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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
61

The changing structure of the legal profession in Turkey : an historical and sociological analysis

Cirhinlioğlu, Zafer January 1995 (has links)
This study deals with two main issues: the first is the structure of the legal profession in Turkey and the second is the nature of the relationship between the advocates and the state. The literature on the sociology of the professions is discussed and a theoretical vacuum is stressed as far as the developing countries are concerned. Since the historical characteristics of these countries are different from those in West European countries, a need for a new and specific approach is emphasised. To indicate these historical differences, an analysis of the historical development of the Turkish legal profession is presented. It is concluded that, especially towards the end of the Ottoman Empire, there emerged a dichotomy in the legal system. With the establishment of modem Turkey after First World War, European legal system was accepted and this dichotomy was ended. In this context, it is also asserted that the Turkish state could not be considered in separation from the legal profession. The results of an empirical research carried out in Turkey were also presented in the second part. In addition to the information concerning the structure of the advocacy system, the views of the advocates on the problems relating to their profession and the country were also presented. It is observed that Turkish advocates are very interested in political, economic, cultural and social problems. They believe that they can play a major role in resolving these problems. A comparison between the Istanbul and Sivas advocates is also drawn to determine whether the views of advocates in big cities and those in rural areas differ significantly from each other.
62

Cricket as a vocation : a study of the development and contemporary structure of the occupation and career patterns of the cricketer

Brookes, C. C. P. January 1974 (has links)
This thesis takes the form of an analysis of the development over the last five hundred years of two particular features of the structure of cricket, it's organisation and the occupational group which has come to be based on the game. The analysis is divided into five relatively distinct sections. It begins with an analysis of the probable nature of folk-cricket and of the social context in which the many variations of the games would have been played. The development of the game is considered in terms of four stages: (i) ca. 1660 to 1830, when the folk-game in one or more of its forms was taken up by members of the aristocracy and gentry, and playing techniques, rules and the overall organisation of the game became elaborated and more highly formalised. During this stage, the game assumed an importance above all as a means of acting out prestige rival ries within the leisured elite. At the same time, the career as professional began to emerge under the patronage of this elite. (ii) ca. 1850 to ca. 1870, when the patronage provided by members of the aristocracy and gentry ceased, and teams of independent professionals, dependent upon spectator support, toured the country. (iii) ca. 1870 to ca. 1945, when the game became highly formalised and regularised, based on the county as a unit of organisation and identification, and when it developed a high degree of autonomy, organisationally, economically, and in terms of the recruitment of players - full-time amateurs as well as full-time professionals. (iv) post 1945, when the amateur-professional dichotomy collapsed and decreasing srectator support led to concern about the survival- potential of cricket as a spectator-spectator employing a large number of players.
63

Prisoners in revolt : the origin and development of Preservation of the Rights of Prisoners (PROP), the British Prisoners Union

Fitzgerald, Mike January 1976 (has links)
Recent years have witnessed an upsurge in prisoners' protest. In contrast to earlier times, such militancy has increasingly been channelled into collectivised and controlled strikes and demonstrations. There has been an accompanying change in both the content and style of presentation of inmates' demands, reflected in the explicitly political rhetoric of their 'manifestoes'. This dissertation is concerned with one feature of this 'new' militancy - prisoners' attempts to organise themselves to protest not only about the material conditions, but also about the fact of their incarceration. It looks in particular, at the emergence of Preservation of the Rights of Prisoners (PROP), the British prisoners' union founded in May 1972. A comparative analysis with the movement in the USA is undertaken, and the whole thesis is informed by the work of Thomas Mathiesen, and the Scandinavian experiences. The first chapter presents a brief history of imprisonment to raise the question of why people are imprisoned. This leads into a discussion of more recent developments and possible future trends of British penal policy. Chapter Three outlines prison conditions, which, it is argued, provided much of the impetus for the emergence of PROP. Chapter Four provides a brief historical sketch of British prisoners protest. The section on PROP is largely documentary, and is based upon my own direct involvement in the movement as a founder member, and press officer of the union. The sixth chapter highlights some of the issues raised by PROP, by using comparative material from the USA. The concluding chapter seeks to draw out the main obstacles confronting an emergent prisoners' organisation and places it firmly in the political sphere.
64

Art, empire and humanity : a sociological study of relationships between artistic style, social structure and cultural concepts of race in sixteenth century Portugal

Holmes, Peter Ian January 1990 (has links)
The study is a sociological investigation of links between the imperial activities of the Portuguese in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries (the Manueline period) - their aesthetic sensibilities, especially as revealed in the artworks produced during that time - and the nature of Portuguese race consciousness during the period. In its methodology and presentation of data, the study stresses the importance of "the visual" as a dimension of culture, as a means of making possible insights into relations between aesthetics and culturally constrained morphologies. The methodological focus of the work develops from a notion of 'iconology', which suggests that at a deep level there exists a relationship between culture, social structure and iconography. Iconology is shown to have an affinity with commodity fetishism, the two concepts jointly informing our appreciation of culture. The significance of race consciousness is considered within the context of conceptions of ideology. The importance of the aesthetic dimension is stressed. The historical circumstances underlying manueline Portuguese aesthetic and race consciousness are examined with special emphasis upon the perceived tendency for the development of egalitarian systems of human classification. Features of the manueline style in art are identified. These are related to the social, cultural and imperial circumstances of the Portuguese. Visual and pictorial data are considered for the light which they can shed upon the structure of Portuguese aesthetic and racial consciousness. The colour plates incorporated in the study are drawn from a unique collection compiled for the purposes of this research project. The anthropological implications of the manueline world view are considered. Its novelty is explored and its significance for our own appreciation of aesthetic sensibility and cultural domination is questioned. The theoretical orientation of the study informs an anti-foundational approach to the appreciation of the variety of human cultures.
65

Racisms, gendered identities and young children : an ethnographic study of a multi-ethnic, inner-city primary school

Connolly, Paul January 1995 (has links)
This thesis explores the salience of 'race' in young children's lives. It focuses on five- and six-year-old children through an ethnographic study of a multiethnic, inner-city primary school and its surrounding community. Alongside detailed observations of the children and the use of secondary source data, the extensive use of in-depth, largely unstructured group interviews with the children offers one of the first comprehensive studies to focus on the subjective worlds of the children in and of themselves. In doing this the thesis draws attention to the social competency of young children and their ability, at the ages of five and six, to actively appropriate, re-work and reproduce discourses on 'race' in the construction of their gendered identities. Through the appropriation and adaptation of the work of Michel Foucault and, moreover, Pierre Bourdieu, the thesis also proposes a more sensitive theoretical frame able to appreciate: the essentially open, contingent and context-specific nature of racism; the complexities of power within an analysis of racism that can not only be seen through its material expression across time and space but also as it impacts upon the very selves of young children; and the articulation of racisms across various levels of the social formation. This latter concern is particularly apposite given the extant literature in that very little ethnographic work focusing on racism in either primary or secondary schools in Britain has broadened its analysis to adequately incorporate the influence of social relations beyond the confines of the school.
66

Fashion in Britain in the 1960s : a study of attitudes

Horowitz, Ruth Tamara January 1971 (has links)
This study analyses the role played by fashion in the clothing market in Britain in the 60's and relates this analysis to different theories about fashion. The study is based on interviews with fashion designers and fashion Journalists, and on the answers of a sample of several hundred consumers to close-ended questionnaires, with few open-ended questions, on statistical data about the clothing market in Britain, on market research data and on the available literature about the development of fashion as a mode of clothing behaviour. The point of departure of the study is the distinction between Mass Fashion and Elite Fashion as two different modes of clothing behaviour, both reflecting responsiveness to innovations in style and design. In this sense they differ from a third mode of clothing behaviour - Non-Fashion, which reflects indifference to such changes. The findings of the study are roughly consistent with the hypotheses (a) that clothing behaviour in Britain in the 60's tended to be fashion oriented, (b) that fashion in Britain in the 60's was age group directed more than class directed, (c) that Mass Fashion is disposed towards uniformity and the consumer's response is not primarily oriented towards the presentation of his individuality, (d) that Mass Fashion tends to be anonymous and unpredictable as to the response of the consumers to each individual innovation, (e) and that the interaction between different participants in the process of the diffusion of fashion is conditioned by differences in their respective perception of their part in the processes and by the patterns of communication among them. In the light of the prevalence of Mass Fashion and its implications some modifications are suggested to the existing theoretical approaches to fashion, the diffusion of innovation approach, the social differentiation and stratification approach, the collective behaviour approach and the approach which deals with the meaning of fashion to the individual. These modifications cast light on both individual attitudes towards fashion and the interaction between buyers and sellers in the clothing market, as well as the symbolic expression of status differences through external appearance.
67

Juvenility, puberty and adolescence among Bangladeshi and British youth

Houghton, Lauren Claire January 2013 (has links)
The ABBY (Adolescence among Bangladeshi and British Youth) Project explores the relationship between migration and growing up from a biocultural perspective. Based on evolutionary hypotheses, it tests for facultative adaptation to different developmental environments during the transition from child to adolescent using contrasting conditions within ethnicity, ecology, and migration. I explore the relationship between these variables and the timing and tempo of adrenarche, thelarche, pubarche and menarche through comparisons of biological and cultural markers of development among 488 girls, aged 5–16, belonging to the following groups: Sylheti, first generation British-Bangladeshi, second generation British-Bangladeshi and white British. This project supports evidence that the timing, tempo and experience of juvenile and pubertal development vary across populations with possible lasting implications for the strategic allocation of reproductive effort. Specifically, adrenarche occurred two years earlier in first generation migrant girls to Britain, suggesting that change in ecological factors results in more rapid juvenile onset. Thelarche occurred earlier with increasing individual and ancestral generations lived in the UK, suggesting that local ecological factors result in earlier pubertal onset. Contrary to predictions, menarcheal timing and oestrogen levels did not differ significantly among groups. Acculturation did not account for differences in behaviours during juvenile and pubertal development between groups. Instead, the stages of practising to being dedicated to hijab (which occur during juvenility and after puberty, respectively) better reflect the social process of growing-up as Bangladeshi girls in East London. Growing up here may be uniquely stressful among first generation migrants. Psychosocial stress may interact with other ecological factors resulting in an overall slower tempo of juvenile development. The extended period of plasticity during juvenility among girls who experienced a change in socio-ecological factors may be an adaptive response to ensure a better tracking of current socio-ecological conditions and also a better prediction of later ones.
68

The aftermath of political violence : the Opposition's second generation in the post-coup Chile and its familial memory

Jara, Daniela January 2013 (has links)
This thesis is concerned with the aftermath and afterlife of violence (Gómez-Barris 2009) in post-coup Chile from the perspective of the second generations of victims of state violence perpetrated during the dictatorial period (1973-1988), the modes of inheritance of family political memories and the mechanisms of inhabitation of such family legacies. Drawing on Plummer’s ‘documents of life’ approach (Plummer 2001)and Avery Gordon’s theory of haunting (Gordon 2008), the research is based on thirty one family life story interviews and two group interviews. This thesis critically dialogues with the Holocaust tradition and its legacies for the memory field, arguing for a critical awareness of ‘what is helped and what is hindered’ by its lens (Huyssen 2003). Departing from the widespread belief that trauma is something ‘other’ to everyday life, this thesis is based on Das’ assertion that political violence unfolds in the everyday life and its modes of inhabitation (Das 2007). Denaturalizing the family as a site of ‘pure memories’, the thesis is focused on family political memories of state violence and their modes of remembering and transmission to the second generation. It explores the way in which political violence has been passed on to the second generation in the form of familial legacies and embedded in local patterns of political, social and family relationships. The thesis draws attention to the context in which these memories are produced, but also sheds light on how they are transformed into stubborn memories through their familial transmission. Basing itself on this double perspective, the thesis illustrates how, as a consequence of the politics of fear, opposition memory became invested as a family possession. It explores how political memory was at the same time both something to conceal and something to inhabit and own, triggering a sense of loyalty and belonging. The thesis also shows how not every experience is rendered as a family memory but those that are undergo a process of selection in which gendered models of family relationships also play a role. Examining the production of family countermemories, the thesis concludes that the second generation makes of family memory not only a place for tradition and affective ties, but also for contestation, moral interpellation and rupture.
69

'Structure liberates?' : making compliant, consumable bodies in a London Academy

Kulz, Christy January 2013 (has links)
Mossbourne Community Academy, a celebrated highly disciplinarian secondary school, opened in East London in 2004. Operating under the ethos 'structure liberates', it actively seeks to culturally transform its largely ethnic minority student body and create 'a culture of ambition to replace the poverty of aspiration' (Adonis, 2008). With its regimented routines and outstanding GCSE results, Mossbourne has been heralded as a blueprint for educational reform, yet persistent structural inequalities are concealed beneath the rhetoric of happy multiculturalism and aspirational citizenship. Through pathologising the surrounding area as a zone of 'urban chaos', Mossbourne positions itself as an 'oasis in the desert' liberating students through discipline. This 'urban chaos' discourse draws on wider popular discourses of the pram-pushing 'chav' or the black, hooded gangster to portray 'urban children' and their families as regressive blocks to economic prosperity. Teachers compensate for incompetent parenting practices by becoming 'surrogate parents', while a masculine superhero-as- headteacher wields a 'zero tolerance' approach to cultivate an uncritical respect for authority. My research traces how Mossbourne processes, regulates, and reconstitutes the bodies of students and teachers through space and time. It also examines how students and parents negotiate or adjust themselves in relation to the institutional norms which bring raced and classed positions into focus by highlighting who needs to 'do' work on themselves to accrue value. More broadly, the research highlights how an intensely marketised education system does not mitigate, but reformulates, reproduces and re-intrenches inequalities.
70

Unimagined community : a pragmatics of nation and social unity in the Republic of Panama

Reynolds, R. January 2009 (has links)
This study offers a material culture grounded critique of and alternative to Benedict Anderson’s formulation of nation as an imagined community (2006). Based on twenty two months of fieldwork conducted in the Republic of Panama between 2002 and 2004, I argue for a pragmatics of localized imaginaries that find expression through interpersonal networks, public spectacle and strategies of motility. The question of nation and its expression became salient in Panama when the United States handed over the Canal and accompanying territory to Panama in 2000 and in response to the Republic’s 2003 independence centenary. The everyday practices identified in this research have proliferated in the absence of an assertively omnipresent state. These practices give rise to and reflect ways of belonging and techniques of social unity that emphasize individuality and choice, and which are rooted in territorial locality and the slow expansion of networks of known people. The indeterminacy of the state in the context of the real awareness of fellow citizens emerges through a moral discourse of shifting values that constitute nation by way of processes of belonging that are other than exclusively ideational or technological. These observations are described and analyzed through the movement of seven chapters that address biographical narratives as history, differing conceptions of Panama as nation in literature and lived experience, carnival and lottery play, through the circulation of cultural programs sponsored by the Museum of Contemporary Art and a Panama City based NGO, and finally by way of the modes in which maps, consumer items and the porous relationship of the capital city and its analogous territory, “the Interior”, are lived.

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