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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

Heightened maternal inflammation is linked to placental oxidative and nitrosative stress associated with fetal growth restriction in the rat

Sperou, Arissa 05 July 2013 (has links)
Deficient trophoblast invasion and spiral artery remodeling are associated with pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia (PE) and fetal growth restriction (FGR). Using a model in which pregnant Wistar rats are given daily, low-dose, injections of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 10 – 40 µg/kg) on gestational days (GD) 13.5 – 16.5, our group has shown that abnormal maternal inflammation is causally linked to shallow trophoblast invasion, deficient spiral artery remodeling, and altered utero-placental hemodynamics leading to FGR/PE; these alterations were shown to be mediated by TNF-a. The present research evaluated certain consequences of decreased placental perfusion; this was accomplished by examining placental alterations indicative of decreased placental perfusion. Additionally, the role of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) was determined as a potential therapeutic to prevent the consequences of decreased placental perfusion. Results indicated that dams experiencing heightened maternal inflammation showed significantly greater expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1a (HIF-1a) and nitrotyrosine, both of which are markers of decreased perfusion and oxidative/nitrosative stress. Contrary to expectations, inflammation did not appear to affect nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, as revealed by a lack of change in placental or plasma levels of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). However, continuous transdermal administration of GTN (25 µg/hr) on GD 12.5 – 16.5 prevented the accumulation of HIF-1a and nitrotyrosine in placentas from LPS-treated rats. These results support the concept that maternal inflammation contributes to placental hypoxia and oxidative/nitrosative stress. Additionally, they indicate that GTN has potential applications in the treatment and/or prevention of pregnancy complications associated with abnormal maternal inflammation. / Thesis (Master, Anatomy & Cell Biology) -- Queen's University, 2013-07-05 14:37:05.15

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