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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

Phytochemical analyses and Brine shrimp (Artemia Salina) lethality studies on Syzygium cordatum

Chiguvare, Herbert January 2013 (has links)
Syzygium cordatum Hoscht ex. C Krauss, also known as water berry, is normally used by the people of South Africa for respiratory ailments including tuberculosis, stomach complaints, treatment of wounds and as emetics. An extract of the leaves can be used as a purgative for diarrhoea treatment. The leaves of Syzygium cordatum Myrtaceae were obtained from the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, air dried and sequential solvent extraction was done to obtain various non volatile crude extracts. The volatile extract, that is the essential oil was extracted from the leaves using hydrodistillation and analysis of compounds was done by GC/MS for composition. 32 compounds were obtained from the fresh leaves and 18 compounds were obtained from the dry leaves. The fresh oil contains caryophyllene (11.8 percent) and caryophyllene oxide (11.1 percent) as the main sesquiterpene component. α-Pinene(5.0 percent) was the only monoterpene compound identified in the fresh oil in substantial amount. The dry leaves oil had copanene (17.0 percent), β-Caryophellene (26.0 percent), cubenol (6.5 percent) and caryophellene oxide (14.2 percent) as the dominant constituent of the oil. Summary of the classes of compounds in the oil revealed that the chemical profile of both oils were dominated by sesquiterpenoid compounds. This is the first time that terpenoids compounds are being identified in both the fresh and dry leaf oil of S. cordatum. Hexane leaf extract was selected due to the interest in the terpenoid compounds. Column chromatography of the hexane crude gave five (5) of which two are fully reported. The isolates were fully elucidated using spectroscopic methods to be β-Sitosterol (HC3) and Friedela-3-one (HC1A/HC1D). Cytotoxicity analysis was carried out on the crude using the Brine shrimps assay. Isolates 1C and1D showed significant lethality using the brine shrimps assay with lethality values (LC50) of 4.105mg/ml for HC1C and 4.11mg/ml for 1D/1A respectively.

Synthesis, characterization, and biological studies of pyrazolone Schiff bases and their transition metal complexes

Idemudia, Omoruyi Gold January 2014 (has links)
Some new acylpyrazolone Schiff bases have been synthesized from the condensation reaction of two acylpyrazolone diketone precursors with phenylhydrazine, 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and sulfanilamide. They have been fully characterized by elemental analysis and spectroscopic techniques (IR,1H and 13C NMR, and mass-spectra). The single crystal structure of the benzoyl derivative acylpyrazolone Schiff bases have been obtained and analyzed by X-ray crystallography technique. Solid state X-ray diffraction revealed a keto tautomer Schiff base in solid state. Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes with the Schiff bases have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and UV-VIS spectroscopy, magnetic susceptibility measurements, and thermal studies (TGA and DTG). An octahedral geometry around the transition metal ion, consisting of two bidentate Schiff base ligands bonding through the azometine nitrogen and ketonic oxygen have been proposed based on careful interpretation of available analytical and spectroscopic characterization results. Two water molecules as ligands complete the octahedral geometry in all cases. Using the invitro disc diffusion method for screening synthesized compounds against selected gram positive and gram negative bacterial at 40 mg/mL, and the DPPH free radical scavenging methods at 0.50, 0.25 and 0.13 mg/mL, the synthesized Schiff base and metal complexes showed varying biological activities. 4-benzoyl-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one sul29 fanilamide showed more activity generally, exhibiting a broad spectrum activity against all selected bacterial in some cases. Mn(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes of sulfanilamide Schiff base with the acetylpyrazolone derivative 4-acetyl-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one sulfanilamide, exhibited a stronger and very good DPPH radical scavenging activity as good as ascorbic acid on comparing, but not with Cu(II). As such they could be important antitumour candidates.

Structural, optical and electrical characterization of nano-sized c-tio2 quamtum dots synthesized by spray pyrolysis

Taziwa, Raymond Tichaona January 2014 (has links)
In the 21st century, scientific communities face challenges and opportunities concerning future development, where innovations must be a key driver over the past, evolution of African societies were based on incomplete models, only taking into account economical growth and not paying attention to environmental deterioration as a consequence of anthropogenic activity and environmental pollution. We have to learn from our past mistakes in order not to repeat them. Education and research of today as the embryonic stages of the development models of tomorrow should be directed toward a sustainable mentality. In this sense, solar energy technologies have emerged as key instruments for minimizing environmental impact as well as reducing economic cost in the field of renewable energies. Titanium dioxide is a fascinating low cost material exhibiting unique properties of stability and photo catalytic activities, leading to clean technologies in water purification and energy conversion of sunlight. However, conventional techniques (high temperature, high vacuum, high pressures) of processing titanium dioxide are a technological limitation due to excessive energy consumption. This poses a handicap for practical applications in areas such as preparation of hybrid organic/Titanium dioxide materials or devices on thermo flexible substrates such as plastic material. It is for this reason that the investigation presented in this Ph.D thesis deals with the development of spray pyrolysis techniques for preparation of carbon doped titanium dioxide nano powders for solar cell applications. This thesis is therefore structured as follows: Chapter 1 gives a general overview of the work done in this thesis. This work relies greatly on the excellent structural optical and electrical properties of TiO2 thin films, as well as its chemical resistance and insulating properties. A summary of the physical, optical, electrical and chemical properties reported in the literature, with an emphasis on those relevant to solar cell fabrication, is presented in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 gives a concise literature review on models governing droplet formation in ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) techniques, the limitations of these models have been exposed and a new relation model for estimating the final particle size given a set of initial reaction conditions has been proposed. The presently derived model is quite advantageous in that it does not require the investigator to look up values of surface tension and density for every precursor solution. Chapter 4 presents in detail the designed and constructed spray pyrolysis system capable of realizing desired nano structures for photovoltaic applications. The first system employed an ultrasonic atomization spray nozzle in order to create an aerosol of the TiO2 precursor. The reasons for choosing ultrasonic spray deposition (USP) and the TiO2 precursors, titanium iso propoxide and titanium tetra butoxide are discussed. Chapter 5 outlines experimental methodologies used in synthesis and characterization of the materials used in this study. Chapter 5 further provides experimental methodologies used in fabrication of a new type of photo electrochemical solar cells (PECs). Chapter 6 reveals the opto-electrical results of PECs solar cells fabricated. There are numerous properties that are affected by the size but emphasis will be placed on nano-size and confinement effects. Chapter 7 presents a confirmation of the phonon confinement effects in C-TiO2 QDs for the first time. In addition Chapter 7 also presents a new phonon confinement model. Chapter 8 reveals the optical, structural and electronic properties of C-TiO2 QDs synthesized by USP and PSP techniques. In addition the electrical properties of C-TiO2 QDs PEC solar cells devices are reported in Chapter 8. Concluding remarks, with potential future research projects are presented in Chapter 9. Through these 9 chapters, all research questions have been answered satisfactorily and all objectives met. Most of the work contained in this thesis has been subjected to external reviews through publication of these peer reviewed articles.

Gasification characteristics of sugarcane bagasse

Anukam, Anthony Ike January 2013 (has links)
Sugarcane is a major crop in many countries. It is the most abundant lignocellulosic material in tropical countries such as South Africa. It is one of the plants with the highest bioconversion efficiency. The sugarcane crop is able to efficiently fix solar energy, yielding some 55 tons of dry matter per hectare of land annually. After harvest, the crop produces sugar juice and bagasse. Sugarcane bagasse is a residue that results from the crushing of sugarcane in the sugar industry. It is a renewable feedstock that can be used for power generation and manufacturing cellulosic ethanol. As biomass, sugarcane bagasse holds promise as a fuel source since it can produce more than enough electricity and heat energy to supply the needs of a common sugar factory. However, in the sugarcane industry the bagasse is currently burnt inefficiently in boilers that provide the heating for the industry. This project seeks to investigate the possibility of gasifying sugarcane bagasse as an efficient conversion technology. The investigation is necessary because fuel properties govern the gasifier design and ultimately, the gasification efficiency. Proximate and ultimate analysis of sugarcane bagasse was conducted after which the results were used to conduct a computer simulation of the mass and energy balance during gasification. The kinetic investigation undertaken through the TGA and DTG analyses revealed the activation energy and pre – exponential factor which were obtained by the model – free Kissinger method of kinetic analysis and were found to be 181.51 kJ/mol and 3.1 × 103/min respectively. The heating value of sugarcane bagasse was also measured and found to be 17.8 MJ/kg, which was used in the calculation of the conversion efficiency of the gasification process. Fuel properties, including moisture content and gasifier operating parameters were varied in order to determine optimum gasifier operating conditions that results in maximum conversion efficiency. The highest conversion efficiency was achieved at low moisture content after computer simulation of the gasification process. Moisture content also affected the volume of CO and H2 as the former decreases with increasing moisture content while the latter increases with increasing moisture content, accelerating the water – gas reaction. Scanning electron microscope fitted to an Energy dispersive X – ray spectroscopy was also used in order to view the shape and size distribution as well as determine the elemental composition of sugarcane bagasse. The results obtained established that the fuel properties and gasification conditions affect the conversion efficiency. During computer simulation, it was established that smaller particle size resulted in higher conversion efficiency. The smaller throat diameter also resulted in higher conversion efficiency. The throat angle of 25° also resulted in higher conversion efficiency. The temperature of input air was also found to be one of the major determining factors in terms of conversion efficiency. The dissertation presents the proximate and ultimate analysis results as well as the kinetic analysis results. The SEM/EDX analysis as well as the computer simulation results of the gasification process is also presented. The major contribution of this project was on the investigation of the gasification characteristics of sugarcane bagasse and the utilization of these in the design of a laboratory scale sugarcane bagasse gasifier with enhanced conversion efficiency through computer simulation.

Synthesis, characterization & application of visible light responsive nitrogen doped Tio2 and copolymer-grafted asymmetric membranes with ozonolysis for water treatment

Mungondori, Henry H January 2015 (has links)
The use of titanium dioxide for the photo-catalytic removal of organic, inorganic, and microbial pollutants from natural water and wastewater has been considered a very promising technique. The aim of this study was to prepare nitrogen doped titanium dioxide, immobilize it on asymmetric polymeric membranes of poly (methacrylic acid) grafted onto poly (vinylidene difluoride) (PVDF) blended with poly (acrylonitrile) (PAN), and evaluate the photo-catalytic, antimicrobial, and antifouling properties of the membranes. Nitrogen doped titanium dioxide (N-TiO2) nano-particles were prepared by a low temperature sol gel synthesis technique. The modification of TiO2 with nitrogen allows photo-sensitization of the photo-catalyst towards visible light utilization. The N-TiO2 nano-particles were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (SXPS), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) surface area analysis, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The characterizations revealed the presence of the expected functional groups and confirmed successful doping and that the product was visible light responsive. Novel poly (methacrylic acid) grafted onto poly (vinylidene difluoride)/ poly (acrylonitrile) (PMAA-g-PVDF/ PAN) asymmetric membranes were prepared by the dry-wet phase inversion technique. The poly (methacrylic acid) (PMAA) side chains where grafted onto an activated PVDF backbone by reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The photo-catalytic membranes were generated by blending N-TiO2 with the polymer solution before casting the membranes. The membranes were characterized by FT-IR, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). FT-IR and NMR analyses confirmed successful grafting of MAA chains onto PVDF while SEM confirmed the successful preparation of membranes with asymmetric structure. The efficacy of the photo-catalytic asymmetric membranes was evaluated on the removal of herbicides from synthetic water. Bentazon was easily degraded while atrazine and paraquat were recalcitrant and proved difficult to degrade. The best results were observed with 3 % N-TiO2-PMAA-g-PVDF/ PAN asymmetric membranes on the photo-degradation of bentazon, atrazine and paraquat in water. Significant enhancement in the photo-degradation of the three herbicides was observed when photo-catalytic degradation was coupled with ozonation. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis confirmed the presence of a degradation by-product during the photo-catalytic degradation of bentazon. The photo-catalytic membranes were also evaluated on the photo-catalytic reduction of heavy metals Pb2+ and Fe3+ in water, and the best results were obtained using 1 % N-TiO2-PMAA-g-PVDF/ PAN and 1 % N-TiO2-PAN asymmetric membranes. All prepared photo-catalytic membranes where capable of completely inactivating E. coli ATCC 8739 within 120 minutes of exposure and inactivation rate increased with increasing N-TiO2 photo-catalyst loading. However, there was an indication from the results obtained that N-TiO2 supported on PMAA-g-PVDF/ PAN showed a higher inactivation rate of E. coli ATCC 8739 compared to N-TiO2-PAN and N-TiO2-PVDF membranes. The 1 % N-TiO2-PMAA-g-PVDF/ PAN membranes gave the highest pure water flux (421.83 L/m2h). This increase (PVDF = 30.50 L/m2h, PAN = 73.85 L/m2h) in pure water flux is owedb to PMAA grafting as well as addition of N-TiO2. These modifications resulted in an increased membrane surface hydrophilicity, which promoted permeation of pure water through the membrane structure. A high bovine serum albumin (BSA) rejection (76.5 %) was noted and can be attributed to steric hindrance brought about by PMAA side chains which prevented the bulky BSA molecules from attaching to the membrane surface for PMAA-g-PVDF/ PAN membranes. However, the supporting porous sub-layer of an asymmetric membrane seemed to play a very important role in the overall permeability of a membrane. PVDF membranes are highly hydrophobic hence they gave a very low pure water flux.

Isolation, characterisation of terpenoids and biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles of acacia mearnsii de wild and acacia Karroo Hayne and their Bioassays

Avoseh, Opeyemi Nudewhenu January 2015 (has links)
Great wealth of traditional knowledge about the use of plants had been transferred from generation to generations leading to the present day drug discovery and invention of new scientific methods of isolation, purification and identification. With the discovery of new diseases and drug-resistant organisms, there is no other source or deposit of lead compounds or drugs than the plant kingdom. As a result of this, about 25% of the current drug administered owe their origin to plant sources with the view to reduce the carcinogenic effect of synthetic drugs. Volatile terpenoids among other broad spectrum of natural product had been implicated to show high therapeutic properly. In the present study, selected locally-used medicinal plants were exploited for the presence of potent bioactive compounds and ability to form nanoparticles with distinctive property for use as chemoprotective agent against inflammation, tumors, cancer and other chronic diseases. Acacia mearnsii De Wild and Acacia karroo Hayne studied in this report are known to be invasive species with no proper regulation to conserve and preserve them. However, ethnopharmacology report of these plant species in the Southern Africa region reveals that they are good antiseptic, anti-diarrhea, anti-inflammation and a forage for livestock. These plants were subjected to volatile extraction protocol of some parts of the plants (stem and leaves) followed by examination of the anti-inflammation capacity of the extracts using an animal model. In addition, the bye-product (hydrosol) from the stem bark of each species possess a high reducing and stabilizing property leading to synthesis of silver nanoparticles, followed by investigation of the anti-inflammation potential of the synthesized silver nanoparticles using animal model. The volatile oils of the leaves and stem bark of Acacia mearnsii De Wild obtained by hydro-distillation were analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Twenty, Thirty-Eight, Twenty-nine and Thirty-Eight components accounting for 93.8%, 92.1%, 78.5% and 90.9% of the total oils of the fresh, dry leaves and fresh, dry stem bark respectively. The major components of the oil were octadecyl alcohol (25.5%) and phytol (10.5%); cis-verbenol (29.5%); phytol (10.1%) and phytol (23.4%) for the fresh leaves, dried leaves, and fresh stem, dry stem bark respectively. Oral administration of essential oils at the dose of 2% showed significant (p<0.05) anti-inflammatory properties in the albumin induced test model in rats. Oils from the fresh leaves and dry stems inhibited inflammation beyond 4 h post treatment. Furthermore, the chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydro-distillation from the leaves and stem bark (dry and fresh) of Acacia karroo Hayne, analysed by GC-MS, shows that hexanal (10.67%) and ß-ionone (9.74%) were dominant in the dried leaves, β-pinene (14.30%), and (Z)-2-Hexen-1-ol (10.21%) in the fresh leaves while Octacosane (10.59%) and phytol (23.38%) were dominant in the dry and fresh stem respectively. The anti-inflammation ability of these oils after an albumin-induced inflammation on wistar rats, shows a significant effect at the 1st h of treatment with a significance of P< 0.01 for all part plants, while the fresh leaves shows further inhibitory activities at the 2nd h of analysis. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were successfully synthesized from AgNO3 through a green route using the aqueous extract (hydrosols) of Acacia mearnsii De Wild and Acacia karroo Hayne as reducing agent and as well as capping agent. The Acacia-mediated AgNPs were characterized with the use of UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Transmission electron microscope (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray Diffractometry (XRD). A spherical, 10-40 nm diameter silver nanoparticles were synthesized with very low level of stability for the AMDS and the AKDS-AgNPs. In addition, nociceptive activity with a mice rat reveals higher inhibition at the neurogenic phase for the AKDS-AgNPs, while AMDS-AgNPs exhibited a high inhibition at the inflammatory phase. The potent anti-inflammatory activity of essential oils of A. mearnsii De Wild and A. karroo Hayne hereby confirmed its traditional use in treating various inflammatory diseases, while the inflammatory studies on the synthesized AgNPs reveals a very active compound which can be used as a potent opioid or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID).

Synthesis, characterisation and evaluation of functionalized Lignocelluloses-clay nanocomposites for organic pollutant removal from water

Mafukidze, Donovan M January 2015 (has links)
PMPSgLig-NaMMT nanocomposites were prepared from methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS), lignocellulose and montmorillonite clay. The potential enhancement of organic pollutant adsorption capabilities of PMPSgLig-NaMMT nanocomposite from water through functionalization was investigated. PMPSgLig-NaMMT was functionalized by esterification and etherification using different methods so as to increase the surface hydrophobicity of the material and hence improve its compatibility with the target pollutants. Specific chemical routes specially tailored for PMPSgLig-NaMMT were established for functionalization mostly based on the common esterification (Fischer esterification) and etherification (Williamson‟s etherification) reactions. In the functionalization methods, factors such as pH environment, nanocomposite composition, nature of functionalization moiety, and use of or absence of solvents and their variations were studied. FT-IR, XRD, SEM and TGA were used to characterize the synthesized and functionalized nanoadsorbents. The techniques showed successful functionalization via esterification and etherification methods albeit to different extents, with clear retention of the material‟s original structure though there were signs of degradation with some methods. Characterization was supported by adsorption studies to validate implications and draw conclusions. The use of 1,10-phenathroline as a model organic pollutant in water in the adsorption studies showed that adsorbents conformed to monolayer adsorption following pseudo-second order kinetics for adsorption of organic pollutants accurately represented. Most importantly the studies revealed the significant impact of the nanocomposite composition on the overall absorbent performance. Adsorption studies also showed that functionalization via esterification methods gave rise to better adsorbents.

Synthesis and structural studies of NiS and PdS nanoparticles/nanocomposites from dithiocarbamates single source precursors

Nqombolo, Azile January 2016 (has links)
The main aim of this research is to synthesize Ni(II) and Pd(II) dithiocarbamate complexes and use them as single source precursors for the synthesis of NiS and PdS nanoparticles and metal sulphides potato starch nanocomposites. Four dithiocarbamate ligands were synthesized and characterized using elemental analysis and spectroscopic techniques. The ligands were used to prepared homoleptic Ni(II) and Pd(II) complexes of the dithiocarbamate ligands. The metal complexes were characterized with elemental analysis, UV-Vis, FTIR and 1H-NMR spectroscopic techniques. Conductivity measurements indicate that all the complexes are non-electrolytes in solution and results from the electronic spectra studies confirmed the proposed 4-coordinate square planar geometry around the metal ions. The nickel complexes showed d-d transitions around 477 nm while in the palladium complexes, no d-d transitions were observed but the compounds showed strong metal to ligand charge transfer transitions. From the FTIR spectra studies, it can be confirmed that the complexes were successfully synthesised because all peaks of interest were observed at expected regions from the literature. The νC-N was observed around 1469-1495 cm-1, νC=S around 1101-1188 cm-1 and νC-S around 738-1060 cm-1 for both Ni(II) and Pd(II) complexes. νNi-S was observed around 375-543 cm-1 and νPd-S around 529-545 cm-1. The FTIR also confirmed that the dithiocarbamate ligands act as bidentate chelating ligands through the sulfur atoms. The complexes were used as single source precursors and thermolysed in hexadecylamine (HDA) at 220 °C to prepare four HDA-capped nickel sulfide nanoparticles and four palladium sulfide nanoparticles. The as-prepared nanoparticles were studied with optical absorption spectra, photoluminescence, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The optical studies results showed that NiS have large band gaps that are greater than that of the bulk, therefore they are found to be blue shifted relative to the bulk, which shows that they have small particle size and thus confirming their quantum confinement effect. PL spectra reveal that the emission peaks are red shifted compared to the absorption band edges of the nanoparticles. The XRD patterns confirmed the formation of cubic and rhombohedral phase for NiS nanoparticles and cubic phase for PdS nanoparticles. SEM images of both NiS and PdS show uniform surface morphology at low and high magnification with different shapes. EDS analyses confirmed the presence of Ni, S, and Pd in each of the spectrum indicating that the nanoparticles were successfully synthesized. TEM images showed that the synthesised nanoparticles have uniform and narrow size distribution with no agglomeration. The sizes of the NiS nanoparticles were found to be in the range of 12-38 nm for NiS1, 8-11 nm for NiS2, 9-16 nm for NiS3 and 4-9 nm for NiS4. The TEM images for the as-prepared PdS nanoparticles showed that the average crystallite sizes are 6.94-9.62 nm for PdS1, 8-11 nm for PdS2, 9-16 nm for PdS3 and 4-9 nm for PdS4 respectively. The nanoparticles were used to prepare potato starch nanocomposites and SEM images indicate that the surface morphology of starch polymer nanocomposites compose of potato starch and few particles in between the pores of the matrix, this is due to the small ratio of nanoparticles used.

Interaction of terpenes and oxygenated terpenes with some drugs

Ajayi, Emmanuel Olusegun January 2012 (has links)
SFME and HD for the extraction of essential oil in Lavandula officinalis in Alice have been reported. A total of 59 compounds were identified with the major compound being 1,8-cineole, an oxygenated monoterpene, with 46.89% and 44.84% yield obtained for HD and SFME respectively. Charge transfer (CT) complexes formed between α-pinene, 1,8-cineole and camphor as electron donors with iodine as the electron acceptor have been studied spectrophotometrically in methylene chloride solution. The Benesi- Hildebrand equation has been applied to estimate the formation constant (Kf) and molecular extinction coefficient (εCT). The value of Kf is the highest in camphor-I2 complex compared to the other two complexes. Antibacterial assessment was carried out on the various reagents, determining the MIC of individual reagents and in combination. The results show an improvement, on combination of the various reagents than when tested alone.

Variation in the essential oil composition of Calendula Officinalis L

Okoh, Omobola Oluranti January 2008 (has links)
Variations in the yield, chemical composition, antibacterial, and antioxidant properties of the essential oils of Rosmarinus officinalis L. cultivated in Alice, Eastern Cape of South Africa over a period of 12 months using the solvent-free microwave extraction and traditional hydrodistillation methods were evaluated. The GC-MS analyses of the essential oils revealed the presence of 33 compounds with 1,8-cineole, a-pinene, camphor, verbenone, bornyl acetate and camphene constituting about 80 percent of the oils throughout the period of investigation, with the solvent-free microwave extraction method generally yielding more of the major components than the hydrodistillation method. Each of the major components of the oils varied in quantity and quality of yield at different periods of the year. The method of extraction and time of harvest are of importance to the quantity and quality of essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis. Higher amounts of oxygenated monoterpenes such as borneol, camphor, terpene- 4-ol, linalool, a-terpeneol were present in the oil of SFME in comparison with HD. However, HD oil contained more monoterpene hydrocarbons such as a-pinene, camphene, β-pinene, myrcene, a-phellanderene, 1,8-cineole, trans- β-ocimene, γ-teprinene, and cis-sabinene hydrate than SFME extracted oil. Accumulation of monoterpene alcohols and ketones was observed during maturation process of Rosmarinus leaves. Quantitative evaluation of antibacterial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration values were determined using a serial microplate dilution method. The essential oils obtained using both methods of extraction were active against all the bacteria tested at a concentration of 10 mg mL-1. The minimum inhibitory concentrations for the SFME extracted oils ranged between 0.23 and 1.88 mg mL-1, while those of the HD extracted oils varied between 0.94 and 7.5 mg mL-1, thus suggesting that the oil obtained by solvent free microwave extraction was more active against bacteria than the oil obtained through hydrodistillation. The antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of the obtained oils were tested by means of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH+) assay and β- carotene bleaching test. In the DPPH+ assay, while the free radical scavenging activity of the oil obtained by SFME method showed percentage inhibitions of between 48.8 percent and 67 percent, the HD derived oil showed inhibitions of between 52.2 percent and 65.30 percent at concentrations of 0.33, 0.50 and 1.0 mg mL-1, respectively. In the β-carotene bleaching assay, the percentage inhibition increased with increasing concentration of both oils with a higher antioxidant activity of the oil obtained through the SFME than the HD method. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used to analyze the chemical composition of the extracts using three eluent solvent systems of varying polarities i. e. CEF, BEA and EMW and sprayed with vanillin-sulfuric acid. The chemical composition of the different extracts was similar with the exception of methanol and water extracts which had only one or two visible compounds after treating with vanillin-spray reagent. To evaluate the number of antibacterial compounds present in the fractions, bioautography was used against two most important nosocomial microorganisms. S. aureus (Gram positive) and E. coli (Gram negative). Nearly all the crude serial extraction fractions contained compounds that inhibited the growth of E. coli. The hexane extract had the most lines of inhibition followed by ethyl acetate. Bioassay-guided fractionation against E. coli was used to isolate antibacterial compounds. The largest number of antibacterial compounds occurred in the hexane fraction. Furthermore we tried to complete the characterization by extracting and studying other biologically important plant metabolites such as phenolic compounds to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of Rosmarinus extracts

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