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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Analysis of initial condensation and the effects of distillers' spent grain pellet orientation and superheated steam operating parameters on effective moisture diffusivity

Bourassa, Justin 18 August 2015 (has links)
Distillers’ spent grain (DSG) is a by-product of ethanol production and used for swine feed supplement due to its nutrient composition. Lowering the moisture content of DSG using superheated steam (SS) drying can be more energy efficient compared to hot air drying. One objective was to investigate parameters associated with SS drying on DSG including maximum condensation, condensation time, and restoration time. Increasing SS temperature from 120 to 180 °C and SS velocity from 1.0 to 1.4 m/s resulted in a 97% and 67% decrease in maximum condensation, respectively. Another objective was to determine the effect of SS temperature, velocity, and pellet orientation on effective moisture diffusivity of DSG pellets. The diffusion model was based on finite cylinder geometry accounting for volumetric shrinkage. The diffusivity coefficient was determined to be 1.56 × 10-8 m2/s. A significant effect of pellet orientation on moisture diffusivity was found during the constant drying-rate period. / October 2015
2

Pretreatment of wheat straw with superheated steam and boiling water, its effect on cellulose structure, and fermentation by Clostridium thermocellum

Mirhosseini, Shayan 12 September 2015 (has links)
The focus of this study was to determine the effects of pretreatment of wheat straw by superheated steam (SS) alone or in combination with boiling water (BW) on biomass structure and yields of fermentation products (cell mass and fermentation end-products) by Clostridium thermocellum. Different cultivars of wheat straw were ground to a particle size less than 355 µm, and exposed to the following methods of pretreatment: i) 15 min soaking in 119 °C boiling water under absolute pressure of 193 kPa, followed by processing with SS at atmospheric pressure at different temperatures and retention times; ii) 15 min processing with SS at atmospheric pressure; and iii) 15 min soaking in 119 °C boiling water under absolute pressure of 193 kPa. Processing with SS was conducted at a variety of temperatures in the range of 180-220 °C. The severity of pretreatment was expressed through a treatment severity factor as a measure of harshness of treatment. Pretreatment combinations of boiling water with superheated steam at different retention times inside the SS chamber were also investigated. Wheat straw samples were then used as substrates in fermentation reactions with C. thermocellum. The most noticeable effects on biomass structure and fermentation were observed at the highest severity factor of 6.5, corresponding to 15 min pretreatment with boiling water followed by 15 min treatment with SS at 220˚C. This pretreatment provided the maximum increase in percentage of contribution of amorphous cellulose (% CAC), and the highest fermentation yield in terms of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and ethanol production. / October 2015
3

Design and functioning of low pressure superheated steam processing unit

Tang, Hin Yat 03 March 2011 (has links)
Superheated steam (SS) drying of distillers’ spent grain (DSG) is a more energy efficient alternative to conventional hot air drying. SS drying at sub-atmospheric pressure (also referred to as low pressure) can prevent burning and lowering the quality of the food product. The objective of this study was to design, fabricate, and test a SS drying system that could operate at sub-atmospheric pressure for drying DSG. After the custom designed system was constructed, major problems associated with the system were identified. A number of tests were carried out and modifications were made to the system to resolve technical problems. Distillers’ spent grain was then successfully dried using the system under various levels of temperature from 95 to 115°C and pressure of either -25 or -20 kPa, with a SS velocity from 0.100 to 0.289 m/s.
4

Characterizing the disintegration behavior of distiller’s spent grain compacts during drying in superheated steam

Johnson, Praveen January 2014 (has links)
Biomass such as spent grain is difficult to dry when it is in the slurry form. Proposed industrial solutions are to compact wet biomass first and then dry it. Compaction develops desired granular form and increases surface area for drying but also brings new technical challenges. Superheated steam (SS) drying is advantageous over hot-air drying as it is more energy efficient. A problem associated SS drying is the initial condensation leading to disintegration of biomass compacts. The current research investigates the disintegration characteristics of distiller’s spent grain (DSG) compacts while being dried in SS. The study focuses on the DSG flowability, densification characteristics and disintegration behavior of DSG compacts as affected by SS drying conditions, soluble content and particle size distribution (PSD). DSG fractions with particle sizes from 300 to 850 µm were dried in SS at 150°C and hot-air at 45 and 150°C. Under these drying conditions bulk density and angle of repose (AOR) varied from 0.379 to 0.435 g/cm3 and 46.0 to 50.4°, respectively. The stress-relaxation data obtained during the compaction of DSG at different levels of compressive pressure (60.3-135.7 MPa), initial moisture content (15, 20 and 25% wet basis- wb) and soluble content (15 and 30%) were normalized and analyzed to determine the asymptotic modulus (EA) of the compacts. The highest EA of 174 MPa was obtained for DSG compacts produced with a compressive force of 135.7 MPa, initial moisture of 25% wb and soluble content of 0%. The percentage increase in volume of DSG compacts during drying in SS at 110 to 150°C temperature range was between 78 to 130%. A comparison between the physical properties of SS dried and hot-air dried compacts revealed the role of SS in accelerating the release of mechanical energy stored in the compacts. An increase of dimensions and a considerable increase in the hardness and EA of the compacts was obtained by adding up to 70% (w/w) solubles or by decreasing the PSD of wet distiller’s spent grain from d(0.9)=1283.6 to 812.8 µm. This study establishes that compaction of wet biomass followed by SS drying can lead to its effective utilization.
5

Design and functioning of low pressure superheated steam processing unit

Tang, Hin Yat 03 March 2011 (has links)
Superheated steam (SS) drying of distillers’ spent grain (DSG) is a more energy efficient alternative to conventional hot air drying. SS drying at sub-atmospheric pressure (also referred to as low pressure) can prevent burning and lowering the quality of the food product. The objective of this study was to design, fabricate, and test a SS drying system that could operate at sub-atmospheric pressure for drying DSG. After the custom designed system was constructed, major problems associated with the system were identified. A number of tests were carried out and modifications were made to the system to resolve technical problems. Distillers’ spent grain was then successfully dried using the system under various levels of temperature from 95 to 115°C and pressure of either -25 or -20 kPa, with a SS velocity from 0.100 to 0.289 m/s.
6

Návrh elektricky otápěného parního vyvíječe / Design of Electric Steam Heater

Pekárek, Michal January 2021 (has links)
This master’s thesis is focused on the design of electric steam generator for superheated steam. Using heating cartridge is the easiest way how to make a saturated or superheated steam. This device is part of gasification reactor, which is used for experimental purposes. The thesis includes schematic involvement of technology. Technology contains evaporator and superheater. The evaporator is calculated as pool boiling. The superheater is design for steam flowing through heating cartridge bundle. At the end of the thesis are made projection drawings, which are based on the calculations.

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