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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Rate-distortion analysis and traffic modeling of scalable video coders

Dai, Min 12 April 2006 (has links)
In this work, we focus on two important goals of the transmission of scalable video over the Internet. The first goal is to provide high quality video to end users and the second one is to properly design networks and predict network performance for video transmission based on the characteristics of existing video traffic. Rate-distortion (R-D) based schemes are often applied to improve and stabilize video quality; however, the lack of R-D modeling of scalable coders limits their applications in scalable streaming. Thus, in the first part of this work, we analyze R-D curves of scalable video coders and propose a novel operational R-D model. We evaluate and demonstrate the accuracy of our R-D function in various scalable coders, such as Fine Granular Scalable (FGS) and Progressive FGS coders. Furthermore, due to the time-constraint nature of Internet streaming, we propose another operational R-D model, which is accurate yet with low computational cost, and apply it to streaming applications for quality control purposes. The Internet is a changing environment; however, most quality control approaches only consider constant bit rate (CBR) channels and no specific studies have been conducted for quality control in variable bit rate (VBR) channels. To fill this void, we examine an asymptotically stable congestion control mechanism and combine it with our R-D model to present smooth visual quality to end users under various network conditions. Our second focus in this work concerns the modeling and analysis of video traffic, which is crucial to protocol design and efficient network utilization for video transmission. Although scalable video traffic is expected to be an important source for the Internet, we find that little work has been done on analyzing or modeling it. In this regard, we develop a frame-level hybrid framework for modeling multi-layer VBR video traffic. In the proposed framework, the base layer is modeled using a combination of wavelet and time-domain methods and the enhancement layer is linearly predicted from the base layer using the cross-layer correlation.
2

Modeling and estimation techniques for understanding heterogeneous traffic behavior

Zhao, Zhili 30 September 2004 (has links)
The majority of current internet traffic is based on TCP. With the emergence of new applications, especially new multimedia applications, however, UDP-based traffic is expected to increase. Furthermore, multimedia applications have sparkled the development of protocols responding to congestion while behaving differently from TCP. As a result, network traffc is expected to become more and more diverse. The increasing link capacity further stimulates new applications utilizing higher bandwidths of future. Besides the traffic diversity, the network is also evolving around new technologies. These trends in the Internet motivate our research work. In this dissertation, modeling and estimation techniques of heterogeneous traffic at a router are presented. The idea of the presented techniques is that if the observed queue length and packet drop probability do not match the predictions from a model of responsive (TCP) traffic, then the error must come from non-responsive traffic; it can then be used for estimating the proportion of non-responsive traffic. The proposed scheme is based on the queue length history, packet drop history, expected TCP and queue dynamics. The effectiveness of the proposed techniques over a wide range of traffic scenarios is corroborated using NS-2 based simulations. Possible applications based on the estimation technique are discussed. The implementation of the estimation technique in the Linux kernel is presented in order to validate our estimation technique in a realistic network environment.
3

Background Traffic Modeling for Large-Scale Network Simulation

Li, Ting 28 February 2014 (has links)
Network simulation is an indispensable tool for studying Internet-scale networks due to the heterogeneous structure, immense size and changing properties. It is crucial for network simulators to generate representative traffic, which is necessary for effectively evaluating next-generation network protocols and applications. With network simulation, we can make a distinction between foreground traffic, which is generated by the target applications the researchers intend to study and therefore must be simulated with high fidelity, and background traffic, which represents the network traffic that is generated by other applications and does not require significant accuracy. The background traffic has a significant impact on the foreground traffic, since it competes with the foreground traffic for network resources and therefore can drastically affect the behavior of the applications that produce the foreground traffic. This dissertation aims to provide a solution to meaningfully generate background traffic in three aspects. First is realism. Realistic traffic characterization plays an important role in determining the correct outcome of the simulation studies. This work starts from enhancing an existing fluid background traffic model by removing its two unrealistic assumptions. The improved model can correctly reflect the network conditions in the reverse direction of the data traffic and can reproduce the traffic burstiness observed from measurements. Second is scalability. The trade-off between accuracy and scalability is a constant theme in background traffic modeling. This work presents a fast rate-based TCP (RTCP) traffic model, which originally used analytical models to represent TCP congestion control behavior. This model outperforms other existing traffic models in that it can correctly capture the overall TCP behavior and achieve a speedup of more than two orders of magnitude over the corresponding packet-oriented simulation. Third is network-wide traffic generation. Regardless of how detailed or scalable the models are, they mainly focus on how to generate traffic on one single link, which cannot be extended easily to studies of more complicated network scenarios. This work presents a cluster-based spatio-temporal background traffic generation model that considers spatial and temporal traffic characteristics as well as their correlations. The resulting model can be used effectively for the evaluation work in network studies.
4

Truck Modeling Along Grade Sections

Lucic, Ivana 29 May 2001 (has links)
This research effort first characterizes the trucks traveling along US highways by analyzing data from Interstate 81. It is hypothesized that I-81 is typical of US highways and thus can provide some insight into typical truck characteristics. These truck characteristics are important for the development of an exhaustive vehicle performance procedure. Analysis was done based on data collected at the Troutville weigh station. The characterization involves an analysis of vehicle class distribution, GVW (Gross Vehicle Weight) distribution, vehicle volume distribution, Average Weight on Tractive Axle (AWTA), and typical weight-to-power ratios. The thesis then assembles a database of systematic field data that can be utilized for the validation of vehicle performance models. This database is unique because it was conducted in a controlled field environment where the vehicle is only constrained by its dynamics. Using the assembled field database, a simple constant power vehicle dynamics model for estimating maximum vehicle acceleration levels based on a vehicle's tractive effort and aerodynamic, rolling, and grade resistance forces was tested and validated. In addition, typical model input parameters for different vehicle, pavement, and tire characteristics are included in the thesis. The model was found to predict vehicle speeds at the conclusion of the travel along the section to within 5 km/h (3.1 mi/h) of field measurements, thus demonstrating the validity and applicability of the model. Finally, the research effort introduces the concept of variable power in order to enhance current state-of-the-art vehicle dynamics models and capture the build-up of power as a vehicle engages in gearshifts at low travel speeds. The proposed enhancement to the current state-of-practice vehicle dynamics model allows the model to reflect typical vehicle acceleration behavior more accurately. Subsequently, the model parameters are calibrated using field measurements along a test roadway facility. / Master of Science
5

Estimation of Increased Traffic on Highways in Montana and North Dakota due to Oil Development and Production

Dybing, Alan Gabriel January 2012 (has links)
Advances in oil extraction technology such as hydraulic fracturing have improved capabilities to extract and produce oil in the Bakken and Three Forks shale formations located in North Dakota, Montana, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan. From 2004 to the present, there has been a significant increase in oil rigs and new oil wells in these areas, resulting in increased impacts to the local, county, state, and federal roadway network. Traditional methods of rural traffic forecasting using an established growth rate are not sufficient under the changing traffic levels. The goal of this research is to develop a traffic model that will improve segment specific traffic forecasts for use in highway design and planning. The traffic model will consist of five main components: 1) a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) network model of local, county, state and federal roads, 2) a truck costing model for use in estimating segment specific user costs, 3) a spatial oil location model to estimate future oil development areas, 4) a series of mathematical programming models to optimize a multi-region oil development area for nine individual input/output movements, and 5) an aggregation of multiple routings to segment specific traffic levels in a GIS network model.
6

Mobile Multiplayer Gaming

Westermark, Christian January 2007 (has links)
The last ten years, online multiplayer games have become very popular. During the same time period mobile terminals and cellular networks have undergone a tremendous technical evolution. Therefore it is natural to wonder why we have not seen an online mobile multiplayer gaming revolution yet. The answer to this question is of great value for companies selling mobile systems. This answer is important in order to understand how to fill up today’s empty networks with traffic and what kind of traffic these games will generate. This thesis is a continuation of Mattias Åkervik’s thesis. It gives the reader an understanding of what kind of wireless technologies are on the market today and how they perform. Given this performance background, some suitable games were chosen to examine how they perform over a particular cellular network and to determine the perceived gaming quality that a user experience. The thesis also examines the particular packet traffic characteristics generated by these games to gain a better understanding of how to better adapt cellular networks towards gaming. Finally the market will be analyzed. Not only how large this potential market is, but to examine if there are some market issues preventing the revolution in network cellular on-line multiplayer games. / De senaste tio åren har multiplayer gaming blivit väldigt populärt. Under samma tidsperiod har cellulära terminaler och de mobile nätverken genomgått en stor teknisk evolution. Därför kan man undra varför inte mobile multiplayer gaming har slagit igenom än. Svaret på denna fåga är värdefullt för föreatag som säljer mobila system, men även mobiloperatörerna, dådet kan ge en hint hur man bättre kan fylla ut dagens tomma 3G system med trafik. Detta examensarbete är en fortsättning på Mattias Åkerviks arbete. Det ger läsaren en förståelse i dagens trådlösa teknologier och vad de kan prestera. Med detta i bagaget kommer ett antal spel undersökas och hur deras spelupplevelse influeras av begräsningarna som de mobila nätverken har. Arbetet kommer också att behandla vilken trafik dessa spel genererar, då detta kan ge en bättre förståelse i hur man kan anpassa nätverken i ett gamingsyfte. Slutligen kommer marknaden att analyseras. Inte bara det potentiella värdet av gamingmarknaden, men även om det finns några marknadsstrukturella orsaker som bromsar utvecklingen av mobila multiplayer spel.
7

Modeling and estimation techniques for understanding heterogeneous traffic behavior

Zhao, Zhili 30 September 2004 (has links)
The majority of current internet traffic is based on TCP. With the emergence of new applications, especially new multimedia applications, however, UDP-based traffic is expected to increase. Furthermore, multimedia applications have sparkled the development of protocols responding to congestion while behaving differently from TCP. As a result, network traffc is expected to become more and more diverse. The increasing link capacity further stimulates new applications utilizing higher bandwidths of future. Besides the traffic diversity, the network is also evolving around new technologies. These trends in the Internet motivate our research work. In this dissertation, modeling and estimation techniques of heterogeneous traffic at a router are presented. The idea of the presented techniques is that if the observed queue length and packet drop probability do not match the predictions from a model of responsive (TCP) traffic, then the error must come from non-responsive traffic; it can then be used for estimating the proportion of non-responsive traffic. The proposed scheme is based on the queue length history, packet drop history, expected TCP and queue dynamics. The effectiveness of the proposed techniques over a wide range of traffic scenarios is corroborated using NS-2 based simulations. Possible applications based on the estimation technique are discussed. The implementation of the estimation technique in the Linux kernel is presented in order to validate our estimation technique in a realistic network environment.
8

A non-continuum approach to obtain a macroscopic model for the flow of traffic

Tyagi, Vipin 17 September 2007 (has links)
Existing macroscopic models for the flow of traffic treat traffic as a continuum or employ techniques similar to those used in the kinetic theory of gases. Spurious two- way propagation of disturbances that are physically unacceptable are predicted by continuum models for the flow of traffic. The number of vehicles in a typical section of a freeway does not justify traffic being treated as a continuum. It is also important to recognize that the basic premises of kinetic theory are not appropriate for the flow of traffic. A model for the flow of traffic that does not treat traffic as a continuum or use notions from kinetic theory is developed in this dissertation and corroborated with traffic data collected from the sensors deployed on US 183 freeway in Austin, Texas, USA. The flow of traffic exhibits distinct characteristics under different conditions and reflects the congestion during peak hours and relatively free motion during off-peak hours. This requires one to use different governing equations to describe the diverse traffic characteristics, namely the different traffic flow regimes of response. Such an approach has been followed in this dissertation. An observer based on extended Kalman filtering technique has been utilized for the purpose of estimating the traffic state. Historical traffic data has been used for model calibration. The estimated model parameters have consistent values for different traffic conditions. These esti- mated model parameters are then subsequently used for estimation of the state of traffic in real-time. A short-term traffic state forecasting approach, based on the non-continuum traffic model, which incorporates weighted historical and real-time traffic information has been developed. A methodology for predicting trip travel time based on this approach has also been developed. Ten and fifteen minute predictions for traffic state and trip travel time seem to agree well with the traffic data collected on US 183.
9

Data reduction in modeled packet traffic

Mehrabian, Maryam January 2012 (has links)
Within Ericsson there is a continuous activity of traffic modeling. Traffic modeling is a practice to analyze traffic patterns and determine necessary resources to handle it optimally. This activity focuses on gathering and analyzing live network measurements, implementing and presenting traffic models. One example of concept in packet traffic modeling is transmission object log which is an aggregation of packet data traces from a measured network over a transmission period. These trace logs that are simple list of all transmission objects contain a vast number of data. When the amount of data increases in these logs several problems can occur such as expensive analysis time, costly data storage and even statistical analysis and data processing in software environments run out of memory. On the other hand, sophisticated and costly computing systems are required for analysis and storage of the data. Therefore, monitoring and analyzing these large traces motivate data reduction. The goal of this thesis is to reduce the number of traffic objects in large object trace logs while preserving the statistical characteristics of the original transmission objects.    Sampling techniques are wildly used to cope with the issues of large amount of data in network monitoring. First, this thesis aims to assess the impact of two sampling techniques as a reduction method. Second, to analyze traffic characteristics and showing the effects of sampling, some statistical properties of both original and sampled datasets as well as their distribution plots will be discussed. The distortion introduced by sampling as the distance between the distribution of properties for sampled and unsampled traffic is also presented by a statistical metric. One of the issues in sampling technique is the sampling size. In order to estimate the sampling size and reduce the logs to a certain level, the concept of offline marginal utility as a complementary method to sampling is proposed in this report. The thesis also makes some suggestions as further works to reduce the logs by having less impact on the object characteristics.
10

Measurements and Models of One-Way Transit Time in IP Routers / Mätningar av en-vägskorsningstid i IP routrar

Constantinescu, Doru January 2005 (has links)
The main goals of this thesis are towards an understanding of the delay process in best-effort Internet for both non-congested and congested networks. A novel measurement system is reported for delay measurements in IP routers, which follows specifications of the IETF RFC 2679. The system employs both passive measurements and active probing and offers the possibility to measure and analyze different delay components of a router, e.g., packet processing delay, packet transmission time and queueing delay at the output link. Dedicated application-layer software is used to generate UDP traffic with TCP-like characteristics. Pareto traffic models are used to generate self-similar traffic in the link. The reported results are in form of several important statistics regarding processing and queueing delays of a router, router delay for a single data flow, router delay for multiple data flows as well as end-to-end delay for a chain of routers. They confirm results reported earlier about the fact that the delay in IP routers is generally influenced by traffic characteristics, link conditions and, to some extent, details in hardware implementation and different IOS releases. The delay in IP routers may also occasionally show extreme values, which are due to improper functioning of the routers. Furthermore, new results have been obtained that indicate that the delay in IP routers shows heavy-tailed characteristics, which can be well modeled with the help of several distributions, either in the form of a single distribution or as a mixture of distributions. There are several components contributing to the OWTT in routers, i.e., processing delay, queueing delay and service time. The obtained results have shown that, e.g., the processing delay in a router can be well modeled with the Normal distribution, and the queueing delay is well modeled with a mixture of Normal distribution for the body probability mass and Weibull distribution for the tail probability mass. Furthermore, OWTT has several component delays and it has been observed that the component delay distribution that is most dominant and heavy-tailed has a decisive influence on OWTT. / Mätningar och modeller för en-vägskorsningstid presenteras.

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