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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Biopharmaceutics and pharmacokinetics of the macrolide antibiotic Josamycin

Skinner, Michael Fredrick January 1992 (has links)
The investigations detailed herein have been conducted to address various aspects of the biopharmaceutics and pharmacokinetics of josamycin which to-date, have received little or no attention in the literature. Areas of investigation have included the selective determination of josamycin in serum and urine samples, the stability of josamycin in stored biological samples, intrinsic dissolution rates, solubility, acid and alkali stability and bioavailability and pharmacokinetics after dosing with a solution, powder and tablets. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used as the main analytical tool throughout these studies and proved to be highly versatile for the determination of josamycin in a number of different media. HPLC analysis afforded simple yet accurate determination of josamycin in samples from dissolution, solubility, tablet content and stability studies. Furthermore, the specificity afforded by HPLC was particularly useful for the separation of josamycin from degradation products formed in acid and alkali media. Since metabolites of josamycin are microbiologically active, microbiological assays do not determine the concentration solely of josamycin. An analytical method capable of the selective determination of josamycin in serum and urine samples is therefore required for the procurement of reliable bioavailability and pharmacokinetic data. HPLC affords this selectivity and a method for the selective determination of josamycin in serum and urine was successfully developed. The assay was simple yet precise, accurate and sensitive. Furthermore, it was well suited to the determination of josamycin in a large number of biological samples. Its success was largely due to the use of a solid phase extraction step using C₁₈ extraction columns, with a highly specific wash sequence followed by a phase separation step after elution from the extraction column. Chromatography was performed on a C₁₈ reversed-phase analytical column with UV detection of josamycin and internal standard at 231 nm and at 204 nm respectively using a programmable multi-wavelength detector. Only slight modification of the assay described should enable the selective determination of the metabolites of josamycin. This assay, therefore, lays the groundwork for future investigations into the pharmacokinetics of these metabolites. The re-usability of extraction columns was assessed in an attempt to reduce the cost of sample analysis. It was found that extraction columns could be used twice for the extraction of serum samples and up to four times for the extraction of urine samples. The difference between the re-usability of extraction columns for serum and urine samples was ascribed to various differences in the composition of the sample matrix. The stability of josamycin in stored serum and urine samples was also assessed.
2

The basis for reconsidering the dosing of commonly used antibiotics in critically ill patients: pharmacokinetic studies. / CUHK electronic theses & dissertations collection

January 2005 (has links)
A following study on vancomycin demonstrated the differing pharmacokinetics during the course of a septic insult, day 2 pharmacokinetics differing from day 7. / An important study showed that some septic patients with "normal" serum creatinines can have very high creatinine clearances. It follows that drugs which are renally excreted will have high clearances and illustrates why many of the above patients had low serum levels of antibiotic, a reason why some ICU patients require different dosing to ward patients. / Due to the required fluid loading and inotropic use in septic patients, creatinine clearances and drug clearances are often raised. This results in low serum concentrations at the end of a standard dosing interval. / My beta-lactam antibiotic work has repeatedly demonstrated low serum levels at the end of the standard dosing interval. In view of beta-lactam time-dependent kill characteristics we designed a continuous infusion protocol which we validated in a follow-up paper. / The inflammatory response of infections involves endothelial damage and capillary permeability. With associated fluid shifts of severe sepsis and treatment thereof, the volume of distribution (Vd) of antibiotics that distribute into the extracellular space (aminoglycosides, glycopeptides) is high. Peak serum levels for these antibiotics are therefore lower than those found in non-critically ill and in normal volunteers. It is noteworthy that this change in Vd is not apparent with drugs that have good tissue penetration (e.g. ciprofloxacin). / This thesis is a compilation of 11 of my prospectively designed studies plus extracts from 5 published reviews, focusing on pharmacokinetic (PK) aspects of antibiotics in ICU patients, all published in internationally peer-reviewed journals. / Two large PK studies on ciprofloxacin (a drug that has excellent tissue penetration) designed to address possible PK differences over time, could not demonstrate this difference in adults nor in two groups of paediatric patients where differences in body water are significant. / Two papers investigated the pharmacokinetics of amicakin in adult and paediatric patients documenting the benefit of extended interval dosing. / We automatically assume that antibiotic prescribing data, collated from healthy volunteers and not so ill patients, can be transcribed into the Intensive Care Unit. This is not so. / Jeffrey Lipman. / "April 2005." / Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 68-03, Section: B, page: 1548. / Thesis (M.D.)--Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2005. / Includes bibliographical references (p. 235-254). / Electronic reproduction. Hong Kong : Chinese University of Hong Kong, [2012] System requirements: Adobe Acrobat Reader. Available via World Wide Web. / Electronic reproduction. [Ann Arbor, MI] : ProQuest Information and Learning, [200-] System requirements: Adobe Acrobat Reader. Available via World Wide Web. / School code: 1307.

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