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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

Board Member Perceptions of Nonprofit Organization Effectiveness

Maurer, Laura Levy 01 January 2011 (has links)
In contemporary American society, the nonprofit board is accountable for ensuring that an organization has sufficient resources to carry out its mission. Filling the gap between demands for services and the resources to meet them is often a struggle for small, local nonprofit organizations. This hermeneutic phenomenological study examined how board members of small, local nonprofits in the focal community perceive organizational effectiveness. Understanding the nature of nonprofit organization effectiveness according to board members contributes to understanding how those accountable meet their organizational objectives. A review of the literature revealed that nonprofit effectiveness involves the action of contributing and the motivation behind the action, both of which are associated with trust and reciprocity. Guided by social constructivism, this study employed a qualitative analysis of repeated iterations of semiotic data from board members (n = 30) and text analysis of organizational mission statements (n = 21), generating thick descriptions of the board members' understanding of effectiveness. Findings were derived from successive coding iterations starting with the raw data, through locating text related to specific codes, to verifying relationships among codes, and incorporating researcher reflection. The analysis revealed that strategies focused on developing reciprocity and mitigating mistrust among board members contribute to board members' perceiving their organizations as effectively achieving their objectives. The study's findings support positive social change by informing social scientists and members of local nonprofit boards of the perceived gap between services demands and the resources to meet them among board members.

African Americans' Perceptions of the Impact of the War on Drugs

Drayton, Tammy 01 January 2019 (has links)
The War on Drugs has been a contested issue in the United States for decades. Many believe that African Americans are targeted by the government and become victims of the penal system as a result of anti-drug policies. The purpose of this ethnographic study was to explore the impact of the war on drugs on African American men, women, and young adults from their perspectives. Racial threat theory provided the framework for the study. Data were collected through interviews with and observations of 30 African American participants who had experiences directly and indirectly with the War on Drugs. Participant were recruited through purposeful and snowball sampling. Results of coding analysis by way of NVivo revealed that that many African Americans experience mental health issues (specifically depression and anxiety) due to direct and indirect consequences of drug penalties. Findings also showed that fair sentencing is needed for African Americans, and that African Americans need to come together to impact social change in their communities. Findings may be used to promote drug policy reform, rehabilitation for African American offenders and their families by addressing the mental health challenges individuals face directly and indirectly due to the drug penalties; in addition to increasing the access to these mental health resources. Furthermore, political changes for decriminalization of marijuana and commuting sentences for those penalized for the drug are apart the social changes that would lessen the impact the War on Drugs has on African Americans.

Exploring Transition Factors Among Female Veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF/OEF)

Robinson, Myra 01 January 2016 (has links)
Many transitional challenges have affected female veterans after returning from serving in the war in Iraq and Afghanistan. The number of females joining the military and becoming involved in combat has increased within the past 10 years. Research exists on the transitional challenges of male veterans. However, little research exists on the reintegration challenges faced by female veterans. As these females become veterans, they are more visible in the Veterans Affairs Health Care System. Given this increase in number of female veterans, it is important to address transitional challenges experienced by females who served in Operations Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF/OEF) postdeployment. For female veterans, the transitional experience will impact their responses to readjustment in civilian life. Selder's transitional theory and Schlossberg theory provided the framework for this phenomenological study. Using snowball sampling, 5 female veterans who served in combat during the past 5 years were selected and interviewed about their lived experiences using an open-ended interview guide. Data from the interview responses were inductively analyzed for themes and patterns. Using NVivo11 for management of data analysis, the interview responses were transcribed, categorized, coded, and clustered, revealing 5 themes: reflection on deployment, health issues, support from family, environmental concerns, and readjustment into roles. The key findings revealed that female veterans who served in combat experienced complex challenges after reintegrating back into civilian life. The findings may contribute to positive social change by informing treatment plans and support programs for female veterans reintegrating back into civilian life.

Phenomenological Study of the Educational Component of the Formal Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration Program of Ex-militants in Liberia

Wollie, John Tamba 01 January 2016 (has links)
A significant number of Liberian ex-militants are unemployed and underemployed despite the job skills, formal education, and entrepreneurial training they received as participants in the Formal Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration (DDR) program that was established to reintegrate combatants into civilian society at the end of the two civil wars in Liberia in 2003. The purpose of this study was to examine the strengths and weaknesses of the vocational training offered by the DDR program. Informed by the theories of Human Capital, Peace Building, and Bronfrenbrenner, the research questions for this study assessed the benefits of the educational component of DDR. A phenomenological study design was employed with a purposeful sample of ex-militant participants that included 12 ex-militants and a focus group of 6-ex-militants drawn from the 12 who completed vocational training at the Monrovia Vocational Training Center in Monrovia (MVTC). All data were inductively coded and analyzed using a constant comparative method. Data analysis uncovered five textural themes: motivation for disarmament, hope to rebuild lives through vocational training, dissatisfaction with reintegration, perception of reintegration, and perception of future combat participation. Findings support human capital, peace building, and ecological systems theories in that ex-militants perceived the benefit of education in their transition to peacetime endeavor, but consider themselves only partially reintegrated since all consider themselves unemployed with no means to survive economically. This study is significant because it provides recommendations to policymakers on how such a program can improve the vocational training offered and provide follow-up life-skills counseling.

The Influence of Corporate Social Responsibility and Star Rating on Chinese Hotels' Occupancy Rates

Wang, Che Wang 01 January 2017 (has links)
Some small business owners are unaware of the possible long-term benefits of engaging in corporate social responsibility (CSR). A business undertaking CSR can benefit from long-term financial benefits. Hotel businesses can benefit from developing long-term relationship with visitors and higher occupancy rates. The purpose of this causal-comparative study was to examine the potential influence of family-owned hotel owners' attitudes towards CSR and star ratings on hotel occupancy rates. The study's population comprised owners of family-owned hotels within Yanqing Zhen, Yanqing County, in Beijing, China. Bowen's formulation of CSR constituted the theoretical framework. Independent variables were hotels owners' attitudes towards CSR and the star ratings of their properties; the dependent variable was hotel occupancy rate. Data were collected using a web-based, Likert-scale survey, which was administered to 583 hotel owners and then analyzed using multiple linear regression modeling. Owners' attitudes towards CSR and their hotels' star ratings were positively related. Each independent variable also significantly predicted occupancy rates p = .000 for owner attitudes and p = .016 for star ratings. The coefficient for interaction influence between star rating and owners' attitudes was not statistically significant (p =.641). With better understanding of the potential benefits from addressing CSR, small hotel owners could increase hotel occupancy rates and improve their image and reputation as well as their employees' engagement, resulting in potential positive social change. Local governments can also develop more informative CSR-related guidelines and policies that benefit local Chinese communities.

Disaster Management and Efforts to Mitigate the Destruction of the Human-Environment

Bell, Dorothy Henderson 01 January 2015 (has links)
Natural disasters expose the fact that poverty, race, gender, and other indicators of social disadvantage are linked to the population of citizens who struggle the most to recover after a disaster, yet these factors are not accounted for in public policy that guides decision making related to federal assistance to residents affected by a disaster. This study used neural networks as a research strategy to determine whether the current policies under the Stafford Act related to assistance comply with Congressional intent and law that uses a formula for assistance distribution, and whether human factors such as culture, measured as residing in a non-white zip code according to Census tract data, are considered in decision making regarding assistance. Data from FEMA related to the recovery from Hurricane Irene in 2011 were used as the basis for the model. The neural network analysis of this study indicated that federal assistance decisions after the Hurricane Irene event tended to focus on the adjusted property value and actual dollar value of losses as the determining factor in decisions. Focusing on the actual dollar value of losses is consistent with the formulaic approach codified in public law, but this approach overshadows important human factors such as living in a primarily non-white zip code and the availability of temporary housing. This study underscores the notion that the public policy works the way it is intended, but it fails to accommodate human and social factors. As a consequence, the existing policy is legally equitable, but it is not necessarily morally fair to those impacted by disasters. The positive social change implications of this study include recommendations to federal policy makers to more equitably structure recovery efforts in alignment with the human environment of communities rather than a primary focus on cost and value of real property.

Differences in Body Satisfaction Between Black and White Heterosexual College-Aged Men

Renfro, Darrell L 01 January 2015 (has links)
Although there is an increasing amount of research concerning body satisfaction among heterosexual White men, few of these studies have adequately represented heterosexual Black men. This was a quantitative survey study aimed to illuminate gaps in the literature regarding Black men's body satisfaction experiences. The study used surveys and tested research questions to determine whether college-aged heterosexual Black (n = 220, 55%) and White (n = 180, 45%) men differed in their body satisfaction experiences and whether race significantly moderated the relation between sociocultural influences and body satisfaction in the two groups. This study was based on the social comparison theory, and examined sociocultural influences (i.e., media images, parents, peers, internalization of cultural appearance standards, and drives for muscularity) known to be associated with body satisfaction. Results from t test analyses indicated that Black men were significantly more satisfied with their appearance and weight, were significantly more confident that other people liked their appearance, and reported less social pressures to have an attractive body in comparison to their White peers. A series of moderated regression analyses failed to indicate that race moderated the relation between the sociocultural influences and body satisfaction. Seventy-five percent of both groups were dissatisfied with their bodies and desired to be more muscular. Social change implications include alerting clinicians that Black men, like White men, should be screened for problems with body satisfaction: Results may stimulate research to determine why Black men have greater overall body satisfaction than White men, and lead to culturally-specific guidelines for identifying and treating body dissatisfaction.

Autonomy and authority in the lives of children who work as domestic servants in Ghana

Derby, Cecilia Nana 17 June 2005 (has links)
Limited literature exists on Ghana's child domestic servants, and researchers have found it difficult to locate and study these children. The research for this dissertation used qualitative research methodologies and non-probabilistic sampling techniques to make it possible to interview child domestic servants, their parents, employers and recruiters in Ghana. The findings from the qualitative analyses informed the second part of this study, which was quantitative and tested hypotheses using crosstabulations and logistic regression analyses that were based on survey data from the Ghana Statistical Service. Explanatory variables in the quantitative analyses included lineage, level of education and relationships to the household head. This study located findings about the processes of children's recruitment into domestic servitude, their working conditions and methods of remuneration in theories of slavery to answer the question of whether or not child domestic servants are slaves. According to the findings, elite households in Ghana exploit children from rural regions because they have taken advantage of a historical practice that allowed children to live with older members of their extended families to provide domestic services and in return, be given the chance to receive formal education or to learn a trade. The participants in the qualitative part of this research described the treatments that they receive from their employers as slavery. Nevertheless, the processes of their recruitment and the age at which most of them accepted such job offers made it difficult to categorize a majority of them as contemporary slaves.

Donde esten mis hijos alli que me entierren. the migration history of Aura Lila Callejas

Callejas, Linda M. 15 May 1998 (has links)
"Adonde esten mis hijos alli que me entierren," presents the migration history of my great-aunt Aura Lila Callejas. This work utilizes the oral history method to examine one woman's migration experience in an attempt to identify various theoretical issues. Aura Lila's immigration experience sheds light on a number of different issues, including the reasons why people migrate and how they adapt to an entirely new and often frightening set of circumstances in the country of arrival. The oral history method has proven useful in presenting some of the ways in which structural factors combine with personal motivations to provide the impetus for Aura Lila's journey of international migration. My work with Aura Lila has also served to highlight some of the existing gaps in the current literature regarding Nicaraguans in the United States and the importance of the family within the overall process of migration. Finally, this work explores the nature of the relationship between the researcher and subject within the ethnographic process. While much of Aura Lila's story remains unique and specific to her family's history, her narrative can be related to the growing body of literature focusing on women's life histories.

The sexual division of labor : the impact of organizational change upon group cohesion and the creation of occupational identity

Bossarte, Robert M. 28 July 1999 (has links)
The purpose of this research is to identify the impact of recent organizational change upon the culture of firefighting. The experiences of female firefighters were utilized as a measure of cultural change. A purposive sample of twenty-seven male and female firefighters were interviewed in a semi-structured format about their experiences in the fire service. This research found that the culture of firefighting has adjusted to the presence of previously excluded groups by forging a division among the identities and roles of male and female firefighters. The white, male firefighters, who have traditionally constituted a majority of the workforce, have continued to identify with traditional firefighter roles and reported high levels of cohesion. In contrast, the female firefighters showed a greater variance in their identification with traditional roles and decreased levels of cohesion with the main body of the group.

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