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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
81

A principled approach to knowledge elicitation and transfer in organisations

Garcia-Perez, Alexeis January 2011 (has links)
This thesis describes research carried out to investigate and address the problems related to the elicitation of knowledge from experts and its transfer to potential stakeholders in organisations. Essentially, knowledge elicitation and transfer is understood as a process of enabling people to acquire new capabilities while others who already have such capabilities explicate the domain specific knowledge underlying their performance. Knowledge elicitation and transfer have become essential processes in an environment influenced by the rate and direction of technological change, and characterised by an increasing complexity of tasks and greater employee mobility. The starting point of this research was the implementation of a knowledge elicitation and transfer strategy based on the use of social software at Cranfield University. Failure of that software to achieve its aims raised awareness of the limitations of purely technology-based approaches to knowledge elicitation and transfer. A collaboration with a gas turbine manufacturer then provided the setting for the trial of a people-based approach to knowledge elicitation and transfer. In a literature review an endeavour was made to study and provide an overview of the main contexts in which the knowledge elicitation and transfer problems have arisen. For each of the areas identified, an overview of the advantages and limitations of the techniques that have been used was provided. The literature shows that despite its importance for organisations, there is no method which is guaranteed to achieve knowledge elicitation and transfer. This motivated the researcher to formalise, refine and validate the newly developed approach by applying it in different organisations. The research has resulted in a number of contributions to knowledge and benefits for the organisations involved. A key contribution is a development of a new method called Concepts-Modelling-Experience (CoMEx), based on collaborative modelling of domain-specific knowledge. The applications of CoMEx in the field suggest that it overcomes some of the main deficiencies of well known approaches to knowledge elicitation and knowledge transfer, and that it brings additional benefits to organisations. However, the research has identified areas where there is significant scope for further research and investigation
82

Generating project value through design for reliability : on the development and implementation of a potential value framework

Woods, K. B. W. January 2007 (has links)
The current trend to economically exploit deepwater hydrocarbon reserves is to reduce the capital expenditure; accomplished by deploying subsea equipment. The financial benefit afforded is offset by the risk of high operational costs associated with failure. Recognition of the life cycle cost implications of subsea reliability have led to the development of the reliability strategy. This strategy adopts a risk based approach to design for reliability where only analyses (and their subsequent recommended actions) perceived to add to whole project value are implemented. While life cycle costing has been developed to address through life cost, analyses are traditionally considered a source of cost accumulation rather than value creation. This thesis proposes a potential reliability value decision making framework to assist in the design for reliability planning process. The framework draws on the existing concepts of life cycle costing to explicitly consider the through life value of investing in reliability analyses. Fundamental to the framework are the potential reliability value index and an associated value breakdown structure intended as central decision support for decentralised decision making. Implementation of the framework is reliant on synergies within the project organization; including relationships between organizations and project functions. To enhance synergy between functions and dismantle some of the recognised barriers to implementing the reliability strategy an organizational structure, for projects, guided centrally by the reliability value framework is proposed. This structure requires the broadening of each project functions’ skill set to enable the value added implementation of the strategy’s activities. By widening the scope of application, the reliability analysis toolkit becomes the central guidance of the design process and awareness of the causes of unreliability and how they can be avoided increases. As this capability improves so the cost-efficiency with which reliability is managed in design (introduced as the reliability efficiency frontier) also increases.
83

An exploration of co-development within the Malaysian automotive industry

Bin Yahaya, Nordin January 2010 (has links)
This is a study of Malaysian vehicle manufacturer-supplier relationships in the product development process. The collaboration, referred to as co- development, is highly important in order for vehicle manufacturers to remain competitive within this area of globalisation. So far, there have been no studies on the above subject area within Malaysia, which therefore makes this study both valuable and immensely important. The motivation comes from the uniqueness of the Malaysian automotive industry, which is newly established compared to other countries, and which has also been protected by the Government since the establishment of first National Car company in the 1980s. The study has adopted a qualitative approach through exploratory study, and aims to explore in-depth the co-development practices within Malaysia. With the adoption of a case study research strategy, data is collected by means of interviews with consideration to both sides, i.e., local vehicle manufacturers and their suppliers. It was found that, within Malaysia, two different approaches of co-development exist. First, the local suppliers mostly have low design capabilities, and the local vehicle manufacturer-supplier relationship exists only in terms of manufacturing components. Moreover, local suppliers have not become involved in the design process, but have received detailed drawings from vehicle manufacturers. However, they nevertheless have a freedom to manufacture the product without significant interference from the vehicle manufacturer. In this study, this type of supplier is labelled as a ‗freedom to manufacture‘supplier. In contrast, ‗freedom to design, develop and manufacture‘suppliers—which are mostly overseas suppliers—are involved in the design process at a very early stage. They are invited to participate at this point of the product development process in order to cater to the vehicle manufacturer‘s limited knowledge regarding the product. The study provides insight into what has happened with regards to the Malaysian vehicle manufacturer-supplier relationship in the product development process. It gives an indication of and new knowledge regarding the co-development of the newly established automotive industry in Malaysia.
84

Exploration of the integration of Lean and environmental improvement

Biggs, Claire January 2009 (has links)
With increasing awareness of the environmental damage that is occurring as a result of human activities, there are also increasing pressures on manufacturing companies to reduce environmental impacts. Many environmental impact reduction methods contain some element of waste reduction, which is also the focus of Lean manufacturing, although their definitions of waste differ somewhat. The aim of this research was to investigate the synergies and similarities between Lean manufacturing and environmental impact reduction in manufacturing, with a strong focus on practical implications. The research was carried out in three stages: a review of the relevant literature, an exploration stage which consisted of semi-structured interviews with ten companies, and action research studies with two companies, investigating company reactions to the introduction of environmental impact reduction measures into their Lean implementation, via adapted tools designed using data from the literature review and exploration stage. Findings from all the research stages were analysed and synthesised, producing a total of 54 findings (including answers to research questions, notes for practitioners, and suggestions for future work) across 12 themes. The research confirmed that some environmental improvement occurs as a side effect of Lean implementations; compared Lean and environmental wastes; looked at potential benefits of mapping for environmental improvement within Lean implementations; found that Lean can be used as a framework for other changes, including environmental improvement; identified opportunities for adoption or adaptation of particular Lean tools for environmental impact reduction; identified new ways in which Lean acts as a foundation for change; showed common uses for goals and measures; found that workforce involvement was an important factor, as was education and training; identified some factors for acceptance and adoption; discussed the effectiveness of integrated implementation; and discussed the benefits of holistic integration of Lean and environmental improvement.
85

Development of a methodology for evaluating product service ssytem as a competitive strategy for the Singapore manufacturing industry

Ang, Gim Ching Jenny January 2010 (has links)
Product Service System (PSS) promotes the idea of selling value in use via an integrated combination of products and services. It has been regarded by many economic policy makers and researchers as a potential competitive strategy for the manufacturing industry in the developed country to gain competitiveness. Although currently there are a few PSS methodologies developed for the design and implementation of PSS, their approach is mainly biased towards using PSS as a tool to gain sustainability and to reduce environmental impact from selling more services instead of selling the physical product for example. In view of this, this research sets out to present a PSS Evaluation (PSSE) methodology, aiming at assisting manufacturer in assessing whether the adoption of a PSS is a good strategy from the point of competitiveness. The research programme begins with the identification of the requirements set of the PSSE methodology by gaining relevant knowledge from the literature and the Singapore‟s Manufacturing Industry. Existing potential methodologies were then selected against the requirements set to form the conceptual base of the new PSSE methodology. The developed new PSSE methodology was tested using two case studies during the primary evaluation and another four case studies during the secondary evaluation. The main contribution of this research is the development of a feasible, usable and useful methodology that can assist the manufacturer in assessing whether the adoption of a new PSS is a competitive strategy. The new seven-stage PSSE methodology provides well-constructed stages which are specially designed to be delivered via a facilitated workshop. This research has therefore made a significant contribution to the knowledge of the concept of PSS, and its application in the manufacturing industry in the area of methodology development.
86

A critical artefact methodology : using provocative conceptual designs to foster human-centred innovation

Bowen, Simon John January 2009 (has links)
This research develops a rationale for using provocative conceptual designs to foster the innovation of human-centred product ideas -a `critical artefact methodology'. This research employed similar tactics to Action Research (Swann 2002): cycles of action (using critical artefact methods in design projects) and reflection on that action (including a contextual review of existing theories and practices), which produced action (product ideas) as well as research (a proposed critical artefact methodology). In two projects, I used sets of workshops where stakeholders' engaged with my critical artefacts to develop my understanding of their needs. Living Rooms (designing the home for `tomorrow's older people) suggested how my methods might be improved then taken account of in Digital Mementos (designing novel mementos for increasingly digital lifestyles), including selecting productive participants - stakeholders in-tune with the possibilities of novel situations, such as von Hippel's "lead users" (1986). Within participatory design and co-design I position critical artefact methods as using stakeholder participation to inform design activity rather than as co-creation. In reference to Ehn and Kyng's mock-ups (1991) and Gaver's cultural probes (1999) exemplars, I show that critical artefacts do not fit the description of `prototypes' (suggestive of design direction or destination) and that my critical artefact methodology depends upon a progression from presenting stakeholders with critical artefacts (that provoke critical reflection) towards more `prototypical' artefacts expressing relevant needs (for evaluation). I suggest that critical design (Dunne 1999) and related design practices have similar characteristics and operation to Critical Theory: a view that the status quo (generally affirmed by design) somehow `oppresses' society; that `enlightenment' of the factors underlying this `emancipates' society and is facilitated by a reading of critiques (alternative proposals such as critical artefacts). In my critical artefact methodology the designer develops their understanding by designing artefacts to `process' stakeholders' engagement with previous artefacts -I use Polanyi's notion of "indwelling" (1966) to support this method of empathic knowledge sharing. Designer's and stakeholders' co-reading of critical artefacts means that this understanding can be of future or latent stakeholders needs; it enables them to explore alternative needs, wants/desires, practices and products by broadening their understanding of what is possible. The contributions of this research are a critical artefact methodology supported by critical artefact methods; a more instrumental use of critical artefacts than other critical design practices; and (in Digital Mementos' outputs) exemplar findings demonstrating the value of a critical artefact methodology's application. Whilst this thesis presents a `point in time' in my methodology's development, I intend that it provide designers with insights into similar techniques within their own professional practice.
87

The process of service definition in third party logistics relationships

Selviaridis, Kostas January 2008 (has links)
No description available.
88

Contract specification for compliance checking of business interactions

Strano, Massimo January 2010 (has links)
In the business world, contracts are used to regulate business interactions between trading parties. When business transactions are conducted over an electronic channel, electronic forms of contracts are needed; and because of the additional capabilities of an electronic means, their function can be extended to include compliance checking for the interactions of the parties, and enforcement of contractual clauses when needed. A contract is assumed to be a document that stipulates a list of clauses stating rights, obligations and prohibitions, and their associated constraints, that business partners are expected to honour. Compliance checking is taken to mean checking if business operations executed by business partners match with their rights, obligations and prohibitions as stipulated in the contract. We intend enforcement as making sure that business operations match the rights, obligations, and prohibitions of the parties, possibly compensating for deviations from expected behaviour. In traditional business interactions, compliance checking and enforcement are carried out man- ually. With electronic business interactions, such tasks can ideally be automated. This requires a model for the process of checking contract compliance, and an electronic language for the speci ca- tion of the actual contract. The rst main contribution of this thesis is such a model. The EROP model (from Events, Rights, Obligations and Prohibitions), composed of an ontology and an architecture, observes the interactions between the business partners, forms an interpretation of their outcome from a neutral perspective and checks their contractual compliance by matching executed operations with their sets of rights, obligations, and prohibitions, and reacting accordingly to them. Implementations of the EROP ontology and of an experimental prototype of the architecture are also presented. The second main contribution of this thesis is the EROP language, designed to specify contractual compliance, and to regulate execution of business operations through the manipulation of the sets of rights, obligations and prohibitions of the business partners. The EROP language is rule-based and event-driven, and, in a similar fashion to contracts in natural language, contractual clauses are expressed as business rules, conditional statements associating events and conditions to lists of actions altering the rights, obligations and prohibitions of the participants. The practicality of the approach taken with the EROP language is evaluated presenting a larger, complete scenario and a number of smaller ones taken from comparable work. Notes on the translation of the EROP language to one on a lower level of abstraction that relies on the implementation of the EROP ontology are also presented. The Appendix presents a formal grammar for the language.
89

Contextual governance for service oriented architecture composition

De Leusse, Pierre January 2011 (has links)
Currently, business requirements for rapid operational efficiency, customer responsiveness as well as rapid adaptability are driving the need for ever increasing communication and integration capabilities ofthe software assets. Functional decomposition into re-usable software entities, loose coupling, and distribution of resources are all perceived benefits of the investment on Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). This malleability can also bring about the risk of a more difficult oversight. The same service is ideally used in different applications and contexts. This situation forces a supporting infrastructure to allow and manage the adaptability to these different contexts of use. In this thesis, the author proposes to govern such variations in a cost efficient way by composing the core business function offered by a service with other services implementing infrastructure capabilities that fulfil varying non-functional requirements. However, as the number of services increases and their use in different contexts proliferates, it becomes necessary to automate policy enforcement and compliance monitoring. Furthermore, the composition of services into different business applications over a common infrastructure intensifies the need for end-to-end monitoring and analysis in order to assess the business performance impact. Managing the full life-cycle of service definition, deployment, exposure and operation requires management processes that take into account their composition with the infrastructure capabilities that take of non-functional requirements. In addition, policies may change during the life-time of a service. Policy updates may be the result of various reasons including business optimisation, of reaction to new business opportunities, of risk / threat mitigation, of operational emergencies, etc. It becomes therefore clear that a well-designed governance architecture is a prerequisite to implementing a SOA capable of dealing with a complex and dynamic environment.
90

The influence of external cultural forces upon the practice of continuous improvement in Japan

Jobmann, Christian January 2011 (has links)
No description available.

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