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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
11

The effect of metal speciation of the biodegradation of nitrilotriacetic acid

White, Victoria Elizabeth January 1998 (has links)
No description available.
12

A Numerical Simulation of HOPs Transport with a Sorption-Desorption Kinematic Model

Lin, Yu-Jen 22 September 2003 (has links)
The transport of health-related organic micropollutans has been a major water quality and environmental issue in the past few decades. Because of their high toxicity, long environmental half-life and high bioaccumulation factors, many of the hydrophobic organic pollutants (HOPs) are listed as priority pollutants in many countries. Although not all of the chemical and physical factors should be considered in the fate of transportation of all chemicals, a simple one-dimensional mathematical model used to simulate all of the factors was conceptually developed (Bobba et al., 1996). In that study, most important parameters needed in the model were empirically fitted. For numerical simulation of the behaviors of pollutants in the environment, it is important to provide a feasible chemical and physical transport mechanism to describe the geo-chemical and geophysical interactions involved in the system. In this study a general two-dimensional hydrodynamic numerical simulation model is developed .This model can readily extend to a three-dimensional one. The model includes all possible physical and chemical factors that might affect the transport of the pollutants. For validation and demonstration purpose, only sorption-desorption between specified dissolved organic material and phase are studied in the present study. The hydrodynamic model is verified by comparing with the reported numerical results. The numerical model then incorporates the sorption-desorption terms and the sediment effects. From the results of the simulation, the sorption-desorption mechanism and sediment scavenge effect are founded to significantly affects the pollutants fate and transport of an outfall discharge.
13

Enantiomer- and isomer-specific fate of persistent organic pollutants in the environment

Ross, Matthew Stephen Unknown Date
No description available.
14

Degradação de poluentes orgânicos utilizando filmes de TiO2 modificados com íons prata

Araújo, Adriana Barbosa [UNESP] 26 May 2006 (has links) (PDF)
Made available in DSpace on 2014-06-11T19:35:07Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 0 Previous issue date: 2006-05-26Bitstream added on 2014-06-13T18:46:19Z : No. of bitstreams: 1 araujo_ab_dr_araiq.pdf: 1779379 bytes, checksum: 50326f1d473f7e1c075f9321705d0377 (MD5) / Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) / O presente trabalho descreve a utilização de filmes de TiO2 e TiO2 modificados com prata, preparados pelo método sol-gel, na fotodegradação de fenol e fluidos de corte. Os filmes foram imobilizados em substratos de vidro pela técnica de dip-coating e caracterizados por espectrofotometria no UV-Vis, difração de raios-X, microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e microscopia eletrônica de varredura de alta resolução (FEG-MEV). Dentre os filmes de TiO2, o que apresentou maior atividade foi o filme denominado TiO2 misto 24 h, que degradou em torno de 65% (pH= 5,0) dos poluentes orgânicos estudados. O filme modificado apresentou um aumento de cerca de 20% na degradação dos mesmos poluentes quando comparado ao filme de TiO2 misto 24 h. Também foi estudada a fotodegradação de fluidos de corte empregando o TiO2 P 25 em função do pH das amostras. A maior porcentagem de degradação, foi obtida em pH= 8,0 para todos os fluidos estudados. / The present work describes the use of immobilized films of TiO2 and TiO2 modified with silver, prepared by the sol-gel method, in the photodegradation of phenol and cutting fluids. TiO2 films had been immobilized in glass substrate by the dip-coating technique and characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and field emission gun - scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM). Among the TiO2 films, what presented greater activity was the one called film mixing TiO2 24 h, which degraded around 65% (pH= 5,0) of the studied organic pollutants. The modified film presented an increase of about 20% in the photodegradation of the same pollutants when compared to the film mixing TiO2 24 h. The fotodegradation of cut fluid using TiO2 P 25 as a function of pH of the samples was also studied. The greater percentage of photodegradation, was gotten in pH= 8,0 for all studied fluids.
15

Human exposure to persistent organic pollutants : Illustrated by four case studies in Europe

Weiss, Jana January 2006 (has links)
<p>An extensive use of chemicals in countless consumer products has resulted in human exposure to several persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Sufficient knowledge about their chemical composition properties and environmental faith is required, to be able to proper risk assess and regulate the substances. Significant data gaps exist regarding knowledge of actual exposure to humans and toxicological effect data.</p><p>The objective of this thesis was to add human exposure data of a few POPs from four case studies. The analytes discussed in this thesis are polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDDs/PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD).</p><p>Three European populations were studied. Milk was analysed from a group of women, who were accidentally exposed to high levels of 2,3,7,8-TetraCDD (TCDD) in Seveso, 1976. Still today, twice as high TCDD levels were recorded in the milk, compared to background concentrations. Serum was analysed from mothers and their infants from The Netherlands. Cord serum contained equal amounts of POPs as in mother’s blood, indicating non-hindered placenta transfer. Serum analysed from Swedish men and women with a high fish intake had elevated PCB and PCB metabolite (OH-PCB) levels. Additionally, butter was collected worldwide and shown to be a suitable matrix for dairy product survey of POPs.</p><p>The exposure levels in the four papers were compared to recently reported exposure levels in Europe. It is indicated in the thesis that the PCDDs/PCDFs and PCBs toxic equivalency (TEQ) levels are of concern, i.e. the ratio between threshold levels for adverse health effects and TEQ exposure levels is lower than requested margin of safety. Average levels of PBDE/HBCDD in the European population are estimated to be of no concern today, but for individuals with intakes at the 95th percentile are the current margins of safety small.</p>
16

ORGANOHALOGENATED PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS IN AMERICAN EEL (ANGUILLA ROSTRATA) CAPTURED IN EASTERN CANADA

Byer, Jonathan D 23 May 2013 (has links)
Recruitment of American eels (Anguilla rostrata) to Lake Ontario has declined rapidly over the past few decades. The commercial yellow eel fishery in Lake Ontario was closed in 2004 due to a lack of eel abundance. Researchers have been attempting to ascertain the reasons for the decline, although thus far, without definitive answers. In this thesis, the question of chemical contamination is addressed as it relates to female eel spawner quality. Spatial concentration trends of halogenated persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are described in eels collected from across eastern Canada, as well as temporal concentration trends in eels collected from a historically important area of northeastern Lake Ontario, Canada. Chlorinated POPs in eels, namely, organochlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans are all significantly less than historic values which peaked in the 1960-70s. Measured concentrations of chlorinated POPs in eels from Lake Ontario have decreased by up to 3-fold over the past three decades, and exceeded toxicity thresholds historically for surrogate species (European eel and lake trout). Thus, chlorinated POPs may have had an effect on spawner quality. Concentrations of legacy POPs in eels were dependent on their origin, with eels from highly urbanized and industrialized areas having significantly higher concentrations than eels captured in less developed regions. Similar trends were observed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers and chlorinated norbornene flame retardants. A number of emerging brominated compounds were also measured in these eels by non-target analysis including bromophenols, bromobenzenes, and bromoanisoles. This thesis demonstrates that eels are an ideal species to investigate local sources of pollution, and provide chemical data that may be used in the future, when more toxicity information is available for eels, to assess the health risks posed by accumulated chemical contaminants. / Thesis (Ph.D, Chemistry) -- Queen's University, 2013-05-23 09:27:59.593
17

Human exposure to persistent organic pollutants : Illustrated by four case studies in Europe

Weiss, Jana January 2006 (has links)
An extensive use of chemicals in countless consumer products has resulted in human exposure to several persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Sufficient knowledge about their chemical composition properties and environmental faith is required, to be able to proper risk assess and regulate the substances. Significant data gaps exist regarding knowledge of actual exposure to humans and toxicological effect data. The objective of this thesis was to add human exposure data of a few POPs from four case studies. The analytes discussed in this thesis are polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDDs/PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD). Three European populations were studied. Milk was analysed from a group of women, who were accidentally exposed to high levels of 2,3,7,8-TetraCDD (TCDD) in Seveso, 1976. Still today, twice as high TCDD levels were recorded in the milk, compared to background concentrations. Serum was analysed from mothers and their infants from The Netherlands. Cord serum contained equal amounts of POPs as in mother’s blood, indicating non-hindered placenta transfer. Serum analysed from Swedish men and women with a high fish intake had elevated PCB and PCB metabolite (OH-PCB) levels. Additionally, butter was collected worldwide and shown to be a suitable matrix for dairy product survey of POPs. The exposure levels in the four papers were compared to recently reported exposure levels in Europe. It is indicated in the thesis that the PCDDs/PCDFs and PCBs toxic equivalency (TEQ) levels are of concern, i.e. the ratio between threshold levels for adverse health effects and TEQ exposure levels is lower than requested margin of safety. Average levels of PBDE/HBCDD in the European population are estimated to be of no concern today, but for individuals with intakes at the 95th percentile are the current margins of safety small.
18

Organohalogen contaminants in Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus)

Strid, Anna January 2010 (has links)
The remote sub-Arctic/Arctic environment has due to human activities become a sink for organohalogen contaminants (OHCs). These OHC include traditional contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDTs and technical mixtures of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), all included in the Stockholm Convention list of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Other OHCs, currently under evaluation to be included among the POPs i.e. short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) are also found in these environments as well as a whole range of other OHCs. The main objective of this thesis is to increase the knowledge about the presence of OHCs in a high trophic Arctic shark species, the Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus). The Greenland shark is an opportunistic feeder, occasionally feeding at the top of the Arctic marine food chain. Furthermore may this species have a life span in excess of 100 years and is probably among the oldest of any fish species. These traits make the shark prone to accumulate elevated concentrations of OHCs. This has shown to be true for the Greenland sharks studied and most of the targeted OHCs were determined in the species. The highest concentrations were observed for the DDTs, ranging up to 26 μg/g fat. Other OHCs reported that are of special interest are SCCPs and brominated flame retardants used as replacement products to PBDEs; pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE). Also a range of OHCs whose origin is assumed to be natural, were shown to be present in Greenland sharks. This thesis is stressing the fact that even though the use of certain OHCs has been banned for decades they are still present at high concentrations in the deep waters of the Arctic. Therefore it is of major importance to continue to monitor the fate of traditional and emerging OHCs in the environment, and for this purpose the Greenland shark is an excellent species. / At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Manuscript. Paper 4: Manuscript.
19

Relationship between persistent organic pollutants (PAHs and OCPs) and the expression of heat shock proteins in Sipunculus nudus from Wanggong and Xiangshan

Weng, Yi-ting 22 August 2011 (has links)
Synthesis of heat shock proteins (Hsps) in response to elevated temperatures and other denaturing agents (including UV, heavy metals, and energy depletion) is a common productive response of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Therefore, increasing in production of heat shock protein has been considered a sign of cells under stress. The phylum Sipuncula comprises of about 300 species worldwide; they are bilaterally symmetrical, unsegmented, and deposit feeding marine worms common in the substrate of wetland. In this research, I studied the dominant species Sipunculus nudus and analyzed it proteomics to reveal how it responses to persistent organic pollution. In order to compare the difference between HSP70 and HSP90, Sipunculans were sampling from two wetland (Xiangshan and Wanggong) in Hsinchu and Changhua,, respectively. The results showed that the concentrations of PAHs and OCPs both in substrate and S. nudus tissues from Xiangshan were higher than Wanggong. The concentrations of PAHs and OCPs in both areas showed that the environmental- sediment levels were higher than the sediment inside the gut or the body tissues. Principal component analysis showed that the compositions in S. nudus from both area were similar; however PAHs compositions from the environmental sediment or the sediment of the gut were similar. When the concentrations of HSP70 and HSP90 between both areas were compared, HSP70 expressions did not significant differed in both areas, while HSP90 express was higher in the S. nudus from Xiangshan than Wanggong. For S. nudus Hsp90 was upregulated in highly polluted area (i.e. Xiangshan). I propose that tissue expression of HSP90 plays an important role in the survival of S. nudus, and detection of HSP90 may provide pollution information of the surrounding environment.
20

Polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in the antarctic environment

Yogui, Gilvan Takeshi 15 May 2009 (has links)
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are anthropogenic chemicals whose environmental behavior is similar to the well-known polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Few studies have quantified the amount and distribution of PBDEs in the southern hemisphere and Antarctica. The analyses reported in this dissertation document the levels of PBDEs in lichens, mosses and seabird eggs collected at King George Island, Antarctic Peninsula. The analyses were carried out using Gas Chromatography/Electron Impact-Mass Spectrometry (GC/EI-MS). Employing the ion stacking technique lowered detection limits and ensured instrument selectivity and sensitivity to the compounds of interest. Lichens and mosses absorb PBDEs directly from the atmosphere and their contamination indicates that long-range transport is the primary source of these chemicals to King George Island. The congener patterns of PBDEs in plants indicate that commercial mixtures of Penta-BDE and Octa-BDE have reached Antarctica. Differences in the levels of PBDEs observed in lichens and mosses are probably due to factors that govern the uptake of PBDEs from the atmosphere. Contamination in lichens showed a positive correlation with local precipitation. Conversely, absorption of PBDEs in mosses appears to be controlled by other plant-specific factors. Marine phytoplankton-derived aerosols are hypothesized to play an important role in the atmospheric transport of PBDEs to the Antarctic environment. PBDEs in south polar skua eggs revealed much higher concentration than in penguin eggs. This is likely associated with the northward migration of these seabirds during the non-breeding season. While penguins reside year-round in Antarctica, south polar skuas migrate northward and can be seen in boreal oceans during the austral winter. Distribution of PBDEs in penguin eggs matches the pattern found in local vegetation suggesting a common source for the chemicals. In contrast, the congener pattern of south polar skuas suggests that birds breeding at King George Island are wintering in the northwestern Pacific Ocean. A potential metabolism of PBDEs in penguin eggs during the incubation period seems to be limited. Most congeners were unaltered from source material in the eggs of chinstrap and gentoo penguins. Low levels of PBDEs, short incubation periods and energy constraints may explain these observations.

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