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Segmentation of pelvic structures from preoperative images for surgical planning and guidance

Prostate cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed malignancies globally and the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in males in the developed world. In recent decades, many techniques have been proposed for prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment. With the development of imaging technologies such as CT and MRI, image-guided procedures have become increasingly important as a means to improve clinical outcomes. Analysis of the preoperative images and construction of 3D models prior to treatment would help doctors to better localize and visualize the structures of interest, plan the procedure, diagnose disease and guide the surgery or therapy. This requires efficient and robust medical image analysis and segmentation technologies to be developed. The thesis mainly focuses on the development of segmentation techniques in pelvic MRI for image-guided robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy and external-beam radiation therapy. A fully automated multi-atlas framework is proposed for bony pelvis segmentation in MRI, using the guidance of MRI AE-SDM. With the guidance of the AE-SDM, a multi-atlas segmentation algorithm is used to delineate the bony pelvis in a new \ac{MRI} where there is no CT available. The proposed technique outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms for MRI bony pelvis segmentation. With the SDM of pelvis and its segmented surface, an accurate 3D pelvimetry system is designed and implemented to measure a comprehensive set of pelvic geometric parameters for the examination of the relationship between these parameters and the difficulty of robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. This system can be used in both manual and automated manner with a user-friendly interface. A fully automated and robust multi-atlas based segmentation has also been developed to delineate the prostate in diagnostic MR scans, which have large variation in both intensity and shape of prostate. Two image analysis techniques are proposed, including patch-based label fusion with local appearance-specific atlases and multi-atlas propagation via a manifold graph on a database of both labeled and unlabeled images when limited labeled atlases are available. The proposed techniques can achieve more robust and accurate segmentation results than other multi-atlas based methods. The seminal vesicles are also an interesting structure for therapy planning, particularly for external-beam radiation therapy. As existing methods fail for the very onerous task of segmenting the seminal vesicles, a multi-atlas learning framework via random decision forests with graph cuts refinement has further been proposed to solve this difficult problem. Motivated by the performance of this technique, I further extend the multi-atlas learning to segment the prostate fully automatically using multispectral (T1 and T2-weighted) MR images via hybrid \ac{RF} classifiers and a multi-image graph cuts technique. The proposed method compares favorably to the previously proposed multi-atlas based prostate segmentation. The work in this thesis covers different techniques for pelvic image segmentation in MRI. These techniques have been continually developed and refined, and their application to different specific problems shows ever more promising results.
Date January 2014
CreatorsGao, Qinquan
ContributorsEdwards, Philip; Rueckert, Daniel
PublisherImperial College London
Source SetsEthos UK
Detected LanguageEnglish
TypeElectronic Thesis or Dissertation

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