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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

The Role of emotions in children's responses to intergroup contexts

De Amicis, Leyla January 2009 (has links)
Researchc oncerningc hildren's intergroupr elationsh as mainly focusedo n prejudicial attitudesa nd stereotypesR. arely have children's emotionsb eene xaminedi n intergroup contexts,a lthougha few studiesh ave suggestedth e importanceo f this topic. In contrast, literature on intergroup relations in adults has recently highlighted how emotions can be important for predicting specific intergroup actions. The main purpose of this project was to explore the role of children's emotions in predicting expected intergroup behaviours. This issue was investigated in nine empirical studies. First, children's emotions were investigated in relation to general liking toward ingroup (White) and outgroup (Black) peers. Children were found to like same- and differentethnicity peers to the same extent, but some differences emerged in the emotions they experienced toward these targets. Moreover, positive and negative emotions contributed significantly to predictions of White children's intentional contact with specific White and Black members, above and beyond stereotypical beliefs and general liking. The effects of stereotypical beliefs were weaker, and were sometimes mediated by emotional factors. In addition, specific emotions (e. g., anger) were found to predict precise behaviours in a perpetrator-victim paradigm, in which targets' ethnicity was manipulated. In line with expectations, differentiated emotions predicted precise behaviours, but these effects were independent of the impact of social categorization on intervention/avoidance behaviours. A final study presented children with intergroup discriminatory scenarios, and considered whether asking children to focus on their emotions or cognitions would encourage more contact with outgroup members. Results indicated the need to consider gender and age when planning interventions designed to facilitate positive intergroup behaviours. In conclusion, this programme of empirical work has demonstrated that emotions contribute significantly to explaining intergroup behaviours in children. Future attention to the emotional component in intergroup relations in children is thus suggested as a major direction for future work in this area.

Sociocultural influences on body image concerns through adulthood. (BL: DXN057341)

Halliwell, E. January 2002 (has links)
This thesis focuses on body image concerns throughout adulthood, specifically on the impact of sociocultural attitudes concerning appearance on adults'body image concerns. To date research has concentrated on body image amongst young women and eating disordered populations. Little is known about the body image concerns of men, or adult women. Research indicates that sociocultural attitudes concerning appearance are transmitted to girls and young women through a variety of sources. However, the role of these in influencing adults' body image has not been investigated. Qualitative and quantitative methods are employed to address these gaps in the literature. The empirical programme consists of an in-depth interview study (N=42), two surveys - one with students (N=158) and one with a general population sample (N=366) - and an experimental study (N=203). The interview study indicates that adult body-focused concerns are highly gendered Also that ageing has a complex influence on body image concerns. The first quantitative study applies self-discrepancy theory to an investigation of body image. The findings suggest that ideal, but not ought, self-discrepancies have utility in explaining body image concerns. This is followed up in a questionnaire study of adults'body image concerns. In addition to internalised sociocultural attitudes towards appearance romantic relationships were found to constitute an important interpersonal influence on body image concerns. Also results from the experimental study suggest that average size models could be successful in advertising and, potentially, could decrease body anxiety in a large proportion of adult women relative to viewing thin models. Body image concerns continue to be relevant to women, and men, throughout adulthood. Gender differences are evident in conceptualisations of the body, as well as levels of body satisfaction Further more gendered conceptualisations of the body may explain differences in the consequences of body dissatisfaction of or women and men. This research suggests that existing measures may not reflect adequately gender and age differences in body image concerns.

Psychology of bipolar disorder

Knowles, Rebecca Elizabeth January 2004 (has links)
A behavioural high risk paradigm was used to investigate cognitive vulnerability to bipolar disorder in a group of individuals at high risk of developing symptoms, and similar measures were administered to a group of bipolar patients whose symptoms were currently in remission. High risk was defined as a combination of elevated scores on both the Hypomanic Personality Questionnaire and the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale. The research addressed several psychological models of bipolar disorder including response styles, behavioural engagement, circadian rhythm disruption, self-esteem instability and the manic defence, as well as cognitive reactivity to musical mood induction and the impact of mood on emotion recognition. In the initial analogue study, hypothetically low-, medium- and high-risk participants were compared on measures of the models listed. High-risk participants displayed a uniquely dysfunctional combination of rumination and risk-taking coping behaviours, high behavioural inhibition and activation scores, irregular and unrestful sleep, highly unstable self-esteem, heightened sensitivity to positive and negative mood induction, and a moodcongruent bias in their perception of ambiguous facial expressions relative to the low-risk participants. They had also experienced significant levels of affective symptomatology consistent with their high-risk status. The subsequent clinical study compared remitted bipolar patients to remitted unipolar depressed patients and healthy controls. The bipolar group displayed more ruminative coping, high behavioural inhibition, disrupted and inefficient sleep, unstable selfesteem, and a clear manic defence when compared to the controls. The remitted bipolar patients also reported greater shifts in mood and self-esteem following both mood induction procedures than the controls. The remitted bipolar patients were therefore very similar to both the unipolar depressed group and the high-risk analogue participants in cognitive terms. Taken together, the results support the use of behavioural high-risk paradigms in investigations of bipolar disorder, and confirm the involvement of the presently examined cognitive and psychosocial factors in conferring vulnerability to bipolar symptomatology.

Perceived physical health, psychological distress and social support among prison officers

Harvey, Joel January 2007 (has links)
This research examines perceived physical health, psychological distress and social support among prison officers. Specifically this study tests direct models, moderator models and mediator models of social support. The direct models allow an examination of whether social support (from a significant other and from within prison) has a direct effect on psychological distress. These models also allow an examination of whether perceived physical health has a direct effect on psychological distress. The moderator models examine whether social support (from a significant other outside prison or from within the prison) moderates the relationship between perceived physical health and psychological distress; and the mediator models examine whether perceived social support (now specifically within prison) mediates the relationship between perceived physical health and psychological distress. A total of 100 prison officers from a UK prison took part in this crosssectional study. The participants completed the Short Form-36 II (Ware, et al., 2002), the Significant Others Scale (SOS; Power et al., 1988), the Prison Social Support Scale (PSSS; a newly devised measure for this study) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12; Goldberg & Williams, 1988). The prison officers reported poor perceived physical health and a high proportion of officers (56.6%) reached caseness on the GHQ-12. There was evidence for a direct effect of perceived social support both from a significant other and from within the prison; however, social support within the prison was most strongly associated with psychological distress. There was also evidence for a direct effect of perceived physical health on psychological distress. There was also some evidence for a moderating effect of social support within the prison but there was no evidence for a mediating role of perceived social support within the prison. These results suggest that support from within prison is important to perceived physical health and Psychological distress. The limitations of the research are discussed before considering the research, clinical and organisational implications of the study.

Psychological factors and stages of change in drivers' willingness to reduce their car use

Beatty, Susan Frances January 2002 (has links)
No description available.

Cultural stereotypes and the diagnosis of depression : women from South Asian communities and their experiences of mental distress

Burr, Jennifer Anne January 1998 (has links)
No description available.

A cognitive-developmental profile of cardinality in preschoolers

Twyford, Helen Elizabeth January 2002 (has links)
No description available.

Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome : research from a critical perspective

Evans, Rob January 2002 (has links)
No description available.

A grounded analysis of the role of imaginary audiences in self and social development

Bell, Joanna Heather January 2001 (has links)
No description available.

A cross-cultural study of emotional/behavioural problems and moral reasoning in male adolescents : comparison between Saudi Arabia and Britain

Al-Orini, Saleh bin Mohammed January 2001 (has links)
No description available.

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