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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

Metal speciation by high performance liquid chromatography

25 November 2014 (has links)
Ph.D. (Chemistry) / Please refer to full text to view abstract

The road toward sympatric speciation in whitefish. : The effects of divergent selection on European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) size and behavior, and effects on zooplankton communities.

Hatchett, William January 2015 (has links)
For almost every organism there are large gaps in our knowledge about the processes that leads to speciation. The changes an organism undergoes before divergence has occurred have remained a mystery, as it is difficult to say whether or not a species is going to diverge and when. To investigate this unknown the European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) and the northern pike (Esox lucius) were studied, as they produce a repeatable and predictable pattern of speciation in sympatry. To investigate the changes in phenotypes and behaviour in whitefish that precedes divergence, two lake populations were examined, Gräsvattnet and Ringsjön. Gräsvattnet was used as a control, with a population of whitefish but an absence of pike, whereas Ringsjön has a population of whitefish that invaded from Gräsvattnet and a pike population. The presence of pike presumably exerts divergent selection on the whitefish population. Fish and zooplankton were surveyed in both lakes from 1970 to the present day, which allows us to compare how whitefish populations and their resources change in the presence and absence of pike. The results found in Ringsjön show; (1) a change in habitat use, (2) a change in diet from pelagic to benthic, (3) an increase in the relationship between individual body size and diet and (4) a decrease in average size over the course of the study. (1)The presence of pike is believed to have forced the whitefish into the pelagic which could be seen in the result, with an increase in individuals caught in the pelagic. (2) The change in diet is thought to be caused by a resource competition created by individuals being forced to use the pelagic. Although insignificant this led to an overall reduction in zooplankton abundance by almost 40% which could have intensified competition. The resource competition could then have been intensified further by the change in composition of zooplankton relative abundance. (3) The increase in relationship between individual body size and diet is thought to increase due to the resource competition between smaller and larger individuals in the pelagic. Smaller individuals are better competitors than larger individuals for pelagic resource which could have led to the larger individuals switching to a more benthic diet. (4) The decrease in average size is thought to be caused by negative selection for larger individuals. Larger individuals have switched to a more benthic diet, and although the individuals are larger they still face the risk of predation in the littoral zone as they have not outgrown the gape size of the pike. This could have led to the average size reduction that may be the first steps in speciation, and ultimately leading to the divergence of two morphs by sympatric speciation in Ringsjön. In Gräsvattnet over the course of the study there were few and small changes in whitefish size, zooplankton relative abundance in the diet and in the environment. The results in Gräsvattnet could however suggest resource competition for benthic resources. Although resource competition is thought to be an important factor in the speciation of whitefish, without predation pressure no speciation occurs. This result could suggest the importance of predation pressure in the speciation of whitefish.

Mercury speciation in Galveston Bay, Texas: the importance of complexation by natural organic ligands

Han, Seunghee 17 February 2005 (has links)
The major goal of this research is the development of a competitive ligand equilibration-solvent solvent extraction (CLE-SSE) method to determine organically complexed mercury species in estuarine water. The method was applied to estuarine surface waters of Galveston Bay and the water column of Offatts Bayou. Thermodynamic equilibrium modeling estimated organically complexed mercury species in estuarine water using the conditional stability constants of mercury-organic complexes and the concentrations of organic ligands determined by CLE-SSE. Two competing ligands, chloride and thiosalicylic acid (TSA), were used for CLE-SSE. Chloride ion competition determined conditional stability constants for 1 : 1 mercury-ligand complexes ranging from ~1023 to ~1024 with concentrations of organic ligands at low nM levels. TSA competition determined stronger mercury-binding ligands by manipulating the TSA concentration such that a higher binding strength was achieved than that for the mercury-chloride complex. TSA competition determined conditional stability constants for 1 : 1 mercury-ligand complexes ranging from ~1027 to ~1029, with ligand concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 pM. Mercury-organic binding strengths in these ranges are consistent with bidentate mercury complexation by low molecular weight organic thiols. A linear relationship was observed between log stability constants for the mercury-ligand complex and log ligand concentrations, supporting the hypothesis that there is a continuum of mercury binding site strengths associated with dissolved organic matter. In Galveston Bay, organically complexed mercury accounted for > 95 % of the total dissolved mercury in surface water. Organic complexation of mercury coupled with mercury dissolution from particulate phases controls the filter-passing mercury distribution in surface waters of Galveston Bay. The estuarine distributional features of mercury-complexing organic ligands were similar to those of glutathione, supporting mercury complexation by a thiol binding group. In Offatts Bayou, a seasonally anoxic bayou on Galveston Bay, thermodynamic equilibrium modeling suggests that the speciation of dissolved mercury in anoxic systems is dominated by sulfide complexation rather than organic complexation.

Ecological Differentiation in a Hybridizing Cryptic Species Complex

TURKO, PATRICK 04 January 2012 (has links)
The hybridizing Daphnia mendotae and D. dentifera (Crustacea: Cladocera) are sympatric throughout much of North America, and are considered a cryptic species complex due to their lack of phylogenetically informative morphological characters. They appear to have no biological mating barriers: hybrids may dominate or coexist with either or both parental species, and are sexually competent, forming both F2 hybrids and back-crosses. Nevertheless, the two species remain distinct. There is observational evidence that separation may be enforced by adaptation to different predation regimes: D. mendotae, with its greater anti-predator morphological plasticity, may out-compete D. dentifera under intense invertebrate predation, while the smaller D. dentifera may be better adapted to avoid predation by visually feeding fish. We tested this idea by examining whether D. mendotae and D. dentifera differ in ecologically relevant life history and morphological traits. We performed a replicated life history experiment involving 6 replicates of 6 clones within each species, and measured time until first reproduction, fecundity, and juvenile and population growth rates. In parallel, we examined whether these species differed in morphological traits predicted to arise from adaptation to different predator types, and tested the ecological relevance of these traits by exposing Daphnia to predation by the invasive cladoceran Bythotrephes longimanus. Finally, we examined the plasticity of life history, morphology, and susceptibility to predation by rearing Daphnia under exposure to Bythotrephes chemical cues for two generations. D. mendotae and D. dentifera differed across almost all measured life history and morphological traits in directions that accord with our hypotheses, strongly suggesting that their species boundaries are maintained by adaptation to different predation regimes. Plastic reaction to Bythotrephes, however, was weak and inconsistent, suggesting that these species either do not detect or respond to this recent invader, or that their responses are manifested in other ways. / Thesis (Master, Biology) -- Queen's University, 2011-12-23 20:31:14.76

Early homo erectus : one or more species

Gavronski, Eric J. January 2005 (has links)
Paleoanthropology has been beset by controversies concerning the number of hominid species at any given time. This thesis examines the case for one or more species from the time of early H. erectus using the biological and evolutionary species concepts as frames of reference. To accomplish this task, measurements were made on casts of African and Asian fossil hominid skulls with previously published data used as both a control and a supplement. Due to the fragmentary nature of the data and the small sample size, principle components analysis was used to create a usable data set. Linear regression was then used to calculate mean differences between the African and Asian fossil samples for PC 1 (a derived factor denoted overall cranial size) and XCB (maximum cranial breadth). This data was then compared to that of 28 pair-wise comparisons of eight modem human populations from the same general regions as the fossils. Since a number of these comparisons had mean differences greater or equal to that of the fossils, the finding are suggestive of the fossils all being from the same species, Homo erectus. / Department of Anthropology

Phosphorus solubility and solid - state speciation in fertilizer bands applied to calcareous soil systems

Manimel Wadu, Mihiri Chathurika Wilasini 18 October 2013 (has links)
Precipitation reactions of phosphorus (P) with Ca decrease the P fertilizer efficiency in calcareous soils. The hypothesis was that anion competition of sulphate with phosphate to precipitate with Ca will increase P solubility in calcareous soils. Initial experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of co-application of K2SO4, (NH4)2SO4, MgSO4 and (NH4)2CO3 on the solubility of monopotassium phosphate (MPP) and monoammonium phosphate (MAP) in different Manitoba soils. Co-application of sulphate salts enhanced P solubility by a factor that ranged from 6% to 44% in soils with greater exchangeable Ca and smaller acid-extractable Ca content (i.e. Osborne, Red River, Balmoral and St. Claude soil series). Solubility and solid-state speciation of P were investigated when MPP was banded with sulphate salts in both model and natural (Dezwood Loam soil series, DL) calcareous soils. The results of S K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy (XANES) showed that CaSO4•2H2O was formed in DL soil when either K2SO4, (NH4)2SO4 or MgSO4 was applied with MPP. Phosphorus-31 magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) analysis showed that dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) was formed in both soils, but the relative proportion of DCPD decreased in the presence of sulphate salts due to the formation of a new P compound. The results also showed that decreasing Ca saturation on the cation exchange complex increased the solubility and mobility of MAP in model calcareous soils and Ca played a more dominant role in forming P precipitates than Mg. According to 31P MAS NMR results, DCPD was the dominant P species in soils with 100% to 50% Ca saturation on the cation exchange complex while poorly ordered magnesium phosphate trihydrate was the prominent P phase with 70% to 100% Mg saturation. This study has demonstrated that the combination of solid state NMR and XANES provided complimentary information concerning anion competition and changes in P speciation due to the co-application of sulphate salts in fertilizer bands. Application of sulphate salts is a promising agronomic practice to enhance P solubility in soils with greater exchangeable Ca content due to the anion competition by sulphates with phosphate to precipitate with Ca.

Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films for Inorganic Arsenic Speciation and Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with a Coupled Microcolumn for Trace Metal Speciation

Panther, Jared Graeme January 2008 (has links)
This thesis is directed towards the development of the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique for the measurement of total dissolved As, and for As speciation measurements. In addition, a preliminary investigation of a novel laboratory-based method for measuring labile metal species was carried out; this method involved the coupling of a microcolumn of adsorbent with a standard electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometer. An iron-oxide adsorbent was utilized for As measurements by DGT. The diffusion coefficients of inorganic Asv and AsIII> were measured through the polyacrylamide diffusive gel using both a diffusion cell and DGT devices. A variety of factors that may affect the measurement of total As by DGT were investigated. These factors, which included pH, anions, cations, fulvic acid, FeIII-fulvic acid complexes, and colloidal Fe, may affect the adsorption of the As species to the iron-oxide, or may affect the diffusion coefficients of the individual As species. The DGT method was further developed to selectively accumulate the AsIII species in the presence of Asv. This was achieved by the placement of a negatively charged Nafion membrane at the front of the DGT device which slowed the diffusion of the negatively charged Asv species (H₂AsO₄₂ ⁻) considerably, relative to the uncharged AsIII species (H₃AsO₃). The effect that pH, anions, and cations may have on the selective accumulation of AsIII, in the presence of Asv, was investigated. DGT devices without a Nafion membrane and with a Nafion membrane were deployed in natural waters to determine the total inorganic As and AsIII> concentrations, and to evaluate its performance. A preliminary investigation of the coupling of a microcolumn of Chelex-100 resin with a standard electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometer was undertaken to establish its value as a laboratory-based speciation method. This involved the examination of various microcolumn materials to accommodate the Chelex-100 resin, and finding an appropriate buffer that could be used to buffer the Chelex-100 resin without interfering with the ETAAS measurement. Furthermore, factors that may affect the uptake of metal by the Chelex-100 resin, such as concentration of buffer in solution, ionic strength, and conditioning of the Chelex-100 resin, were investigated.

A chromosomal hybrid zone of the house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) in northern Scotland

Palmer, Christianne Louise January 1997 (has links)
No description available.

Computer modelling of metal interactions with natural organic matter

Quinn, Gregory William January 1990 (has links)
No description available.

Arsenic accumulation in various plant types

Bergqvist, Claes January 2011 (has links)
No description available.

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