Participatory action research and testing the effectiveness of stinging nettle as a biopesticide in Kenya /Kaberia, Doris K. January 2007 (has links) (PDF)
Thesis (M.S.)--University of Wisconsin--Stevens Point, 2007. / Includes bibliographical references (leaves 74-79).
Testing for microbiologically active compounds extracted from members of the family laminaceae and other indigenous plants.Gurlal, Prenitha. January 2005 (has links)
The Labiatae is a large family that occurs worldwide and have species that are adapted to almost all habitats and altitudes. Plectranthus is in this family. Plectranthus species are beautiful South African shrubs. The genus Plectranthus belongs to subfamily Nepetoideae of tribe Ocimeae. The test microorganisms were chosen carefully as each one belonged to a different taxonomic group of fungi and bacteria. Biologically active mono- and sesquiterpenoids are frequently found in many species of Plectranthus but there are little published data that directly link the presence of specific compounds in a species with the traditional uses of that species. Various Plectranthus spp. were collected and dried, followed by chemical extraction using various solvents. Dichloromethane extracts of P. fruticosus and P. ecklonii were screened for antibacterial and antifungal activities using the agar well and trench diffusion methods. It was found that both methods produced inconsistent results. The trench method required a bigger volume of plant extract to be filled into the well, hence, better biological activity was observed with that method. The well method required a smaller volume therefore poor activity was noted with this assay. The size of inhibition zones are dosage dependent. Overall, both plant extracts exhibited antibacterial but no antifungal properties. The pure compound (1), 11-Hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxybenzoyl)-5,7,9(11),13-abietatetraen-12-one, isolated from P. ecklonii was found to be the same as compound (10) which was isolated from P. lucidus. P. hadiensis was extracted using dichloromethane and hexane. The dichloromethane extract proved to contain much higher biological activity than the hexane extract. Three pure compounds, identified as diterpenes, were isolated from the crude dichloromethane extract of P. hadiensis. 6,7-Dihydroxyroyleanone-6,7,12-trihydroxy-8,12-abietadiene-ll,14-dione (2) and 7(alpha)-formoxy-6(beta)-hydroxyroyleanone (3) exhibited good antibacterial and antifungal activity but not against all the test organisms. The remaining pure compound, 7(alpha)-acetoxy-6(beta)hydroxyroyleanone (4), exerted good antifungal activity. This was measured by the inhibition zone which measured up to 14mm when compound 4 was tested against S. sclerotiorum. When testing the hexane extract against the Bacillus formulations, the pellets that were suspended once in Ringer's solution produced bigger inhibition zones than the pellets that were suspended twice. This could be due to bacterial cells washing out of the suspension. The dichloromethane extract of P. praetermissus proved to be very active against X campestris, producing an inhibition zone of 8 - 20mm. Two pure compounds were isolated from the crude extract and identified as diterpenes. Compound 5, 20(10--> 5)-abeo1( 10),6,8,11,13-abietapentaene-11,12,16-triol, and compound 6, 11,12,15-trihydroxy-20( 10-->5)-abeo-abieta-1-(10),6,8,11,13-pentaene are both known compounds which have previously been isolated from Salvia apiana. P. cilatus was extracted with chloroform and tested against various microorganisms for antifungal and antibacterial activities. It showed poor biological activity overall, except against S. sclerotiorum. The crude dichloromethane extract of P. zuluensis exhibited good antibacterial activity, which was limited to the Gram negative test organism. The extract produced an inhibition zone of 10-12mm when tested against X campestris. Pure compound 7, 2-hydroxy-4,6dimethoxyacetophenone, exerted excellent inhibition against B. subtilis and S. sclerotiorum. Neither compound 8, 1,2,4-trimethoxy-5-(2-propenyl)-benzene, nor compound 7, inhibited Candida spp., F. oxysporum and R. solani. Two diterpenes were isolated from the aerial plant parts of P. lucidus with dichloromethane and their structures elucidated by spectroscopic means. The pure compound 9, 11-hydroxy19-( 3-methyl-2-butenoyl)-5,7,9(11), 13-abietatetraen-12-one, showed moderate antifungal activity whereas compound 10, 11-hydroxy-2-(4-hroxybenzoyl)-5,7,9(11),13-abietatetraen12- one, showed high antifungal activity against R. solani, S. sclerotiorum and F. oxysporum. The crude and the pure compounds (formerly isolated from P. parviflorus) showed inhibition against X campestris. The dichloromethane extracts of P. purpuratus subsp. purpuratus and P. purpuratus subsp. tongaensis exhibit similar levels of biological activity when tested against the same test organisms. Poor antibacterial activity was noted with both extracts. However, excellent antifungal activity was depicted when both plant extracts were tested against F. oxysporum, R. solani and S. sclerotiorum. However, the highest biological activity was noted by R. solani which was totally inhibited by both dichloromethane extracts. The pure compound (11) isolated from P. purpuratus subsp. purpuratus was found to have the same chemical structure as compound (9) previously isolated from P. lucidus. The bioautography assay was used to detect and activity-guide the fractionation of antimicrobial compounds from all the Plectranthus spp. tested. The TLC fingerprint showed a zone of clearing around the lower bands of P. fruticosus and P. ecklonii when the plate was sprayed with a suspension of B. subtilis. This result is consistent with the agar well diffusion method. Clear zones were also noted on some bands of the extracts of P. zuluensis, P. ciliatus, P. hadiensis and P. praetermussis. Clear zones indicate inhibition of growth. Other plant extracts tested for biological activity were from the family Lamiaceae, however, not of the genus Plectranthus. Persicaria senegalensis, Pycnostachys reticulata and Ficus sur possessed moderate biological activity overall. It is interesting to note that P. senegalensis and F. sur exert high biological activity against Candida spp. This could be useful as herbal remedies for yeast infections. / Thesis (M.Sc.)-University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, 2005.
Briones Dahlin, Antonio
Botanical pesticides are agricultural pest management agents which are based on plant extracts. In modern times these have been used as alternatives to synthetic chemicals in organic pest management. The practice of using plant materials against field and storage pests however has a long history in many indigenous and traditional farming communities across the world. During February and March 2009 a field study was conducted in Babati district in Manyara region, Tanzania to investigate the local use of botanical pesticides. The results from the field study were subsequently analyzed and contextualized in Nicanor Perlas model The Seven Dimensions of Sustainable Agriculture which was used as a framework theory. The analysis indicates that there are a variety of thresholds for the use of botanical pesticides in sustainable agriculture in Babati district besides the more obvious practical aspects. The latter parts of the paper discuss the differences between reductionist and holistic, indigenous and scientific ways of achieving knowledge with regard to plant based pesticides. The study concludes that ecological pest management is a holistic method based on the synergy of a variety of farming practices. Indigenous knowledge which is holistic, site-specific and experience based has therefore much to offer modern endeavours to practice a more sustainable agriculture and pest management strategies which consider the welfare of both humanity and the environment.
Briones Dahlin, Antonio
<p>Botanical pesticides are agricultural pest management agents which are based on plant extracts. In modern times these have been used as alternatives to synthetic chemicals in organic pest management. The practice of using plant materials against field and storage pests however has a long history in many indigenous and traditional farming communities across the world. During February and March 2009 a field study was conducted in Babati district in Manyara region, Tanzania to investigate the local use of botanical pesticides. The results from the field study were subsequently analyzed and contextualized in Nicanor Perlas model The Seven Dimensions of Sustainable Agriculture which was used as a framework theory. The analysis indicates that there are a variety of thresholds for the use of botanical pesticides in sustainable agriculture in Babati district besides the more obvious practical aspects. The latter parts of the paper discuss the differences between reductionist and holistic, indigenous and scientific ways of achieving knowledge with regard to plant based pesticides. The study concludes that ecological pest management is a holistic method based on the synergy of a variety of farming practices. Indigenous knowledge which is holistic, site-specific and experience based has therefore much to offer modern endeavours to practice a more sustainable agriculture and pest management strategies which consider the welfare of both humanity and the environment.</p>
Natural and semi-synthetic compounds with biocidal activity against arthropods of public health importanceKhasawneh, Mohammad A. 05 December 2003 (has links)
This study identified new compounds with pest control activities. The two sources of candidates that were followed here were the main heartwood extract of Alaska Yellow Cedar (AYC) constituents and several semi-synthetic counterparts. Five compounds were isolated and identified for the first time in AYC heartwood in this research: two monoterpenes, two sesquiterpenes, and one lignan. The two monoterpenes were (1S)-2-oxo-3-p-menthenol (41) and (4R)-4-hydroxy-4-isopropyl-cyclohex-1-enecarboxylic acid (63). The two sesquiterpenes were (5S,7R,10R,11R)-eudesm-4(14)-ene-11,12-diol (46) and (4R,5S,7R)-1(10)- eremohpilen-11,12-diol (59). The lignan was (1R,2S,5R,6S)-2,6-bis-(3,5- dimethoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl)-3,7-dioxabicyclo-[3.3.0]octane,(67). Structures for these compounds were confirmed on the basis of spectroscopic techniques such as 1- and 2-D NMR, high resolution MS and IR. The pest control activity studies of 15 compounds isolated or semi-synthesized from AYC heartwood were conducted at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Two types of studies were conducted--short-term (24h) and residual (over 1-4 weeks) activity for application against three types of pests related to human health - nymphal I. scapularis ticks, adult X cheopis fleas and adult Ae. eagypti mosquitoes. The 24 h studies revealed that nootkatone, valencene-13-aldehyde and valencene-13-ol were the most active among the studied compounds against the three pests. They exhibited highly improved pest control activities compared to valencene. This suggests that oxidation on both positions C-2 and C-13 of the eremophilane ring structure has an important effect on the activity. For compounds where the conformation of the eremophilane bicyclic ring has been altered, the activity seemed to diminish greatly. The above mentioned three compounds can be good candidates as pest control lead compounds. The residual studies revealed that the most active compounds exhibited activity profiles that generally decreased with time. Although the long-term safety of these compounds has yet to be evaluated, the natural origin and the long history of use of these compounds suggest that they can be promising candidates. This study revealed that the three most promising compounds in the 24 h study exhibited reasonably promising behavior, which makes them even stronger as pest control candidates. / Graduation date: 2004
27 September 2005
Read the abstract in the section 00front of this document. / Thesis (PhD (Plant Pathology))--University of Pretoria, 2006. / Microbiology and Plant Pathology / unrestricted
This thesis explores the robustness and the versatility of pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) for a variety of analytes and matrices. Applications discussed include: selective extraction of alkaloids in goldenseal followed by their degradation studies; in-cell clean-up of pesticides in medicinal plants employing custom made molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) sorbents; in-cell pre-concentration followed by desorption of aflatoxins in plants with MIPs; desorption of pesticides from electrospun nanofiber sorbents; and removal of templates from MIPs sorbents. It was demonstrated that selective extractions could be achieved by just changing the temperature of water while adjusting the pressure. For instance, the alkaloids in goldenseal (hydrastine and berberine), were extracted at 140 °C, 50 bars, 1 mL min⁻¹ in 15 min; organochlorine pesticides from medicinal plants were extracted at 260 °C, 80 bars, 1 mL min-1 in 10 min; while aflatoxins AFG2, AFG1, AFB2 and AFB1 were extracted at 180 °C, 60 bars and a flow rate of 0.5 mL min⁻¹ in 10 min. The selectivity of PHWE was further enhanced by combining it with selective MIPs sorbents at higher temperatutes. In-cell clean-up of interfering chlorophyll was successfully removed from the medicinal plants during pesticides analysis while clean-up of aflatoxins AFG2, AFG1, AFB2 and AFB1 was achieved in two extraction cells connected in series. Ultrasound was also combined with PHWE for extraction of hydrastine and berberine at 80 °C and 40 bars in 30 min. PHWE was further evaluated for removal of templates from quercetin, phthalocynine and chlorophyll MIPs. The templates were thoroughly washed off their MIPs within 70 min with PHWE compared to over 8 h for Soxhlet and ultrasound assisted extraction. Pesticides were also desorbed from electrospun nanofibers at 260 °C, 80 bars in 10 min employing only water at 0.5 mL min⁻¹. In the light of green chemistry, the decrease in the usage of organic solvents was 100%, resulting in no organic solvent waste.
Látky terpenické povahy v rostlinách máty a jejich ovlivnění elicitací / Compounds of terpenic nature in mint plants and the influence of elicitation on themJančová, Nikola January 2017 (has links)
Diploma thesis is focused on study of compounds of terpenic nature in mint plants. Terpenic compounds are volatile hydrocarbons formed by several isoprenoid units with low molecular weight which cause the typical smell of plants. Presence of these compounds cause that plants seem to be fungicidal, bactericidal and insecticidal. Due to these properties, they can be used as botanical pesticides which are not toxic and no resistant organisms occur. Each plant contains relatively low concentrations of these compounds and therefore elicitors must be used for the increasing of terpenes amount. Elicitors activate defensive mechanisms in the plant leading to higher defense abilities and production of secondary metabolites. The identification and quantification of analytes was determined by gas chromatography in connection with mass spectrometry.
Impact of horticultural mineral oil and synthetic pesticides on arboreal and soil fauna biodiversity within citrus orchard ecosystems /Liang, Weiguang. January 2002 (has links)
Thesis (Ph.D. (Horticulture)) -- University of Western Sydney, 2002. / "A thesis submitted to the University of Western Sydney for the fulfillment of study for a degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Horticulture" "Principal supervisor: Robert Spooner-Hart, co-supervisor: Andrew Beattie, co-supervisor: Alfie Meats" Bibliography : leaves 231-265.
Desenvolvimento de sistemas de liberação modificada a base de zeína e quitosana para repelentes botânicos visando o controle de mosca-branca (Bemisia tabaci) em diferentes culturas / Development of modified release systems based on zein and chitosan for botanical repellents aiming whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) control in different cropsOliveira, Jhones Luiz de 06 September 2018 (has links)
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A utilização extensiva de pesticidas sintéticos tem sido a principal forma de controle deste tipo de praga, no entanto, os efeitos adversos destes compostos tanto para o meio ambiente quanto para a saúde humana tem motivado a busca por alternativas menos impactantes. Neste contexto, diversos mecanismos estão sendo estudados a fim de minimizar estes danos, como por exemplo, o desenvolvimento de sistemas de liberação modificada, utilizando polímeros biodegradáveis e proteínas. Aliado a isto, a utilização de pesticidas botânicos também tem demostrado potencialidade para o combate a essas pragas, devido aos menores impactos causados por esses produtos de origem natural. Portanto, o presente trabalho apresenta o desenvolvimento (preparo e caracterização) de sistemas nanocarreadores produzidos a partir dos polímeros quitosana e goma arábica e da proteína zeína para os compostos botânicos (geraniol, citronelal, eugenol e cinamaldeído), bem como, os potenciais efeitos cito e fitotóxicos destes sistemas. Ademais foram também realizados ensaios de atividade biológica destes sistemas em pragas agrícolas (mosca-branca, ácaro-rajado e lagarta falsamedideira). Os compostos botânicos apresentaram elevada eficiência de encapsulação em ambos os sistemas carreadores, sendo que os sistemas foram capazes de proteger os compostos contra uma degradação prematura e também contra a radiação ultravioleta. Os resultados de fito e citotoxicidade mostraram que a encapsulação diminuiu o efeito tóxico dos ativos. Os sistemas também apresentaram atividade biológica contra as pragas agrícolas testadas. As nanopartículas de zeína contendo os compostos botânicos mostraram efeito repelente contra o ácaro-rajado (Tetranychus urticae) em condições laboratoriais e de semi-campo, além de efeito subletal em largarta falsa-medideira (Chrysodeixis includes). Já as nanopartículas de quitosana/goma arábica contendo geraniol mostraram efeito atrativo para mosca-branca, sendo promissora para aplicações em sistemas de armadilha. A importância desta tese reside na dimensão que o setor agrícola representa para a economia brasileira e mundial, aliado a isto o mercado de defensivos agrícolas cresce anualmente, sendo o Brasil um dos líderes no consumo destes produtos. Desta forma, o desenvolvimento de tecnologia com elevado valor agregado à área de controle de pragas em agricultura é promissora uma vez que podem ser produzidos sistemas mais eficientes no controle de pragas, menos impactantes ao ambiente e consequentemente à saúde humana. / Arthropods have been a major cause of agricultural losses worldwide. Only in Brazil can these losses reach 7.7% per year. The extensive use of synthetic pesticides has been the main form of control of this type of pest, however, the adverse effects of these compounds for both the environment and human health have motivated the search for less impactful alternatives. In this context, several mechanisms are being studied in order to minimize these damages, such as the development of modified release systems using biodegradable polymers and proteins. In addition to this, the use of botanical pesticides has also shown potential for combating these pests, due to the lower impacts caused by these products of natural origin. Therefore, the present work showed the development (preparation and characterization) of nanocarrier systems produced from chitosan and gum arabic polymers and zein protein for the botanical compounds (geraniol, citronellal, eugenol and cinnamaldehyde), as well as the potential effects and phytotoxic systems. In addition, tests of the biological activity of these systems on agricultural pests (whitefly, two-spotted spider mite and soybean looper) were also carried out. The botanical compounds showed high encapsulation efficiency in both carrier systems, and the systems were able to protect the compounds against premature degradation and also against ultraviolet radiation. The phyto and cytotoxicity results showed that encapsulation decreased the toxic effect of the active compounds. The systems also showed biological activity against the agricultural pests tested. The zein nanoparticles containing the botanicals showed a repellent effect against the brindle two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) under laboratory and semi-field conditions, as well as a sublethal effect on soybean looper (Chrysodeixis includes). The chitosan/gum arabic nanoparticles containing geraniol showed attractive effect for whitefly, being promising for applications in trap systems. The importance of this thesis lies in the dimension that the agricultural sector represents for the Brazilian and world economy, in addition to that the market for agricultural pesticides grows annually, in special as Brazil is one of the leaders in the consumption of these products. In this way, the development of new technologies to pest control in agriculture is promising since more efficient pest control systems can be produced, less impacting the environment and consequently to human health. / FAPESP: 2014/20286-9
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