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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Finite element analysis of aerosol particle deposition on surfaces inside a clean room

Sannes, Kevin Markle, 1964- January 1989 (has links)
Aerosol particle deposition rates on surfaces inside a clean room are predicted by a model developed to account for particle convection, diffusion and sedimentation. External forces acting on the particle also influence the rate of deposition. Both electrical charge build up on product surfaces and temperature gradients in the air near the product surface are known to effect the rate of deposition. A description of an electrostatic and thermophoretic force on the particle is thus included in the model. The equations governing the particle deposition process and the approach used in obtaining a solution to these equations are both described. A finite element numerical solution is detailed, followed by a description of the electrostatic force models. Finally, predictions of the model are presented with a comparison to data experimentally obtained by other researchers.
2

Fertilizantes nitrogenados de liberação gradual: longevidade e volatilização em ambiente controlado / Gradual release of nitrogen fertilizers: longevity and volatilization under controlled environment

Mota, Edson Pereira da 12 November 2012 (has links)
O aumento populacional verificado em escala mundial remete a necessidade do aumento da produção de alimentos, fibras e energia e, neste cenário, a prática da adubação como aporte de nutrientes ao solo ganha destaque para atender essas necessidades. Nesse contexto, a adubação nitrogenada, por fornecer nitrogênio, elemento fundamental ao desenvolvimento das plantas e à manutenção e aumento da produtividade, destaca-se com o uso da ureia. A ureia é o principal fertilizante sólido em âmbito mundial, ocupando metade da matriz dos nitrogenados tanto no Brasil como no mundo, possui alta concentração de N e preço mais atrativo por unidade do nutriente, porém esta sujeita a perdas, das quais a volatilização de amônia é o principal fator da baixa eficiência nas adubações. Como alternativa a minimização dessas perdas, tem-se hoje o desenvolvimento de produtos denominados fertilizantes de eficiência aumentada. Dentre esses, uma opção é o recobrimento da ureia com polímeros, resultando em proteção física do insumo. O objetivo foi estudar a dinâmica de fertilizante nitrogenado de liberação gradual avaliando a longevidade e suas perdas por volatilização de amônia. O experimento foi conduzido no município de Batatais- SP, de Novembro de 2011 a Fevereiro de 2012, utilizando Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo. Foram utilizados 5 tratamentos de ureia recoberta com diferentes porcentagens de resina de poliuretano, mais um tratamento de ureia sem recobrimento para fins de comparação. As porcentagens de recobrimento utilizadas correspondem ao número de dias esperado para a liberação do nutriente sendo: 3,70% (30 dias), 4,55% (60 dias), 5,40% (90 dias), 7,10% (150 dias) e 8,80% (250 dias). Experimentos semelhantes foram instalados em condições laboratoriais de ambiente controlado (25 ± 2°C), e em casa de vegetação, simulando condições de aplicação em superfície e enterrada. Para o experimento de volatilização, foi utilizado o sistema fechado dinâmico, capturando a amônia volatilizada em coletores contendo solução ácida e, esta solução foi analisada em sistema FIA determinando a quantidade de N perdida. Em relação ao experimento de longevidade, foi desenvolvido sistema de análise destrutiva, colocando os tratamentos em sachês porosos e alocando-os em superfície e enterrados a 5 cm no solo. Para ambos os experimentos foram realizadas coletas periódicas, analisando as amostras e traçando gráficos relativos à volatilização da amônia, a faixas de liberação e potencial de longevidade dos tratamentos. O recobrimento da ureia com polímero de poliuretano apresentou redução na volatilização com porcentagens acima de 7%, além de causar atraso nos picos de volatilização. Quanto à longevidade, o recobrimento do fertilizante resultou em liberação gradual do nutriente com dinâmica exponencial, podendo ser traçadas faixas de liberação e potenciais de longevidade dos tratamentos. A aplicação superficial dos tratamentos obteve melhores resultados de liberação/longevidade. Os fatores temperatura e umidade interferem diretamente na volatilização da amônia, na velocidade de liberação e na longevidade dos fertilizantes recobertos com poliuretano. Pesquisas envolvendo este tipo de tecnologia são necessárias, pois além do estabelecimento de metodologias padrão, aplicáveis a estes produtos ou grupos dos mesmos, em rotinas de laboratório, pode-se obter melhor caracterização, entendimento e classificação desses novos materiais. / The worldwide population increase leads to necessity to increase food, fiber and energy production and, under this scenario, fertilizer applications like supply of nutrients to the soil, is highlighted to meet those needs. In this context, nitrogen fertilization, to provide nitrogen, essential element for plant development and maintenance and increased productivity, stands out with the urea use. Urea is the main solid fertilizer worldwide, occupying half of the matrix of nitrogen both in Brazil and in the world, has a high concentration of N and an attractive price per unit of nutrient, but is subject to losses, which the volatilization ammonia is the main factor in the low efficiency of fertilization. As alternative to minimize these losses, currently we have the development of products denominated increased efficiency fertilizer, which focus on urea coatings using polymers resulting in physical protection of the material. The objective was to study the dynamics of nitrogen fertilizer gradual release bu means of evaluating their longevity and losses by volatilization. The experiment was conducted in the municipality of Batatais-SP, extending from November 2011 to February 2012, using a Oxisol. Five treatments of coated urea with different percentages of a polyurethane resin were used, aswell a urea treatment without coating for comparison purposes was used too, the percentages used remitted expected number of days for the release of the nutrient was: 3.70% (30 days) 4.55% (60 days) 5.40% (90 days) 7.10% (150 days) and 8.80% (250 days). Similar experiments were assembled in a controlled environment (25 ± 2 ° C) and under greenhouse conditions simulating application in surface and buried. For the volatilization experiment, we used the closed system dynamic, capturing the volatilized ammonia in collectors containing acidic solution, and this solution was analyzed in FIA system in order to determine the amount of N lost. In relation to the longevity experiment, a destructive analysis system was used, placing the treatments in porous sachets and placing them on the surface and buried 5 cm into the soil. For both experiments samples were collected and analyzed periodically allowing plotting graphs for ammonia volatilization, release bands and potential longevity of the treatments. The urea coating with polyurethane polymer decreased the volatilization with percentages above 7%, besides causing a delay in the peak of volatilization. As for longevity, the fertilizer coating resulted in a gradual release of the nutrient presenting a release dynamic exponential and can be traced release bands and potential longevity treatments. Surface application of the treatments resulted in better results of release / longevity. The factors temperature and humidity affects directly ammonia volatilization, speed and longevity of release fertilizer coated with polyurethane. Additional research in this field is required, in addition to establishing standard methodologies to be used in routine laboratory in order to obtain a better characterization, classification and understanding of these new materials.
3

Fertilizantes nitrogenados de liberação gradual: longevidade e volatilização em ambiente controlado / Gradual release of nitrogen fertilizers: longevity and volatilization under controlled environment

Edson Pereira da Mota 12 November 2012 (has links)
O aumento populacional verificado em escala mundial remete a necessidade do aumento da produção de alimentos, fibras e energia e, neste cenário, a prática da adubação como aporte de nutrientes ao solo ganha destaque para atender essas necessidades. Nesse contexto, a adubação nitrogenada, por fornecer nitrogênio, elemento fundamental ao desenvolvimento das plantas e à manutenção e aumento da produtividade, destaca-se com o uso da ureia. A ureia é o principal fertilizante sólido em âmbito mundial, ocupando metade da matriz dos nitrogenados tanto no Brasil como no mundo, possui alta concentração de N e preço mais atrativo por unidade do nutriente, porém esta sujeita a perdas, das quais a volatilização de amônia é o principal fator da baixa eficiência nas adubações. Como alternativa a minimização dessas perdas, tem-se hoje o desenvolvimento de produtos denominados fertilizantes de eficiência aumentada. Dentre esses, uma opção é o recobrimento da ureia com polímeros, resultando em proteção física do insumo. O objetivo foi estudar a dinâmica de fertilizante nitrogenado de liberação gradual avaliando a longevidade e suas perdas por volatilização de amônia. O experimento foi conduzido no município de Batatais- SP, de Novembro de 2011 a Fevereiro de 2012, utilizando Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo. Foram utilizados 5 tratamentos de ureia recoberta com diferentes porcentagens de resina de poliuretano, mais um tratamento de ureia sem recobrimento para fins de comparação. As porcentagens de recobrimento utilizadas correspondem ao número de dias esperado para a liberação do nutriente sendo: 3,70% (30 dias), 4,55% (60 dias), 5,40% (90 dias), 7,10% (150 dias) e 8,80% (250 dias). Experimentos semelhantes foram instalados em condições laboratoriais de ambiente controlado (25 ± 2°C), e em casa de vegetação, simulando condições de aplicação em superfície e enterrada. Para o experimento de volatilização, foi utilizado o sistema fechado dinâmico, capturando a amônia volatilizada em coletores contendo solução ácida e, esta solução foi analisada em sistema FIA determinando a quantidade de N perdida. Em relação ao experimento de longevidade, foi desenvolvido sistema de análise destrutiva, colocando os tratamentos em sachês porosos e alocando-os em superfície e enterrados a 5 cm no solo. Para ambos os experimentos foram realizadas coletas periódicas, analisando as amostras e traçando gráficos relativos à volatilização da amônia, a faixas de liberação e potencial de longevidade dos tratamentos. O recobrimento da ureia com polímero de poliuretano apresentou redução na volatilização com porcentagens acima de 7%, além de causar atraso nos picos de volatilização. Quanto à longevidade, o recobrimento do fertilizante resultou em liberação gradual do nutriente com dinâmica exponencial, podendo ser traçadas faixas de liberação e potenciais de longevidade dos tratamentos. A aplicação superficial dos tratamentos obteve melhores resultados de liberação/longevidade. Os fatores temperatura e umidade interferem diretamente na volatilização da amônia, na velocidade de liberação e na longevidade dos fertilizantes recobertos com poliuretano. Pesquisas envolvendo este tipo de tecnologia são necessárias, pois além do estabelecimento de metodologias padrão, aplicáveis a estes produtos ou grupos dos mesmos, em rotinas de laboratório, pode-se obter melhor caracterização, entendimento e classificação desses novos materiais. / The worldwide population increase leads to necessity to increase food, fiber and energy production and, under this scenario, fertilizer applications like supply of nutrients to the soil, is highlighted to meet those needs. In this context, nitrogen fertilization, to provide nitrogen, essential element for plant development and maintenance and increased productivity, stands out with the urea use. Urea is the main solid fertilizer worldwide, occupying half of the matrix of nitrogen both in Brazil and in the world, has a high concentration of N and an attractive price per unit of nutrient, but is subject to losses, which the volatilization ammonia is the main factor in the low efficiency of fertilization. As alternative to minimize these losses, currently we have the development of products denominated increased efficiency fertilizer, which focus on urea coatings using polymers resulting in physical protection of the material. The objective was to study the dynamics of nitrogen fertilizer gradual release bu means of evaluating their longevity and losses by volatilization. The experiment was conducted in the municipality of Batatais-SP, extending from November 2011 to February 2012, using a Oxisol. Five treatments of coated urea with different percentages of a polyurethane resin were used, aswell a urea treatment without coating for comparison purposes was used too, the percentages used remitted expected number of days for the release of the nutrient was: 3.70% (30 days) 4.55% (60 days) 5.40% (90 days) 7.10% (150 days) and 8.80% (250 days). Similar experiments were assembled in a controlled environment (25 ± 2 ° C) and under greenhouse conditions simulating application in surface and buried. For the volatilization experiment, we used the closed system dynamic, capturing the volatilized ammonia in collectors containing acidic solution, and this solution was analyzed in FIA system in order to determine the amount of N lost. In relation to the longevity experiment, a destructive analysis system was used, placing the treatments in porous sachets and placing them on the surface and buried 5 cm into the soil. For both experiments samples were collected and analyzed periodically allowing plotting graphs for ammonia volatilization, release bands and potential longevity of the treatments. The urea coating with polyurethane polymer decreased the volatilization with percentages above 7%, besides causing a delay in the peak of volatilization. As for longevity, the fertilizer coating resulted in a gradual release of the nutrient presenting a release dynamic exponential and can be traced release bands and potential longevity treatments. Surface application of the treatments resulted in better results of release / longevity. The factors temperature and humidity affects directly ammonia volatilization, speed and longevity of release fertilizer coated with polyurethane. Additional research in this field is required, in addition to establishing standard methodologies to be used in routine laboratory in order to obtain a better characterization, classification and understanding of these new materials.
4

Environmental enrichment, performance, and brain injury in male and female rats /

Elliott, Brenda M January 2004 (has links) (PDF)
Thesis (Ph.D.)--Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 2004 / Typescript (photocopy)
5

The effects of environmental conditions on activity, feeding, and body weight in male and female adolescent rats /

Tomchesson, Joshua L January 2006 (has links) (PDF)
Thesis (Ph.D.)--Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 2006 / Typescript (photocopy)
6

Expedient methods for patient isolation during natural or manmade epidemic response

Mead, Kenneth Ross, January 2008 (has links) (PDF)
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Oklahoma. / Bibliography: leaves 247-258.
7

The effect of pressure differential and provider movement on isolation room containment efficiency

Adams, Noah John. January 2008 (has links) (PDF)
Thesis--University of Oklahoma. / Bibliography: leaves 50-53.
8

Understanding the influence of environment on the solid lubrication processes of carbon-based thin films / Compréhension de l’influence de l’environnement sur les mécanismes de lubrification solide des couches minces à base carbone

Koshigan, Komlavi Dzidula 29 September 2015 (has links)
Les revêtements de carbone amorphe hydrogéné (a-C:H) avec incorporation de silicium et d’oxygène (a-C:H:Si:O) sont une catégorie de lubrifiants solides, de la famille des Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC), présentant aussi bien de bonnes propriétés mécaniques que tribologiques et une bonne stabilité thermique. Bien qu’il soit établi que le comportement tribologique de ces couches est moins dépendant de l’environnement que celui des couches a-C:H, sans éléments d’addition, l’origine physicochimique de ce comportement reste à élucider. Ce travail de thèse s’inscrit dans le cadre une collaboration internationale entre le Laboratoire de Tribologie et Dynamique des Systèmes de l’Ecole Centrale Lyon et le département de Génie Mécanique et Mécanique Appliquée de l’Université de Pennsylvanie, et a pour objectifs d’apporter des réponses à ces questions ouvertes. Un large éventail de techniques expérimentales complémentaires, notamment la nanoindentation, la microscopie à force atomique (AFM), la microscopie à mesure de force (FFM), la microscopie optique et électronique, le Raman, la spectroscopie de photoélectron X (XPS) et la spectroscopie de structure près du front d’absorption de rayons X (NEXAFS) a été mis en oeuvre pour non seulement établir une carte d’identité mécanique, structurale et chimique du revêtement initial, mais aussi comprendre les modifications structurelles induites par le frottement. Afin de contrôler l’environnement au cours des essais tribologiques, nous avons utilisé d’une part un tribomètre linéaire alternatif, que nous avons équipé d’un système de soufflage de gaz permettant de changer rapidement l’environnent au cours des essais, et d’autre part un tribomètre analytique à environnement contrôlé autorisant des expérimentations tant sous vide poussé qu’à pression élevée de gaz. Ainsi, nous avons pu montrer que le coefficient de frottement augmente avec le taux de vapeur d’eau dans l’environnement et cela est réversible lorsqu’on diminue brusquement l’humidité. En outre, la vapeur d’eau protège la couche de l’usure alors que la présence d’oxygène la favorise. Grace aux observations en microscopie électronique, nous avons pu prouver que le comportement tribologique des couches a- C:H:Si:O, lors d’un frottement contre de l’acier 100Cr6, est essentiellement contrôlé par la formation de jonctions adhésives dans l’interface. Sous vide poussé ou à faible pression de gaz (<1 mbar de vapeur d’eau, <10 mbar d’oxygène ou <50 mbar d’hydrogène), la rupture de ces jonctions adhésives a lieu dans l’acier, résultant en un transfert de matériau de l’acier vers l’a-C:H:Si:O s’accompagnant d’un coefficient de frottement élevé (μ≈1.2). Au delà de ces pressions seuils de gaz, les jonctions adhésives se rompent du côté du a-C:H:Si:O, le transfert de matière s’opérant alors dans la direction opposée, du revêtement vers l’acier. Des analyses NEXAFS ont révélé que ce phénomène s’expliquait par une réaction dissociative entre les éléments du gaz environnant et les liaisons carbone C–C contraintes, favorisée par la sollicitation mécanique en extrême surface de l’a-C:H:Si:O. Ceci résulte en une diminution drastique du coefficient de frottement à des valeurs d’un ordre de grandeur inférieures à celles obtenues dans la configuration précédente. L’ensemble de ces résultats nous a ainsi permis de développer un modèle expérimental expliquant les mécanismes fondamentaux d’interaction entre l’environnement et les lubrifiants solides du type a-C:H:Si:O. / Like Carbon (DLC) coatings that exhibit outstanding mechanical properties, thermal stability and tribological performance. It is well established that the frictional and wear performances of a-C:H:Si:O are less dependent on environment than that of pure hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H). However the fundamental mechanisms accounting for such excellent tribological behavior of a-C:H:Si:O are still not fully understood. The present work, which is part of a collaboration between the Laboratoire de Tribologie et Dynamique des Systèmes of Ecole Centrale de Lyon and the department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics of University of Pennsylvania, consists in using a multi-scale, multidisciplinary and multi-technique experimental approach for understanding the influence of environment on the tribological response of a-C:H:Si:O. A wide rang of complementary techniques, including nanoindentation, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Friction Force Microscopy (FFM), optical and electron microscopy, Raman, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS), have thus been used to fully characterize the structure, composition and mechanics of the studied material, as deposited as well as after tribological testing. Control of the environment has been achieved first thanks to an open air linear reciprocating tribometer that we equipped with a gas blowing system, thus allowing a quick change of the sliding environment, and a environment-controlled analytical tribometer operating from high vacuum to elevated pressures of desired gases. We were able to evidence the strong influence of the amount of water vapor in the environment on the friction behavior of a- C:H:Si:O, with a reversible behavior when abruptly changing the environment. Contrary to water vapor, oxygen promotes the wear of a-C:H:Si:O. SEM observations revealed that while sliding a-C:H:Si:O against 52100 steel, the frictional response is controlled by the build-up and the release of adhesive junctions within the interface. Under high vacuum and below a threshold pressure of water vapor (1 mbar), oxygen (10 mbar) and hydrogen (50 mbar), adhesive junctions are released in the steel, resulting in a transfer of material from steel to a-C:H:Si:O and in a high coefficient of friction (μ≈1.2). However, as the gas pressure is increased above the threshold, the adhesive junctions break on the a-C:H:Si:O side, leading to a material transfer in the opposite direction, from the a-C:H:Si:O to the steel. NEXAFS spectroscopy revealed that a dissociative reaction occurs between the gaseous species and the strained C–C atoms in the near surface region ofa-C:H:Si:O, thus resulting in a drastic decrease of the steady state coefficient of friction by at least an order of magnitude. In light of these observations, an analytical model has been proposed to describe the fundamental interaction mechanisms between the environment and the a-C:H:Si:O/steel tribopairs.

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