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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Aerosol contributions to atmospheric heating

Blanchet, J. P. (Jean-Pierre), 1951- January 1979 (has links)
No description available.
2

Aerosol contributions to atmospheric heating

Blanchet, J. P. (Jean-Pierre), 1951- January 1979 (has links)
No description available.
3

Finite element analysis of aerosol particle deposition on surfaces inside a clean room

Sannes, Kevin Markle, 1964- January 1989 (has links)
Aerosol particle deposition rates on surfaces inside a clean room are predicted by a model developed to account for particle convection, diffusion and sedimentation. External forces acting on the particle also influence the rate of deposition. Both electrical charge build up on product surfaces and temperature gradients in the air near the product surface are known to effect the rate of deposition. A description of an electrostatic and thermophoretic force on the particle is thus included in the model. The equations governing the particle deposition process and the approach used in obtaining a solution to these equations are both described. A finite element numerical solution is detailed, followed by a description of the electrostatic force models. Finally, predictions of the model are presented with a comparison to data experimentally obtained by other researchers.
4

Kinetic and physic models of secondary organic aerosol formation and their application to Houston conditions

Dechapanya, Wipawee 28 August 2008 (has links)
Not available / text
5

Acid-Base Equilibria in Organic-Solvent/Water Mixtures and Their Relevance to Gas/Particle Partitioning in the Atmosphere and in Tobacco Smoke

DeGagne, Julia Lynn 11 March 2016 (has links)
Acid-base equilibria in organic particulate matter (PM) are poorly understood, but have important implications for air quality and public health. First, acid-base reactions in organic particulate matter affect the gas/particle partitioning of organic compounds in the atmosphere, and these processes are not currently represented in atmospheric and climate change models. Second, the acid-base balance of tobacco smoke affects the amount of nicotine absorbed by the smoker, and a greater understanding of this balance would help to relate cigarette smoke composition to the addictive properties of cigarettes. This work presents data related to both air quality and tobacco smoke modeling. The gas/particle partitioning behavior of organic acids and bases is highly dependent on acid-base equilibria and speciation between neutral and ionic forms, because ionic compounds do not volatilize. Descriptions of acid dissociation behavior in atmospheric PM have, to date, focused primarily on phases in which the solvent is water; however, atmospheric PM may include up to 90% organic matter. Data is presented here describing the acid dissociation behavior of organic acids and protonated amines in organic/aqueous mixtures (chosen to approximate the characteristics of organic PM) with varying levels of water content. In such mixtures, the preferential solvation of ions and neutral molecules (by the aqueous portion or the organic portion, respectively) affects the acid-base equilibria of the solutes. It is demonstrated that neutralization reactions between acids and bases that create ions are likely to have non-negligible effects on gas/particle partitioning under certain atmospheric conditions. Thus, including acid-base reactions in organic gas/particle partitioning models could result in a greater proportion of acidic and basic compounds partitioning to the particulate phase. In addition, the acid dissociation constants (pKa values) of atmospherically-relevant acids and bases vary with water content. Specifically, as water content increases, the pKa values of organic acids decrease dramatically, while the pKa values of protonated amines changes only slightly. This situation can result in drastically different speciations and partitioning behavior depending on water content. This second part of this work reports some of the data needed to develop an acid-base balance for tobacco smoke PM using electroneutrality as a governing principle. Five brands of cigarettes were sampled and the smoke PM extracted. Cations (sodium, potassium, and ammonia) and anions (organic acids, nitrate, nitrite, and chloride) were measured using ion chromatography. Ammonia and organic acids were also re-measured after the acidification of the sample in order to determine whether "bound" forms of these compounds exist in cigarette PM. Weak acids were determined by acid-base titration to determine whether or not all of the weak acids (including organic acids) had been accounted for by the ion chromatography. Weak bases were also determined by acid-base titration, and the majority of weak base is expected to be accounted for by total nicotine (to be measured in a separate analysis). In terms of total acidic species and total basic species, two of the five cigarette brands measured were relatively basic, and three were relatively acidic. Between 50% and 89% of the titrated acids were accounted for by the anionic species measured in ion chromatography. Based on samples tested after sample acidification, about half of the potential ammonia in tobacco smoke PM exists in "bound" form. The speciation of weak acids and bases in tobacco smoke PM cannot be determined from this data alone, because the equilibrium constants of acid-base reactions are not understood in complex organic media. The data presented here, when combined with data from free-base and total nicotine analyses, represent a first step toward a predictive model of acid-base behavior in tobacco smoke PM.
6

Incorporating Chemical Activity and Relative Humidity Effects in Regional Air Quality Modeling of Organic Aerosol Formation

Marks, Marguerite Colasurdo 20 August 2013 (has links)
Atmospheric particulate matter is known to have significant effects on human health, visibility, and global climate. The magnitudes of these effects, however, depend in complex ways on chemical composition, relative humidity, temperature, phase state, and other parameters. Current regional air quality models such as CMAQ (Community Multiscale Air Quality model) ignore many of these considerations, and consider that the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) can be calculated by assuming thermodynamic ideality in the organic particulate matter (OPM) phase as well as negligible uptake of water into the OPM phase. Theoretical predictions and model simulations considering non-ideality and water uptake show that the standard model assumptions can lead to large errors in predicted SOA mass, and that the magnitude of these errors is sensitive to the composition of the OPM phase. The SOA module in CMAQ v4.7.1 has been revised in this work to allow consideration of the effects of both non-ideality and water uptake. First, a reasonable specific surrogate structure was assigned to each of the lumped products assumed to be produced by reaction of the different precursor hydrocarbons considered in CMAQ (e.g., isoprene, benzene, and toluene). Second, the CMAQ code was modified to allow iterative calculation (at each point in space and time) of the gas/particle partitioning coefficient for each of the SOA-forming products and for water. Third, model simulations were performed for the Eastern US at a resolution of 36-km x 36-km for late summer 2006, under a range of relative humidity conditions. When compared with an appropriate base case, the modified code produced increases in SOA ranging from 0.17 to 0.51 micrograms per cubic meter. The average change was 0.30 micrograms per cubic meter, corresponding to a 37% increase in SOA formation. Incorporation of phase separation effects would likely lead to further increases in predicted SOA levels.

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