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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

A study of the dynamics of organisation-specific innovation-influencing factors within the context of software firms in Sri Lanka

Rajapaksa Mudiyanselage Udagedara, S. U. January 2014 (has links)
The study aims to uncover the dynamics of innovation-influencing factors within a developing country context as there is a need for empirical research within a weak national system of innovation. One theory that can enhance our understanding of the analytical power of the dynamics of innovation-influencing factors broadly and deeply, is the Theory of Innovation Management, but this perspective lacks the ability to appreciate the varying effect of influencing factors on innovation activities with evolutionary change, and hence, to predict the future innovation performance. This research fills this gap and investigates the dynamic, complex, and interdependent relationships between an organisation’s past, present, and emergent life, with special reference to innovation-influencing factors at the organisational level. In so doing, the study considers three key research questions, these being: (a) are there specific patterns of dynamics of organisational factors influencing innovation and types of innovation adoption, and if so what are the dynamics of organisational factors that affect the adoption of innovation with the evolutionary change of the organisations? (b) how do the dynamics of organisational factors affect the adoption of innovation? and (c) why do the dynamics of organisational factors affect the adoption of innovation? In addressing these three research questions, first, the existing innovation-related literature was critically reviewed. Secondly, a survey was conducted of 145 software firms to identify the dynamics of innovation-influencing factors. Thirdly, empirical work was undertaken in four software companies in Sri Lanka to build the explanations relating to the effect of organisational dynamics on firms’ innovation activities. And finally, the evidence from the questionnaire survey and the case studies was corroborated to strengthen the findings. The empirical results show that firms move from an informal organisation to a more formal business corporation and adopt different types of innovation at different stages of organisational development. It was found that the adoption of innovation takes the form of product-process and organisational pattern, and that there is harmony between the pattern of innovation adoption and organisational dynamics. This study also reveals the varying effect of organisation-specific factors on innovation at different stages as these factors remain within the organisation as residual, dominant, and emergent forms at a certain point in time.

Mainstreaming women in disaster risk reduction in the built environment

Ginige, K. N. January 2014 (has links)
Natural disasters have long-term implications on sustainable development. They mainly destroy the built environment thereby hindering economic and social development, and causing environment degradation. Mainstreaming disaster risk reduction into the built environment is therefore critical for ensuring sustainable development. Improving the resilience of humans who live in the built environment, particularly the more vulnerable is a significant component of accomplishing overall disaster risk reduction in the built environment (DRR in the BE). Having observed women to be a group of humans more vulnerable to natural disasters due to social, economic, biological conditions and processes and their roles and responsibilities, it was recognised that it is important to mainstream them into disaster risk reduction within the context of the built environment. In this context, this doctoral research investigates the process of mainstreaming women, i.e. how the knowledge and needs of women, which help to reduce their disaster vulnerability, can be identified and integrated into the built environment. The research design of the study incorporates a social constructivism view point and associates with constructionism ontology and interpretivism epistemology. A literature review and a pilot round of interviews with experts in DRR in the BE were undertaken to improve the knowledge of the associated concepts pertaining to the research. Empirical investigation of the study incorporates a single case, mono method research which deploys qualitative, in-depth interviews for data collection. Sri Lanka is the case study for the research whilst the interview respondents are a group of professionals involved in DRR in the BE of the country. Data analysis for the study follows thematic analysis and combines inductive reasoning and abductive reasoning in order to build systematic, explanatory accounts from concepts and meanings embedded in the interview responses. The study reveals the importance of the process of mainstreaming women into DRR in the BE whilst demonstrating the various types of DRR knowledge and needs of women and, methods that facilitate identification of the needs and knowledge, and the ways of integrating them into the built environment. A set of guidelines is developed to inform the process of mainstreaming, identifying the existing barriers, ways of promoting the process, parties responsible, relevant protocols and suggestions for good practice in implementing the process. Improvements to the regulatory framework, enhancement of essential resources and awareness building of all relevant parties are considered to be the main ways towards process improvement.

Eco-Gamification of the Swedish Recycling System : The Pantarevir Game

Hamberg, Lukas, Hilding, Pontus, Källbom, Anton January 2016 (has links)
This is a report which details an independent project for the Computer and Information Engineering Programme held at Uppsala University involving the design and development of a mobile application to promote recycling habits. The application is called Pantarevir and its purpose is to act as a competitive game in which users conquer territories within a city by recycling more than other users within the same area. The project explores the concept of gamification in which themes and concepts normally found in games are in-cooperated in a non-game context. The non-game context for this project is the act of recycling. The Pantarevir game transforms recycling into a competitive game, designed to form an environmental awareness and mindset in its players as well as being fun to play. / Denna rapport beskriver ett oberoende projekt för Civilingenjörsprogrammet inom Informationsteknologi på Uppsala Universitet. Rapporten handlar om designen och utvecklingen av en mobilapplikation för att uppmärksamma människors återvinningsvanor. Applikationen heter Pantarevir och dess syfte är att fungera som ett tävlingsinriktat spel där användare tävlar om att ta över områden inom sin stad. Detta sker genom att tävla om vem som pantar mest inom ett område. Projektet utforskar konceptet spelifiering där teman och koncept som normalt sett finnes i spel samverkar inom något som normalt sett inte förknippas med spel. I detta fall handlar det om att spelifiera återvinning. Spelet Pantarevir förvandlar återvinning till ett tävlingsinriktat spel, framtaget för att uppmärksamma påföljden av återvinning samt ha en positiv inverkan på spelarna. Detta tillsammans med att vara ett spel vilket spelare även finner underhållande.

Leadership practices to address cultural and behavioural challenges in construction partnering projects

Thurairajah, N. January 2013 (has links)
Partnering and related forms of collaboration have been seen as a way of tackling fragmentation and lack of integration that have bedevilled attempts to improve project performance over the years. Despite the amount of interest shown in partnering, actual empirical research is sparse and much of the work is notable for its prescriptive tendencies and heavy reliance on anecdotal data with a focus on the experience of the exemplar organisations. Thus, it is important to adequately address and evaluate the challenges and potential problems in construction partnering. A synthesis of construction partnering literature shows that central to any successful partnering arrangement is the change in cultural and behavioural characteristics towards mutual trust and understanding. Therefore, it is essential to bring about cultural change, which encourages project participants to transgress conflicting interests and to build a shared culture. Leadership is seen as the source of beliefs and values that forms shared assumptions of organisational culture. Hence, it is important to focus on leadership practices to embed and transmit a collaborative culture in construction partnering projects. This research investigates cultural and behavioural challenges via a systematic literature review and refines its root causes by collecting and analysing interview data from academic and industry experts. Content analysis of root causes and challenges were represented in the form of a cultural web diagram, and categorised into rituals and routines, stories, symbols, power, structure and control system related challenges. Content analysis of relevant leadership practices pointed out the significance of embedding and reinforcing leadership practices during the construction stage of a project to address cultural and behavioural root causes. This initial conceptual framework for leadership practices was then refined using a multiple case study research approach on UK construction partnering projects. This initial conceptual framework for leadership practices was then refined using a multiple case study research approach on UK construction partnering projects. The findings of this study indicate that a threefold leadership framework comprising ‘initial embedding mechanisms’, ‘continuous embedding mechanisms’ and ‘reinforcement mechanisms’ is essential to tackle cultural and behavioural challenges and their root causes in construction partnering projects.

Information technology business value model for engineering and construction industry

Kassim, Y. H. January 2012 (has links)
The idea that the deployment and strategic utilization of information technology (IT) resources as factors of production can be used by organisations to improve performances has been around for many decades. The contributions of the IT resources in improving organisation’s performances give rise to what is termed IT business value (ITBV). There have been varieties of conceptualizations and attempts to measure the ITBV by different researchers. However, most of these attempts to quantify ITBV have led to inconsistencies and paradoxes. Furthermore, a major part of the literature in the area continues to be anecdotal and primarily descriptive. Therefore, there is little evidence of an accepted theoretical framework for applying the ideas and there is even less in the way of empirical evidence concerning the validity and utility of these concepts. The research adopts multi-theoretical concepts of process-based, resource-based and microeconomics views as the theoretical framework in order to mitigate the absence of structured theoretical framework in the previous studies. A non parametric approach of Data Envelopment Analysis was used for empirical testing of the model developed. The findings present an empirically tested model for benchmarking IT-induced productivity in construction industry. Also the outcome of the research establishes that IT provides business value in undertaking the engineering and construction business processes, which leads to significant impact on the organisations performances in the areas of project delivery, customer relationship and overall profit growth. For practical purposes, the model could be used to provide support to managers in decision making on IT investments, utilization of the IT resources and how combination of strategic IT resources with other organizational resources could in increase efficiency in delivering project value chains.

An investigation into the development of an effective benefits realisation process for healthcare infrastructure projects

Sapountzis, S. January 2013 (has links)
Traditionally, healthcare infrastructure programmes and projects determine their level of success mainly against cost, quality and time of delivery, and not on the degree to which benefits or impacts are delivered. Too often people have assumed that a programme or project will achieve certain benefits, without carrying out analysis to find out what users, partners and other stakeholders really value or how these benefits are to be achieved. They concentrate their efforts on achieving outputs, such as a new building, an Information Technology (IT) system, or a change to a service. By the time these goals are delivered, there is limited understanding of the specific anticipated benefits and limited ability to influence, or even track, their achievements. Targeting clarification of impacts and benefits is emerging as a method to assist healthcare organisations to manage whole life cycle of programmes from development, construction to operations and facilities management. This was presented as an opportunity to investigate into the development of a Benefits Realisation (BeReal) process. A constructive and case study research strategy was deployed for the investigation, development and validation of the BeReal process. A number of research methods such as workshops, observations and questionnaires were used to collect data for the research. A relevant literature review was conducted and included reviews into benefits management and realisation approaches and its satellite subjects, including programme and project management, stakeholder management, evaluation techniques etc. The literature review findings, discussions with healthcare practitioners and experts in the subject area as well as the author’s personal experiences were integrated with a number of case study findings to inform, develop and validate the BeReal process. The process consists of five phases, which consider the identification and use of benefits as the main driver for the delivery of healthcare infrastructure projects with a more predictable success outcome. The main contribution of this research is in terms of presenting a methodology of investigating and developing a process that embraces a benefits realisation approach. The process is built upon integrating project management best practices and continuous improvement methods. It promotes knowledge flow down and sharing by managing stakeholders’ expectations throughout the change lifecycle, when planning and delivering infrastructure programmes.

Empowering women during post disaster reconstruction

Thurairajah, Nirooja January 2013 (has links)
The frequent occurrences of unprecedented natural disasters continue to pose the greatest threat to many countries around the world. The ‘shock’ that these natural disasters give has taken a toll especially on developing countries’ economies. Many vulnerable groups within these countries are the most severely affected by disasters. Among them, women face many difficulties during the post disaster phase. Apart from poverty, environmental degradation and different needs of men and women, the marginalised role of women in post disaster reconstruction further contributes to women's vulnerability in post disaster situations. In most of the instances, although disaster management efforts are designed to benefit both men and women, in practice a larger share of benefits and resources go to men while women continue to remain marginalised. One of the main sustainable means to overcome the marginalised conditions of women is through an adjustment process to allow them to fulfil their basic human development needs. The concept of empowerment is based on the understanding that those who have been denied the ability to make strategic life choices can acquire such ability through this concept. The concept of empowerment facilitates a process whereby individual attitudes and capabilities, combined with collaborative actions result in a transformation to the desired achievements. In this context, the research aims to explore and investigate the concept of empowerment for women within post disaster reconstruction in order to formulate a strategy that integrates community women’s empowerment in disaster reconstruction activities. This research takes a position in between a positivism stance and a social constructionism stance in the continuum of philosophy and adapts a survey research strategy with mixed methods of research techniques. The research data collection was conducted in three phases. During the first phase, semi-structured interviews were conducted among experts in Sri Lanka while the second phase focused on collecting the perspectives from disaster affected communities using structured interviews and questionnaires. The third phase gathered information from groups of the affected communities’ members. Data was then analysed using content analysis, cognitive mapping and descriptive statistical techniques. The research investigated women’s status in post disaster situations; effects of post disaster reconstruction on women; and established factors that influence women’s empowerment in post disaster reconstruction. In addition, the research recommended strategies that could empower women during post disaster reconstruction. It is expected that the research will add empirical evidence on the process of women’s empowerment in post disaster reconstruction to the existing body of knowledge, and will benefit the government, humanitarian organisations and research institutions working on women’s empowerment.

An investigation into the consideration of children and young peoples' preferences in children's hospital design

Sfandyari Fard, E. January 2013 (has links)
This study was conducted to increase the understanding of the involvement of children in the design process of the children's hospitals environment from their perspectives. It was aimed to build rich picture of the process, methods, benefits and problems associated with engaging children during the design process of children’s hospital. It also provides a set of guidelines to apply for the process of involvement, which can be applied in future design projects conducted with children. This study was conducted to increase the understanding of the involvement of children in the design process of the children's hospitals environment from their perspectives. It was aimed to build rich picture of the process, methods, benefits and problems associated with engaging children during the design process of children’s hospital. It also provides a set of guidelines to apply for the process of involvement, which can be applied in future design projects conducted with children. The research methodology employed a case study approach, including two case studies: Royal Alexandra children’s Hospital and Royal Manchester Children’s Hospital. The process of identifying children’s preferences and considering them into the different stages of the design process is described. Different research techniques have been applied, including literature review and synthesis, interviews and content analysis. The contribution of this research is to address the gap identified in the literature and practice between the hospital design process and the needs of its users, i.e. children. It is intended to addresses the role of user perspective, the empowerment of the users, and the quality of the final outcome. These issues are examined from the points of view of hospital staff, designer, PFI. As a result, a better understanding of children and young people’s participation during the design process of hospital was achieved. The research has produced a set of guidelines for the process of involvement, which can be applied in future design projects to support project teams to define the process and tools for children’s participation.

Assessing resistance to technological change for improved job performance in the UAE (public sectors)

Alameri, M. January 2013 (has links)
Globalization, restructuring and new technology developments in each and every sector has bought tremendous changes in all aspects of business and human lifestyles. One of the major changes that took place in business is change technology. Technology innovation or change has an important influence on organizational performance. There is a close relationship between technology change, human resource management and organizational performance. Change in technology has been identified to have both positive and negative effects on employees work performance and attitude. Thus the current study aims at developing a framework to identify the factors that may point to employees’ resistance to technological change within UAE public companies and to use the framework to identify opportunities for improvement in job performance. Objectives are to identify the factors, which call for technological change that lead to technological resistance, improvement in job performance, develop a framework for assessing employee resistance to technological change and identify opportunities for improvement, further validate framework using case studies in the UAE and finally propose valid recommendations for overcoming employee resistance to technological change in the UAE. Survey and semi structured interviews were conducted with HR managers in three UAE public sector companies. Survey responses were measured using a five point Likert scale. Reliability test and ANOVA analysis were carried out for analyzing the collected data. Results indicate technological development as major reason for change. Reward policy is given priority for indicators of job performance effectiveness this has led to improvement in the quality of work, accomplishing task, eliminate errors. Further major reasons for resistance to technological change from management perspective were found to be fear of overload, loss of power, increasing work load and from employee perspective need to learn and re-learn, lack of appropriate reward policies. Measures and opportunities for improvement to overcome resistance to change brought about by new technological implementations UAE public sector have taken major steps to work towards resistance to technology change. There is a need to study as to what extent employees and management are able to cope with new systems and conduct regular surveys and to - 5 - collect opinions from employees to know what they need in order to cope with the new technology. Further it is essential for employees and managers to make them selves comfortable in accepting change with the help of training and other knowledgeable sources.

Developing a construction management system based on lean construction and building information modelling

Dave, B. A. January 2013 (has links)
This research aims at improving construction management through simultaneous implementation of Lean Construction and Building Information Modelling. Specifically, the area of production management and control is addressed by developing a prototype software system that supports Lean Construction processes and provides a visual interface through Building Information Modelling. The research addresses a practically relevant problem, and follows the Design Science Research method. The first stage of the research explores the problem area through the author’s own observation of industrial practice, and also through a literature review. At the broad level, a two-fold problem is identified; first the problems with the production management process itself, and second the problems with visualisation and management of the product model and its integration with the production management. At the fundamental level, it is found that many of these problems are linked with the deficient theory behind production, which is predominantly based on the “Transformation” view of production. Additionally, it is found that the previous attempts at solving the problems of construction management through information systems have only met with limited success as they mostly address the peripheral processes rather than the core area of production management. The second stage of the research explores and puts forward potential solutions to overcome the problems of production management. Lean Construction is identified as a partial solution to the production planning and control process. Specifically, the Last Planner SystemTM of production control is found to improve the productivity and efficiency of the production process by reducing variability, improving reliability and collaboration and introducing continuous improvement. At the same time, it is found that Building Information Modelling helps overcome many of the problems found with the traditional product management techniques (such as 2D and 3D CAD), by providing an object oriented, parametric and visual representation of the product. It is also found that the application of Building Information Modelling is relevant to all aspects of the construction process. Through a conceptual analysis, significant synergies between Lean Construction and Building Information Modelling are identified, with applications also spanning the entire construction lifecycle. Specific benefits to the production management process are also found, backed by empirical evidence. However, it is also found that the current Building Information Modelling systems do not fully support an integrated implementation of production management. This particular aspect of an integrated and visual system, which would support the core production management process, is identified as a potential solution area. The third stage of the research is dedicated to the design and development of a software system called VisiLean, which provides a collaborative planning and control platform, which is integrated with the Building Information Modelling platform, and which supports the production management process. A prototype system is developed through an iterative and incremental process, through simultaneous feedback, evaluation and review. The fourth stage of the research includes the evaluation of the VisiLean prototype through a demonstration and feedback process. At this stage, the design, development and evaluation process is analyzed and discussed. Finally, the contributions to the theory and the body of knowledge are identified, along with the suggestions for future development.

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