1 
Heating the Early Universe : Numerical Methods and Their AnalysisLee, Kai Yan January 2016 (has links)
During the epoch when the first collapsed structures formed (6<z<50) our Universe went through an extended period of changes. Some of the radiation from the first stars and accreting black holes in those structures escaped and changed the state of the Intergalactic Medium (IGM). The era of this global phase change in which the state of the IGM was transformed from cold and neutral to warm and ionized, is called the Epoch of Reionization.In this thesis we focus on numerical methods to calculate the effects of this escaping radiation. We start by considering the performance of the cosmological radiative transfer code C2Ray. We find that although this code efficiently and accurately solves for the changes in the ionized fractions, it can yield inaccurate results for the temperature changes. We introduce two new elements to improve the code. The first element, an adaptive time step algorithm, quickly determines an optimal time step by only considering the computational cells relevant for this determination. The second element, asynchronous evolution, allows different cells to evolve with different time steps. An important constituent of methods to calculate the effects of ionizing radiation is the transport of photons through the computational domain or ``raytracing''. We devise a novel ray tracing method called PYRAMID which uses a new geometry  the pyramidal geometry. This geometry shares properties with both the standard Cartesian and spherical geometries. This makes it on the one hand easy to use in conjunction with a Cartesian grid and on the other hand ideally suited to trace radiation from a radially emitting source. A timedependent photoionization calculation not only requires tracing the path of photons but also solving the coupled set of photoionization and thermal equations. Several different solvers for these equations are in use in cosmological radiative transfer codes. We conduct a detailed and quantitative comparison of four different standard solvers in which we evaluate how their accuracy depends on the choice of the time step. This comparison shows that their performance can be characterized by two simple parameters and that the C2Ray generally performs best. / <p>At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 2: Submitted. Paper 3: Submitted.</p>

2 
Flawed nature cosmologyPederson, Steven Patrick January 2008 (has links)
[Abstract]: This thesis presents a new cosmological model based on a blankslate reconsideration of the issue of the first cause in cosmology. It is proposed that a preBig Bang evolution of nature occurred that removes the need for postulating the existence of matter, energy and time. This new approach leads to an underlyingconceptualisation of nature consistent with quantum mechanics.The problems of first cause and initial conditions in cosmology are reconsidered. It is proposed that the initial conditions were flawed and evolved toproduce the Big Bang as a natural response to these flaws. This contrasts with the traditional approach of postulating a homogeneous initial state requiring perturbation by an additional first cause.In flawed nature cosmology the origin of time occurs as a natural response to the flawed set of initial conditions, and removes the need to postulate time. The development of causality remains an ongoing process rather than being fully determined by the first cause. Ongoing development of causality provides a conceptual understanding of the probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics and itsrelationship with classical physics.Flawed nature cosmology is used to examine preBig Bang evolution, in order to justify rather than postulate a set of conditions leading to the Big Bang. Thisexamination of preBig Bang evolution also introduces a structured method to start addressing the question of the origin of matter and the forces of nature.Flawed nature cosmology reconsiders the issues that introduced the manyuniverses concept into physics such as spontaneous first causes, the manyworlds interpretation of quantum mechanics, brane cosmology’s use of the extra dimensions in string theory, and parallel universes to solve the fine tuning problem. The manyuniversesconcept has found favour, as much of the puzzling behaviour of the universe can be avoided by simply stating that if there are many universes, one couldmatch our experience. In contrast, flawed nature cosmology demonstrates that the universe we experience is the unique product of its evolutionary history.

3 
Probing the new cosmologyZentner, Andrew, January 2003 (has links)
Thesis (Ph. D.)Ohio State University, 2003. / Title from first page of PDF file. Document formatted into pages; contains xvi, 273 p.; also contains graphics (some col.). Includes abstract and vita. Advisor: Terrence P. Walker, Dept. of Physics. Includes bibliographical references (p. 257273).

4 
Does the universe require a cause?Sickler, Bradley L. January 2002 (has links)
Thesis (M.A.)Trinity International University, 2002. / Abstract. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 101105).

5 
Average cosmic evolution in a lumpy universeDuley, James January 2011 (has links)
The procedure of averaging and coarsegraining of the gravitational field equations with sources are investigated in both Newtonian gravity and in general relativity.
In particular the schemes of Buchert and Korzyńnski are examined and compared in both situations. In Newtonian gravity it is shown how to calculate the tidal tensor given boundary conditions for it and how to average it given those boundary conditions. It is also shown that one can always choose boundary conditions to make the average tidal tensor vanish or take any value. The problems of coarsegraining tensors in general relativity are critically examined, and a set of relevant conditions for such a procedure are enumerated. Korzyńnski's covariant coarsegraining procedure is reviewed and applied to a particular case. For the case of the LemaîtreTolmanBondi model it is shown that the backreaction was always zero for a centred spherical coarsegraining domain.
Wiltshire's timescape model, which applies a particular observational interpretation to Buchert's averaging scheme, is reviewed. The dust timescape model of Wiltshire is extended by the addition of a homogeneous radiation source. This model is solved numerically and it is shown not to vary significantly from the dust model since the redshift z ≈ 30, which is when the backreaction and radiation density are equal. The model is integrated back in time from the surface of last scattering with results indicating a breakdown in aspects of the model at early times.

6 
Inhomogeneous conformal cosmological models /Campbell, Robert Alan. January 1985 (has links) (PDF)
Thesis (Ph. D.)University of Adelaide, 1986. / Includes bibliographical references (leaves 152156).

7 
Does the universe require a cause?Sickler, Bradley L. January 2002 (has links) (PDF)
Thesis (M.A.)Trinity International University, 2002. / Abstract. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 101105).

8 
La cosmologie des pa Koua et L'astronomie moderne. prévision d'une nouvelle planète ...Liu, Tzǔhua. January 1940 (has links)
ThèseUniversité de Paris. / "Bibliographie": p. [142]151.

9 
Die antike und moderne Auffassung vom Naturgeschehen mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der mittelalterlichen Impetustheorie.Camenzind, Clara, January 1926 (has links)
Diss.Zürich. / Includes bibliographical references (p. [84]).

10 
The unity of the universe according to Alfred North WhiteheadLintz, Edward J. Whitehead, Alfred North, January 1939 (has links)
Thesis (Ph. D.)University of Fribourg, 1939. / Includes bibliographical references (p. 9596).

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