South Africa's climate change response policy design and implementation at local level: a case of Vhembe District, Limpopo Province, South AfricaMulaudzi, Gundo 05 1900 (has links)
MENVSC (Geography) / See the attached abstract below
Psychological and social factors predicting pro-environmental behaviour in the South African contextCilo, Tongase Sara 01 1900 (has links)
The present research aimed first at testing the Theory of Planned Behaviour and the extended model of the Theory of Planned Behaviour in a non-WEIRD nation context (i.e., western, educated, industrialized, rich and democratic); and secondly, at exploring the role of social and economic status not as an outcome of climate change but as a factor that influences the appraisal of climate change and the responses to climate change (i.e., pro-environmental behaviour). Two cross-sectional studies were conducted. Study 1 (N = 452) replicated previous findings in support of the Theory of Planned Behaviour; but also showed the important role of moral obligation and emotions such as guilt. Different to previous research, instrumental rather than experiential attitudes revealed to be associated with intention and pro-environmental behaviour. The latter finding was replicated in Study 2 (N = 681), which also aimed at exploring the role of social and economic status for both appraising climate change as threat and responding to climate change. Both objective and subjective socio-economic status did indeed influence responses to climate change (i.e., pro-environmental behaviour) and whether climate change was appraised as a threat. However, the effects of objective and subjective socio-economic status were opposite than expected. Implications of the present research are outlined in detail with regards to current discourses on appraisals of and responses to climate change. / Psychology
Characterising the role of climate change in perpetuating Zimbabwean farmers' health risks from exposure to endocrine disrupting pesticidesZinyemba, Cliff 06 November 2020 (has links)
Climate change and endocrine disrupting chemicals are currently amongst key drivers for a range of non-communicable diseases and adverse human health conditions. Pesticides constitute an important source of endocrine disrupting chemicals. A growing public health concern is the potential relationship between climate change and adaptive increases in agricultural pesticide use. Effectively, with increases in pesticide use, there may be increased potential for elevated pesticide exposures and, thus, increased endocrine disrupting health risks. The aim of this thesis was to assess whether climate change is a key risk perpetuating factor for endocrine disrupting health risks due to increased agricultural pesticide uses and exposures. The study was conducted in Zimbabwe with farmers in the cotton farming district of Rushinga. Three research methods: 1) interviews with farmers, 2) quantitative structure-activity relationship modelling and, 3) stakeholder interviews with government cotton agronomists working in Rushinga district who acted as key informants. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 50 active smallholder farmers who had grown cotton for a minimum of 30 years. The interviews gathered farmers' perceptions and observations regarding climate change, changes in pest types, pest populations, pesticide use patterns, pesticide handling practices, and adaptive practices, amongst others. Quantitative structure-activity relationship modelling was, further, applied in identifying key risk pesticides of concern. Amitraz, endosulfan, fenvalerate and lambda-cyhalothrin were determined as having a high likelihood of acting as endocrine disruptors, as validated by literature highlighting the four pesticides' hormone-related cognitive, physiological and reproductive adverse health effects. Findings indicated that a number of farmers' adaptative practices were found to be incremental and, potentially, maladaptive, thereby enhancing pesticide use and exposure. This was indicative of climate change's potential for perpetuating pesticide-related endocrine disrupting health risks. Opportunities exist, however, for farmers to reduce pesticide use, and, thus, potential endocrine disrupting health risks through certain autonomous transformational adaptive practices, such as crop switching and cotton acreage reduction. Assistance to farmers by the government and development agencies, for enhancing opportunities for transformational adaptation is therefore recommended. Furthermore, there is need, at policy level, for phasing out pesticides with endocrine disrupting properties. There is, furthermore, a clear need for enhancing farmers' access to, and comprehension of, pesticide risk information through various innovative means, including research translation to reduce exposure risks.
Loss and damage from droughts: material and non-material impacts of water scarcity on women farmers in Gugulethu, Cape TownLavirotte, Lucy 16 March 2020 (has links)
Climate change is causing loss and damage (L&D) to those who are unable to adapt to its impacts. Coming from a growing recognition that adaptation to climate change has limits, the concept of L&D is a relative new-comer to the international agenda on climate change. To reduce L&D and compensate for it, the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UNFCCC) first needs to understand what these residual impacts of climate change are. However, the literature on lived-experiences of L&D is limited, especially on non-material L&D which is more difficult to measure. Using Warner et al. (2013) definition of L&D, this study first assesses what material and non-material losses and damages from the Cape Town drought have been on a group of urban-poor women farmers. Then, this research uses a barriers and enablers to adaptation framework to understand how to reduce these losses and damages. This qualitative case-study investigates women farmers’ lived-experiences of L&D during the 2015-2017 drought in Gugulethu, a low-income settlement in Cape Town, to feed into broader debates on ways to reduce L&D in global south cities. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six women farmers from the Umthunzi Farming Community and five other actors involved in urban agriculture in Gugulethu. The findings suggest that women farmers in this context are already experiencing L&D, with psychological, physical and social implications which appear to be particularly pertinent to their group. All participants had to reduce or stop farming which led to L&D on their urban agriculture benefits as well as L&D on their institutional trust towards the City of Cape Town. Most of these L&D were non-material. Some of the barriers to adapt and reduce L&D were a lack of external support (from the city and NGOs), a lack of financial capacity to adopt coping measures and a lack of knowledge on the possible coping measures and external support options. Enablers to reduce L&D from the drought were access to support from the Western Cape Department of Agriculture (DoA), higher levels of education, a diversity of livelihoods and a strong network with other farmers. In conclusion it emerged that external support from government departments and NGOs to urban-poor women farmers is important for adapting to the possibility of future droughts. The vulnerability of these women farmers in low-income areas need to be addressed at their roots. These emerging conceptual openings emphasise the importance of exploring lived-experiences of L&D to better reduce the risk of L&D in vulnerable communities. Further research is necessary on compensation for unavoidable L&D, which is beyond the limits of this research.
Barriers and enablers to the adoption of practices to improve crop production and reduce vulnerability to climate risks in the semi-arid Omusati Region,NamibiaChappel, Angela 11 February 2019 (has links)
Namibia is almost entirely semi-arid or arid. With evaporation rates being higher than precipitation rates, farming conditions are extremely adverse. This is exacerbated by the impacts of climate change, namely increased temperature, decreased rainfall and higher rainfall variability, all of which are projected to worsen in the future. More than half of the population is reliant on rain-fed subsistence agriculture for their source of food but these challenging conditions mean that there is widespread food insecurity across the subsistence farming community in Namibia. This leads to a state of vulnerability and dependence on government support in the form of social grants, food aid and remittances from family members in urban areas. The locus for this study is three villages: Omaenene, Okathitukeengombe and Oshihau, in the north-central Omusati region of Namibia. This research investigated local perceptions of climate change vulnerability, farming practices used in other regions that could reduce this vulnerability and finally barriers and enablers to the uptake of new farming practices. These objectives were answered through the use of a systematic literature review and interviews with the local community. Findings revealed that the local population is already experiencing a hotter and drier climate, which has decreased their yield output. Many farmers are concerned about future climatic changes while some are comforted by support from the government or God. In both of these cases, the farmers are vulnerable because they are not currently adapting or planning to adapt to climate change. Although a majority of the farmers claimed that they are willing to try new farming practices, they are inhibited by: limited access to new information, mistrust of new farming practices as well as insufficient labour and resources. Three adaptive farming practices – planting pits, bunds and composting – aimed predominantly at water harvesting, soil conservation and increasing soil quality were selected by the researcher, from a systematic literature review, as appropriate for the village sites. Some of the social and institutional enablers that could be enhanced to promote the uptake of these practices are: i) support from local authorities and possibly enlisting the help of religious and traditional leaders (including building trust within these networks), ii) enhancing information access predominantly through the radio, iii) explaining the severity of climate change and the value of adaptation practices, iv) establishing self-help labour groups and v) the creation of demonstrations sites. In the face of irreversible climate change, this research aims to contribute to empowering local people to adapt their farming practices to the harmful experienced and predicted impacts of climate change and climate variability.
01 January 2010
Central America has been identified as one of the regions in the world where potential climate change impacts on the environment can be pronounced and is considered a climate change ‘hot-spot’. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report indicates that the region around the western Caribbean and Central America is one where a majority of the climate model simulations indicate rather large changes in temperature and precipitation. This region, however, is one with considerable topographic relief, which implies the existence of large gradients in many critical climate variables. The interactions between the complex topography of Central America and the neighboring oceans give rise to numerous climate zones, horizontally and vertically. Consequently, the region has high biodiversity, it harbors high-value ecosystems and it is important to provide more realistic scenarios to assist in adaptation and mitigation work in the region. In this study, I aim to understand climate change in Central America at spatial scales relevant for impacts assessment. A regional climate model PRECIS was employed to carry out two experiments: the baseline (present-day) run and the scenario run, both performed at 25-km horizontal resolution. The thorough examination of the model performance showed model’s success in capturing the spatial and temporal variability of the key climate variables and its strength in simulating topographically-induced regional climate features. The projected increase in temperature, a large decrease in precipitation in most of Central America, and corresponding hydrological changes under the A2 scenario may have serious negative consequences on water resources, agricultural activities and the ecosystem dynamics in the region.
30 June 2014
In the context of distinctive international business phenomena of global environmental concern i.e., climate change, this dissertation addresses two research questions. Does multinational enterprise (MNE) orientation (global- or regional-orientation) have an influence on the carbon performance of the multinational? Is there any significant home country effect that drives carbon performance? Stakeholders are increasingly watching the green performance of the firms and investors are looking for information of how firms deal with externalities such as carbon emission. Environmental capabilities are increasingly becoming the core competence of a multinational enterprise. This also enables the MNE to be an active entity and play a key role in global environmental governance. Defining carbon performance as the capability of firms to integrate climate change strategy into the overall strategy, this dissertation used resource-based view and institutional theory as the theoretical framework along with the concept of regionalization of firms. We argue that differences in integrating strategy to reduce carbon emission (carbon performance) are related to MNE orientation and home country effect. Using a sample of 324 firm-years drawn from the carbon disclosure project reports 2011, 2012, and 2013, we analyzed the data running a logistic regression. We found that global-oriented MNEs had better carbon performance compared with regional-oriented MNEs (p This result was against the hypothesized relationship. One of the reasons for this result could be projected good image by the firms in environmentally non-sensitive industries because of cost advantage. Lower environmental institutional distance between home and host country of a firm increased the likelihood of its carbon performance regardless of its orientation as global or regional (p
In a world that is increasingly urbanised, cities are recognised as critical sites for tackling problems of climate change, both by reducing greenhouse gas emissions and addressing the impacts of changing climate conditions. Unlike climate change mitigation, adaptation does not have one clear, commonly agreed collective goal. Governing and making decisions on climate adaptation in cities entails contestation over knowledge, values and preferences. Currently, the two dominant conceptualisations of adaptation are as cycles or pathways. Do these models adequately theorise what can be empirically observed in cities as to how climate adaptation is undertaken? Most research on urban climate adaptation emanates from the Global North, where political, scientific, economic and administrative systems are well established and well resourced. There is a dearth of empirical research from cities of the Global South contributing to the development of urban climate adaptation theory. This thesis contributes to addressing this gap in two ways. Firstly, by drawing on both conceptual and methodological resources from the field of organisational studies, notably the streams and rounds models of decision making, organisational ethnography and processual case research. Secondly, by conducting empirical case study research on three processes of city scale climate adaptation in Cape Town, South Africa, a growing city facing many development challenges where the local government began addressing climate adaptation over ten years ago. The three adaptation processes studied are: the preparation and adoption of city-wide sectoral climate adaptation plans; the creation of a City Development Strategy with climate resilience as a core goal; and the inclusion of climate change projections into stormwater masterplans. Data were gathered through interviews, participant observation, focus groups and document review, through embedded research within a formal knowledge co-production partnership between the University of Cape Town and the City of Cape Town government. Processual analysis and applied thematic analysis were used to test models of adaptation and decision making against data from the three case studies. The findings suggest that both the cycles and pathways models of climate adaptation inadequately represent the contested and contingent nature of decision making that prevail within the governance systems of cities such as Cape Town. Based on ethnographic knowledge of how Cape Town's local government undertakes climate adaptation, it is argued that the rounds model of decision making provides conceptual tools to better understand and represent how the process of climate adaptation in cities is undertaken; tools that can be used to enhance the pathways model. The study concludes that progress in adapting cities to a changing climate is currently constrained by both the problems and potential solutions or interventions being too technical for most politicians to deal with and prioritize and too political for most technical and administrative officials to design and implement. It calls for urban climate adaptation to be understood as distributed across a multitude of actors pursuing concurrent, discontinuous processes, and thereby focus needs to be on fostering collaboration and coordination, rather than fixating on single actors, policies, plans or projects.
Many scholars highlight the essence of a participatory governance approach to climate change adaptation and the positive impact of allowing multiple actors participation in the process of decision making as a determinant for successful adaptation to climate change. However, political culture in some societies does not support participation, and people are neither interested nor even aware of political actions. There are very few studies carried out that examine cultural, especially political cultural, influences over governing climate change adaptation. In response to this academic gap, this research aims to investigate how political culture influences a governance approach to climate change adaptation. Using an empirical case study of the process of formulating national climate change adaptation policies in South Korea, this study examines the way decisions are made about climate change policies under ‘dominant bureaucratic’, ‘authoritarian’ and ‘weak participant’ political cultures and investigates how such political cultures will hamper or encourage a governance approach to effective climate change adaptation. This study therefore advances knowledge about how political culture influences climate change adaptation. It provides a basis for comparative analyses of other political cultures in different regions and will enable scholars to understand the challenges that particular forms of governance hold for promoting climate change adaptation.
30 December 2015
<p> In order to make informed decisions in response to future climate change, researchers, policy-makers, and the public need climate projections at the scale of few kilometers, rather than the scales provided by Global Climate Models. The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) is such a recent effort that addresses this necessity. As the climate models contain various levels of uncertainty, it is essential to evaluate the performance of such models and their representativeness of regional climate characteristics. When assessing climate change impacts, precipitation is a crucial variable, due to its direct influence on many aspects of our natural-human ecosystems such as freshwater resources, agriculture and energy production, and health and infrastructure. The current study performs an evaluation analysis of precipitation simulations produced by a set of dynamically downscaled climate models provided by the NARCCAP program. The Assessment analysis is implemented for a period that covers 20 to 30 years (1970-1999), depending on joint availability of both the observational and the NARCCAP datasets. In addition to direct comparison versus observations, the hindcast NARCCAP simulations are used within a hydrologic modeling analysis for a regional ecosystem in coastal Louisiana (Chenier Plain). The study concludes the NARCCAP simulations have systematic biases in representing average precipitation amounts, but are successful at capturing some of the characteristics on spatial and temporal variability. The study also reveals the effect of precipitation on salinity concentrations in the Chenier Plain as a result of using different precipitation forcing fields. In the future, special efforts should be made to reduce biases in the NARCCAP simulations, which can then lead to a better presentation of regional climate scenarios for use by decision makers and resource managers.</p>
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