to disinfect various solutions contaminated with S. cerevisiae.
10

The transcriptional and physiological alterations in brewers yeast when shifted from anaerobic to aerobic growth conditions

Beckhouse, Anthony Gordon, Biotechnology & Biomolecular Sciences, Faculty of Science, UNSW January 2006 (has links)
Yeast are exposed to many physical and chemical stresses when used in large-scale industrial fermentations, particularly the initial stages in which yeast are shifted from anaerobic storage to aerated wort. This work investigated the transcriptional and physiological responses of yeast that had been shifted from anaerobic to aerobic growth conditions. Microarray technology was employed to determine the transcriptional changes that occurred in the first hour of a pilot-plant fermentation compared to the 23rd hour. It was found that over 100 genes were up-regulated initially including genes involved in the synthesis of the essential membrane sterol ergosterol and genes for the protection of cells against oxidative stress. It was also determined that cells which accumulate ergosterol precursors in the absence of ergosterol were more sensitive to exogenous oxidative stresses, indicating a role for ergosterol in oxidative stress tolerance. Aeration of anaerobically grown cells did not affect their growth kinetics or viability. However, anaerobically grown cells were hypersensitive to exogenous oxidative stress compared to their aerobic counterparts. Anaerobic cells that underwent a short period of aeration prior to treatment with hydrogen peroxide generated a tolerance to the oxidant, indicating that the period of aeration produced an adaptive-like response. Microarray analysis of the cells during the period of aeration showed that representative genes from the oxidative stress response family were up-regulated rapidly and it was determined that the response was controlled by the Yap1p and Skn7p transcription factors. Deletion of the transcription factor genes indicated that they were responsible for the creation of tolerance to oxidant. Target gene products of the two transcription factors (Gpx2p, Gsh1p and Trx2p) were shown to be induced during the shift to aeration; however, the glutathione redox balance did not seem to be affected as the cells were shifted from highly reduced to oxidising environments. Unexpectedly, it was discovered that genes involved in the synthesis of amino acids were up-regulated during anaerobic growth and stringently downregulated upon aeration of cells. The transcriptional activator of those genes (Gcn4p) was essential for growth in anaerobic media which included amino acid supplementation.

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