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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

The development of Tisbe holothuriae as a live diet for larval flatfish rearing

Heath, Philip L. January 1994 (has links)
No description available.
2

Sub-lethal effects of hypoxia on harpacticoid copepod reproduction

Ryckman, Laura Yukiko Chu 11 October 2010 (has links)
Areas of hypoxia are found in coastal areas worldwide, and have become increasingly widespread. These areas vary in their duration and dissolved oxygen concentration from occasional diurnal hypoxia, as found in Corpus Christi Bay, Texas, seasonal hypoxia as in the northern Gulf of Mexico, to continuous hypoxia as found in oceanic oxygen minimum zones. The effects of exposure to low dissolved oxygen (DO) depend on the duration of exposure, the DO concentration and an organism’s tolerance to hypoxic conditions. Most studies have focused on lethal effects of hypoxia by comparing the abundance of benthic organisms and the species composition of benthic communities between hypoxic and normoxic areas. Sub-lethal effects of such as changes in reproduction may occur at less severe hypoxic conditions (by definition), but may still have effects at the population level. The goal of this study is to examine the sub-lethal reproductive effects of low DO on harpacticoid copepods. The life-history traits and reproductive biology of meiobenthic harpacticoid copepods make this group of organisms useful as test organisms to measure the sub-lethal effects of hypoxia on reproduction. It is hypothesized that changes in reproductive traits may be observed at DO concentrations higher than those that cause lethal effects because of the high energetic cost of female harpacticoid reproduction which may result in reduced fitness. Laboratory studies were conducted to examine the effects of low DO concentrations on survival, egg production, and the number and size of eggs. Harpacticoid population abundance, biomass and the abundance of ovigerous females were measured from field samples collected across sites that varied in their degree and duration of exposure to low DO. To contrast the effects of hypoxia in environments with different hypoxic exposures, field studies were carried out in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico in an area with near constant summer hypoxia, and in southeast corner of Corpus Christi Bay, Texas which experiences intermittent hypoxia often for less than one hour in the early morning hours during summer. At both field sites total copepod abundance, biomass and the abundance of ovigerous females were reduced at the most hypoxic site type compared the reference sites. In Corpus Christi Bay, total and ovigerous female abundance varied with exposure to hypoxia, but the relative declines in abundance and biomass were less dramatic than in the northern Gulf of Mexico. In the northern Gulf of Mexico, the percentage of ovigerous females within the total harpacticoids collected was reduced (p<0.001) to 3% at the Intermediate and 1% at the Hypoxic sites during the summers, but in the fall of 2007 at all transects had similar percentages (p = 0.81) of ovigerous females which ranged from 13 to 16%. Reference sites had a higher number of families with ovigerous females, and the relative abundances of those families were more evenly distributed at Reference sites compared to Hypoxic and Intermediate transects. Patterns of ovigerous female abundance with respect to DO concentration were similar across numerous harpacticoid families found at the study sites. Harpacticoid copepods in laboratory studies tolerated near anoxic DO conditions for longer than 120 hours. Average survival rates of the harpacticoids Schizopera knabeni and Nitokra affinis during periods of low DO with elevated ammonium concentrations were less than 50%, while survival rates for the other treatments were near 100%. The formation of an egg mass was reduced in the near anoxia treatment, but egg clutches did not form at all in the treatment that combined near anoxia and 10 micromolar ammonium. The DO concentration and presence of ammonium were important factors to the severity of population decline that were illustrated by population estimate calculations. Population estimates based on laboratory measurements of Nitokra affinis resulted in calculations of reduced survival and reproductive rates related to hypoxic exposure greatly decrease the potential population of the group, which may affect the copepod population’s ability to recover from hypoxic events. The effects of hypoxia on harpacticoid copepods are the result of the length of exposure, the concentration of low dissolved oxygen and exposure to other chemical fluxes that increase during periods of hypoxia. The measurement of reproductive indicators, such as the presence of an egg mass and the proportion of ovigerous females in a population, could be used to indicate the adverse environmental effects of low dissolved oxygen exposure. The studies from this dissertation are the first to document reproductive effects of low dissolved oxygen on harpacticoid populations in the field. Laboratory studies within this dissertation indicate the interaction between ammonium and hypoxia on survival and reproduction in harpacticoids. Future studies are needed to further determine the effects of hypoxia on the whole-life cycle of harpacticoid copepods. / text
3

Population modeling using harpacticoid copepods : Bridging the gap between individual-level effects and protection goals of environmental risk assessment

Lundström Belleza, Elin January 2014 (has links)
To protect the environment from contaminants, environmental risk assessment (ERA) evaluates the risk of adverse effects to populations, communities and ecosystems. Environmental management decisions rely on ERAs, which commonly are based on a few endpoints at the individual organism level. To bridge the gap between what is measured and what is intended for protection, individual-level effects can be integrated in population models, and translated to the population level. The general aim of this doctoral thesis was to extrapolate individual-level effects of harpacticoid copepods to the population level by developing and using population models. Matrix models and individual based models were developed and applied to life-history data of Nitocra spinipes and Amphiascus tenuiremis, and demographic equations were used to calculate population-level effects in low- and high-density populations. As a basis for the population models, individual-level processes were studied. Development was found to be more sensitive compared to reproduction in standard ecotoxicity tests measuring life-history data. Additional experimental animals would improve statistical power for reproductive endpoints, but at high labor and cost. Therefore, a new test-design was developed in this thesis. Exposing animals in groups included a higher number of animals without increased workload. The number of reproducing females was increased, and the statistical power of reproduction was improved. Individual-level effects were more or equally sensitive compared to population-level effects, and individual-level effects were translated to the population level to various degrees by population models of different complexities. More complex models showed stronger effects at the population level compared to the simpler models. Density dependence affected N. spinipes populations negatively so that toxicant effects were stronger at higher population densities. The tools presented here can be used to assess the toxicity of environmental contaminants at the individual and population level, improve ERA, and thereby the basis for environmental management. / <p>At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Submitted. Paper 4: Manuscript.</p>

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