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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

The isolation and characterization of conditional lethal amber mutations in the bacteriophage Mu and their use in the refinement of the genetic map of Mu

O'Day, Kathryn J. January 1976 (has links)
Thesis--Wisconsin. / Includes bibliographical references (leaves 59-62).

Path of DNA within Mu transpososomes: order, dynamics and topology of Mu end-enhancer interactions

Pathania, Shailja 28 August 2008 (has links)
Not available / text

Investigation of the MutT2 gene

Olubuyide, Temitope Kehinde 08 1900 (has links)
No description available.

Path of DNA within Mu transpososomes order, dynamics and topology of Mu end-enhancer interactions /

Pathania, Shailja. January 2002 (has links) (PDF)
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Texas at Austin, 2002. / Vita. Includes bibliographical references. Available also from UMI Company.

The construction of lambda phages containing both ends of Mu and their use in analysis of bacteriophage Mu transposition

Schumm, James W. January 1981 (has links)
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Wisconsin--Madison, 1981. / Typescript. Vita. eContent provider-neutral record in process. Description based on print version record. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 214-227).

Transposable prophage Mu exists as an independent chromosomal domain in E. coli

Lou, Zheng, active 2012 14 November 2013 (has links)
The 4.6 Mb circular E. coli chromosome is compacted by segregation into 400-500 supercoiled domains, created by both active and passive mechanisms like transcription and DNA-binding proteins. We find that transposable prophage Mu, transcriptionally silent by definition, is organized into an independent domain as determined by the close proximity of Mu termini L and R separated by a 37 kb Mu genome. Cre-loxP recombination is used in this study in vivo and in vitro. Critical to formation/maintenance of the Mu 'domain' configuration are a strong gyrase site SGS at the center of Mu, the Mu L end, the MuB protein, and the E. coli nucleoid-associated proteins IHF, Fis and HU. The Mu domain was observed at two structurally different chromosomal locations, and was specific to the Mu prophage, i.e. was not observed for the [mathematical symbol] prophage. A model is proposed that by employing its cis-elements to create a domain barrier for segregation and compaction of its genome, the large selfish DNA element Mu profits from the transposition-ready arrangement of its ends, while simultaneously providing a fitness advantage to the host. / text

Identification of two topologically distinct Mu transpososomes: contribution of cis and trans elements to DNA topology

Yin, Zhiqi 28 August 2008 (has links)
Not available / text

Identification of two topologically distinct Mu transpososomes contribution of cis and trans elements to DNA topology /

Yin, Zhiqi, January 1900 (has links) (PDF)
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Texas at Austin, 2006. / Vita. Includes bibliographical references.

DNA Binding Studies With The Transcriptional Activator Protein C Of Bacteriophage MU

Ramesh, V 10 1900 (has links) (PDF)
No description available.

Mechanism Of Activation Of Bacteriophage Mu Late Genes By Transcription Activator Protein C

Swapna, Ganduri 12 1900 (has links) (PDF)
Initiation of transcription is a major step in the regulation of gene expression. A dominant theme in regulation of gene expression lies in understanding the mechanism involved in selective expression of the genes in response to external or internal stimuli. Gene regulatory proteins bind DNA at specific sites either cognate to the promoters they act upon or at a distance, thereby exerting their effect by turning on (activation) or turning off (repression) the genes. Response of these factors to the environmental signals is further achieved by the DNA binding affinity of the transcription factors that can be modulated by small ligands, concentrations of which may fluctuate in response to nutrient availability and stress. Bacteriophages achieve a high degree of efficiency in gene expression by evolving elegant strategies of transcriptional control. mom gene of enterobacteriophage Mu serves as an excellent model to understand this elaborate regulation of gene expression. The gene encodes a unique DNA modification function that confers an anti-restriction phenotype to the phage genome. Though dispensable for phage growth, it is fascinating in two respects (i) a novel modification; (ii) regulation follows a complex scheme without precedence in prokaryotes. mom is the last gene to be expressed during the phage lytic life cycle. Premature expression of the gene is deleterious to both host and phage and hence it is under a complex regulatory network. Dam methylase, a host encoded protein acts as a positive regulator of gene expression, an example where methylation has been shown to play a positive role in regulating tranascription. OxyR, another host encoded protein negatively regulates mom gene expression. Dam methylation prevents the binding OxyR to its site located in the mom regulatory region. The regulatory interplay also involves two phage encoded proteins. C, a middle gene product is essential for transcriptional switch from middle to late genes and Com, a late gene product, for enhancing translation of mom mRNA. Thus, C and Com serve as transcriptional and translational activators of mom gene expression. Pmom is a weak promoter with both -10 and -35 elements away from consensus and a sub-optimal 19 bp spacer element encompassing a stretch of 6T residues that act as negative elements. ‘T stretch’ is known to induce a kink in the DNA. The sub-optimal spacer region makes the promoter elements out of phase and RNAP by itself cannot bind at mom promoter. C protein exerts its effect in activation in a multistep mechanism. The protein binds DNA as a dimer overlapping the promoter and unwinds the DNA, realigning the promoter elements, thus recruiting the RNAP. In the next step, it enhances the promoter clearance by the enzyme, thus enhancing the rate of productive transcription. With this prevailing knowledge on C mediated mom gene expression, the present thesis work describes the experiments carried out to further understand the molecular mechanism of second step activation at Pmom. Genetic and biochemical analysis were carried out to identify the interacting surface of C protein on RNAP. Subsequently, studies have been extended to understand the C mediated transactivation at other late promoters- lys, I, P, which encode for the lysis and morphogenetic functions of the phage. Finally, Mg2+ coordinating residues in C protein were identified to decipher the ligand induced conformational changes in the activator protein required for its transactivator function. Chapter I, a general introduction to the thesis, deals with the detailed discussion on gene expression and its regulatory mechanisms. RNA polymerase (RNAP) being the central molecule of gene expression (transcription) its organization and assembly are discussed. With the availability of the high resolution crystal structures of bacterial RNAP, an in-depth review on RNAP structure in terms of its potential regulatory targets, conformational changes associated with the formation of a functional holoenzyme, and during its transition from initiation to elongation processes have been described. Regulation of transcription with an emphasis on activation mechanism, ligand mediated allosteric transitions in regulatory proteins and the polymerase-activator interactions are discussed citing a few examples. The chapter concludes by introducing bacteriophage Mu and mom gene and its regulation by C. The objectives of the thesis form the concluding section of the chapter. Activators are capable of resurrecting defective promoters in response to cellular demands. The unusual, multistep activation of mom promoter (Pmom) by C protein involves activator mediated promoter unwinding to recruit RNA Polymerase (RNAP) and subsequent enhanced promoter clearance of the enzyme. The first step of transactivation is an interaction independent step, while the later might involve a transient interaction between C and one of the subunits of RNAP. Previous studies pointed out β′ subunit to be the most probable interaction partner. Chapter II comprises the genetic and biochemical studies carried out to confirm this observation. Employing a genetic screen mutations in rpoC gene (encoding the β′ subunit of RNAP), were isolated which result in the defective RNAP. The mutant RNAPs were assayed for their C specific activity by in vivo transactivation assays. Such mutants have been purified and characterized to understand their effect at different steps of C mediated mom gene expression during transcription initiation. The mutant RNAP had normal transcription activity with typical σ70 promoters but exhibited reduced productive transcription and enhanced abortive initiation on C-dependent Pmom. Experiments carried out to probe the interaction between C and mutant RNAP revealed that the physical interaction per se is not disrupted between the two proteins. Post C-mediated recruitment of RNAP to the promoter, transient interactions between the two proteins appears to induce subtle conformational changes in RNAP leading to an enhanced promoter clearance. Transactiavtor protein C is essential for the expression of other late genes lys, I, P apart from mom during the phage life cycle. Although the mechanism of multistep activation at Pmom has been elucidated, little is known on the transactivation from lys, I and P promoters. Chapter III includes studies carried out to understand the process of activation at these promoters. Owing to the differences in their C-binding site and promoter architecture it was important to investigate the differential effect of C, if any at lys, I , P promoters compared to that at Pmom. Activators in prokaryotes are shown to stimulate different steps of transcription initiation pathway ranging from the polymerase binding to the promoters to the post recruitment steps of isomerization and promoter clearance. Effect of C at different steps of transcription initiation pathway was analysed. The results indicate that C is absolutely essential for transcription from lys, I and P promoters similar to mom. However, at these promoters C exerts its effect at the step of Isomerisation from closed complex to open complex formation. Thus, C acts at a single step here and the mode of activation is different from that observed at Pmom. C dimer binds DNA with high affinity and sequence specificity, to an interrupted palindromic sequence overlapping the -35 element of mom promoter. Mg2+ mediated conformational transitions in C protein are essential for its DNA binding and transactivation functions. Chapter IV deals with the identification of the Mg2+ coordinating residues in C protein. Primary sequence analyses lead to the identification of a putative metal coordinating motif (EXDXD) towards the N-terminus of the protein. These residues were subjected to site directed mutagenesis to infer their role in Mg2+ coordination, its associated allosteric transition required for specific interaction with DNA. Mutants showed an altered Mg2+ induced conformation, compromised DNA binding and reduced levels of transcription activation when compared to C protein. Though Mg2+ is widely used in various DNA transaction reactions, this study provides the first insights on the importance of metal-ion induced allosteric transitions in regulating transcription factor function.

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