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DNA methylation analysis of human multiple myeloma.

Cheung Kin Fai. / Thesis (M.Phil.)--Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2006. / Includes bibliographical references (leaves 87-105). / Abstracts in English and Chinese. / Abstract (English version) --- p.i / Abstract (Chinese version) --- p.iii / Acknowledgments --- p.vi / Table of Contents --- p.v / List of Tables --- p.viii / List of Figures --- p.iv / List of Abbreviations --- p.xi / Chapter CHAPTER 1 --- GENERAL INTRODUCTION --- p.1 / Chapter CHAPTER 2 --- LITERATURE REVIEW --- p.3 / Chapter 2.1 --- Multiple myeloma --- p.3 / Chapter 2.2 --- Epidemiology of MM --- p.3 / Chapter 2.3 --- Risk factors --- p.4 / Chapter 2.4 --- Pathophysiology of MM --- p.5 / Chapter 2.5 --- Clinical presentations and diagnosis --- p.6 / Chapter 2.5.1 --- Diagnosis --- p.6 / Chapter 2.5.1.1 --- Laboratory testing of blood and urine --- p.6 / Chapter 2.5.1.2 --- Radiographic evaluations --- p.1 / Chapter 2.5.1.3 --- Bone marrow biopsy --- p.7 / Chapter 2.6 --- Staging and classification --- p.9 / Chapter 2.6.1 --- Staging --- p.9 / Chapter 2.6.2 --- Classification --- p.11 / Chapter 2.6.2.1 --- Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance --- p.11 / Chapter 2.6.2.2 --- Asymptomatic MM --- p.12 / Chapter 2.6.2.3 --- Smouldering MM --- p.12 / Chapter 2.6.2.4 --- Indolent MM --- p.12 / Chapter 2.6.2.5 --- Symptomatic MM --- p.12 / Chapter 2.7 --- Treatment --- p.14 / Chapter 2.8 --- Epigenetics: DNA methylation --- p.15 / Chapter 2.9 --- Fundamental aspects of DNA methylation --- p.16 / Chapter 2.9.1 --- CpG islands --- p.16 / Chapter 2.9.2 --- Roles of DNA methylation --- p.16 / Chapter 2.9.3 --- Proposed mechanisms of transcriptional repression mediated by methylation --- p.18 / Chapter 2.10 --- Possible mechanisms to initiate aberrant DNA methylation --- p.21 / Chapter 2.11 --- DNA methylation in tumorigenesis --- p.22 / Chapter 2.11.1 --- Oncogenic point C → T mutation --- p.22 / Chapter 2.11.2 --- Global DNA hypomethylation --- p.23 / Chapter 2.11.3 --- Regional DNA hypermethylation --- p.23 / Chapter 2.12 --- Aberrant DNA methylation in MM --- p.25 / Chapter 2.12.1 --- Self-sufficiency in growth signals --- p.25 / Chapter 2.12.2 --- Evading apoptosis --- p.26 / Chapter 2.12.3 --- Insensitivity to antigrowth signals --- p.26 / Chapter 2.12.4 --- Tissue invasion and metastasis --- p.27 / Chapter 2.12.5 --- Infinite replicative potential --- p.28 / Chapter 2.12.6 --- Genome instability --- p.30 / Chapter 2.13 --- Methodologies of DNA methylation analysis --- p.32 / Chapter 2.13.1 --- Genome wide screening method: MS.AP-PCR --- p.32 / Chapter 2.13.2 --- Combined bisulfite restriction analysis --- p.34 / Chapter 2.13.3 --- Cloned bisulfite genomic sequencing --- p.36 / Chapter 2.13.4 --- Treatment with demethylating agent --- p.36 / Chapter CHAPTER 3 --- MATERIALS AND METHODS --- p.38 / Chapter 3.1 --- MM specimens --- p.38 / Chapter 3.1.1 --- MM samples --- p.38 / Chapter 3.1.2 --- MM cell lines --- p.38 / Chapter 3.2 --- Magnetic cell sorting of CD138-positive plasma cells --- p.39 / Chapter 3.3 --- Isolation of nuclear pellet from PB --- p.41 / Chapter 3.4 --- "DNA extraction from MM cell lines, MM plasma cells and PB" --- p.41 / Chapter 3.5 --- MS.AP-PCR --- p.42 / Chapter 3.5.1 --- Restriction enzyme digestion of genomic DNA --- p.42 / Chapter 3.5.2 --- Arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction --- p.42 / Chapter 3.5.3 --- Isolation of differentially methylated DNA fragments --- p.43 / Chapter 3.6 --- Cloning of differentially methylated DNA fragments --- p.46 / Chapter 3.6.1 --- TA cloning --- p.46 / Chapter 3.6.2 --- Heat shock transformation --- p.46 / Chapter 3.6.3 --- Screening of positive clones by PCR --- p.46 / Chapter 3.6.4 --- Alkaline lysis for plasmid DNA preparation --- p.47 / Chapter 3.7 --- MS.AP-PCR sequence analysis --- p.47 / Chapter 3.7.1 --- Nucleotide sequencing --- p.47 / Chapter 3.7.2 --- CpG islands analysis of differentially methylated sequences --- p.48 / Chapter 3.8 --- DNA methylation analysis --- p.48 / Chapter 3.8.1 --- Sodium bisulfite modification --- p.48 / Chapter 3.8.2 --- Combined bisulfite restriction analysis --- p.49 / Chapter 3.8.3 --- Cloned bisulfite genomic sequencing --- p.49 / Chapter 3.9 --- Gene expression analysis --- p.50 / Chapter 3.9.1 --- RNA extraction --- p.50 / Chapter 3.9.2 --- Reverse transcription PCR --- p.50 / Chapter 3.9.3 --- 5'-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment --- p.51 / Chapter CHAPTER 4 --- RESULTS --- p.53 / Chapter 4.1 --- Generation of DNA methylation patterns by MS.AP-PCR --- p.53 / Chapter 4.1.1. --- Global methylation content in MM samples and normal PB lymphocytes --- p.56 / Chapter 4.1.2. --- Differential methylation in MM --- p.56 / Chapter 4.2 --- UCSC BLAT analysis of differentially methylated DNA fragments --- p.60 / Chapter 4.3 --- Identification of two candidate genes with downregulated expression --- p.60 / Chapter 4.4 --- Zinc fingers and homeoboxes 2 (ZHX2) --- p.62 / Chapter 4.4.1 --- ZHX2 CpG islands BLAT search analysis --- p.62 / Chapter 4.4.2 --- Hypermethylation of ZHX2 in MM cell lines --- p.63 / Chapter 4.4.3 --- Downregulated expression of ZHX2 in methylated MM cell lines --- p.66 / Chapter 4.4.4 --- Restoration of ZHX2 expression by 5-Aza-dC treatment --- p.67 / Chapter 4.4.5 --- Unmethylation of ZHX2 in primary MM tumors --- p.68 / Chapter 4.5 --- Ring finger protein 180 (RNF180) --- p.69 / Chapter 4.5.1 --- RNF180 CpG islands BLAT search analysis --- p.69 / Chapter 4.5.2 --- Hypermethylation of RNF180 in MM cell lines --- p.70 / Chapter 4.5.3 --- Downregulated expression of RNF180 in methylated MM cell lines --- p.73 / Chapter 4.5.4 --- Restoration of RNF180 expression by 5-Aza-dC treatment --- p.74 / Chapter 4.5.5 --- Methylation of RNF180 in primary MM tumors --- p.75 / Chapter CHAPTER 5 --- DISCUSSION --- p.76 / Chapter 5.1 --- Importance of methylation in MM --- p.76 / Chapter 5.2 --- Genome-wide screening approach by MS.AP-PCR --- p.76 / Chapter 5.3 --- Sample selection in MS.AP-PCR --- p.78 / Chapter 5.4 --- Methylation patterns in MM --- p.79 / Chapter 5.5 --- Candidate genes selection strategies --- p.81 / Chapter 5.6 --- Zinc fingers and homeoboxes 2 --- p.81 / Chapter 5.7 --- Ring finger protein 180 --- p.83 / Chapter 5.8 --- Limitations --- p.84 / Chapter CHAPTER 6 --- CONCLUSION --- p.86 / REFERENCES --- p.87

Identiferoai:union.ndltd.org:cuhk.edu.hk/oai:cuhk-dr:cuhk_325563
Date January 2006
ContributorsCheung, Kin Fai., Chinese University of Hong Kong Graduate School. Division of Anatomical and Cellular Pathology.
Source SetsThe Chinese University of Hong Kong
LanguageEnglish, Chinese
Detected LanguageEnglish
TypeText, bibliography
Formatprint, xiv, 105 leaves : ill. (some col.) ; 30 cm.
RightsUse of this resource is governed by the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons “Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International” License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)

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