This study raises some issues for training pilots to fly forced landings and examines the impact that these issues may have on the design of simulators for such training. It focuses on flight trajectories that a pilot of a single-engine general aviation aircraft should fly after engine failure and how pilots can be better simulator trained for this forced landing manoeuvre. A sensitivity study on the effects of errors and an investigation on the effect of tolerances in the aerodynamic parameters as prescribed in the Manual of Criteria for the Qualification of Flight Simulators have on the performance of flight simulators used for pilot training was carried out. It uses a simplified analytical model for the Beech Bonanza model E33A aircraft and a vertical atmospheric turbulence based on the MIL-F-8785C specifications. It was found that the effect of the tolerances is highly sensitive on the nature of the manoeuvre flown and that in some cases, negative transfe r of training may be induced by the tolerances. A forced landing trajectory optimisation was carried out using Genetic Algorithm. The forced landing manoeuvre analyses with pre-selected touchdown locations and pre-selected final headings were carried out for an engine failure at 650 ft AGL for bank angles varying from banking left at 45° to banking right at 45°, and with an aircraft's speed varying from 75.6 mph to 208 mph, corresponding to 5% above airplane's stall speed and airplane's maximum speed respectively. The results show that certain pre-selected touchdown locations are more susceptible to horizontal wind. The results for the forced landing manoeuvre with a pre-selected location show minimal distance error while the quality of the results for the forced landing manoeuvre with a pre-selected location and a final heading show that the results depend on the end constraints. For certain pre-selected touchdown locations and final headings, the airplane may either touchdown very close to the pre-selected touchdown location but with greater final h eading error from the pre-selected final heading or touchdown with minimal final heading error from the pre-selected final heading but further away from the pre-selected touchdown location. Analyses for an obstacle avoidance forced landing manoeuvre were also carried out where an obstacle was intentionally placed in the flight path as found by the GA program developed for without obstacle. The methodology developed successfully found flight paths that will avoid the obstacle and touchdown near the pre-selected location. In some cases, there exist more than one ensemble grouping of flight paths. The distance error depends on both the pre-selected touchdown location and where the obstacle was placed. The distance error tends to increase with the addition of a specific final heading requirement for an obstacle avoidance forced landing manoeuvre. As with the case without specific final heading requirement, there is a trade off between touching down nearer to the pre-selected location and touching down with a smaller final heading error.
|Creators||Tong, Peter, firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Publisher||RMIT University. Aerospace, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering|
|Source Sets||Australiasian Digital Theses Program|
|Rights||http://www.rmit.edu.au/help/disclaimer, Copyright Peter Tong|
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