DETERMINATION OF CAPILLARY PRESSURE, RELATIVE PERMEABILITY AND PORES SIZE DISTRIBUTION CHARACTERISTICS OF COAL FROM SYDNEY BASIN-CANADANourbakhsh, Anita 13 August 2012 (has links)
Global warming due to anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases notably carbon dioxide, could lead to the irreversible melting of the polar ice and significant increases in global mean temperature. One of the mitigating strategies that can be carried out on a larger scale is the capture and geological sequestration of this gas. Notable among proven geological resources is deep unmineable coal seams. Geological sequestration in these systems has a value added advantage because of coal bed methane production which is a source of cleaner burning fuel than coal. Accordingly the injection of carbon dioxide to a coal seam for long term storage accompanied by the production of methane requires adequate knowledge of the two phase flow characteristics of the methane/brine and carbon dioxide/brine systems. The most important characteristics of the two phase flow are relative permeability and capillary pressure. The coal core was characterized by proximate and ultimate ASTM measurements, x-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. These analyses identify the existence of clay minerals in the coal structure, which shows that origin of coal formation was from swamp plants. These minerals were used to fill the pores and reduce the permeability. Relative permeability and capillary pressure data for Sydney basin coal samples were collected. This study has also obtained pore size distribution and its indexes both from capillary pressure data and statistical methods based on the hyperbolic model of capillary pressure versus saturation data. The elaborate experimental design and precise measurements using capillary pressure unit (TGC-764) with a pressure control module makes the acquired petro-physical data a valuable asset for future carbon dioxide enhanced coal bed methane production.
Reservoir simulation of co2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery in Tensleep Formation, Teapot Dome fieldGaviria Garcia, Ricardo 12 April 2006 (has links)
Teapot Dome field is located 35 miles north of Casper, Wyoming in Natrona County. This field has been selected by the U.S. Department of Energy to implement a field-size CO2 storage project. With a projected storage of 2.6 million tons of carbon dioxide a year under fully operational conditions in 2006, the multiple-partner Teapot Dome project could be one of the world's largest CO2 storage sites. CO2 injection has been used for decades to improve oil recovery from depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs. In the CO2 sequestration technique, the aim is to "co-optimize" CO2 storage and oil recovery. In order to achieve the goal of CO2 sequestration, this study uses reservoir simulation to predict the amount of CO2 that can be stored in the Tensleep Formation and the amount of oil that can be produced as a side benefit of CO2 injection. This research discusses the effects of using different reservoir fluid models from EOS regression and fracture permeability in dual porosity models on enhanced oil recovery and CO2 storage in the Tensleep Formation. Oil and gas production behavior obtained from the fluid models were completely different. Fully compositional and pseudo-miscible black oil fluid models were tested in a quarter of a five spot pattern. Compositional fluid model is more convenient for enhanced oil recovery evaluation. Detailed reservoir characterization was performed to represent the complex characteristics of the reservoir. A 3D black oil reservoir simulation model was used to evaluate the effects of fractures in reservoir fluids production. Single porosity simulation model results were compared with those from the dual porosity model. Based on the results obtained from each simulation model, it has been concluded that the pseudo-miscible model can not be used to represent the CO2 injection process in Teapot Dome. Dual porosity models with variable fracture permeability provided a better reproduction of oil and water rates in the highly fractured Tensleep Formation.
Geologic drivers affecting buoyant plume migration patterns in small-scale heterogeneous media : characterizing capillary channels of sequestered CO₂Ravi Ganesh, Priya 24 April 2013 (has links)
CO₂ sequestration aims for the most efficient utilization of reservoir pore volume and for maximizing security of storage. For typical field conditions and injection rates, buoyancy and capillary forces grow dominant over viscous forces within hundreds of meters of the injection wells as the pressure gradient from injection becomes less influential on flow processes. Flow regimes ranging from compact flow to capillary channel flow or secondary accumulation beneath a seal are possible through time as the CO₂ plume travels through the storage reservoir. Here we model the range of possible migration behavior in the capillary channel regime in small-scale domains whose heterogeneity has been resolved at depositional (sub-millimeter) scale. Two types of model domains have been studied in this work: domains with depositional fabric from real, naturally-occurring geologic samples and geostatistically generated synthetic model fabrics. The real domains come from quasi-2D physical geologic samples (peel # 1: ~1 m × 0.5 m sample and peel # 2: ~0.4 m × 0.6 m sample) that are vertically oriented relief peels of fluvial sediment extracted from the Brazos River, Texas. Peel # 1 is oriented perpendicular to dominant depositional flow while peel # 2 is a flow-parallel specimen. The various depositional fabrics represent definite correlation lengths of threshold pressures in the horizontal and vertical directions which can be extracted. High-resolution (~2 million element model) laser scanning of the samples provided detailed topography which is the result of nearly linear corresponding changes in measured grain size (normal distribution) and sorting. We model the basic physics of buoyant migration in heterogeneous domain using commercial software which applies the principle of invasion percolation (IP). The criterion for governing drainage at the pore scale is that the capillary pressure of the fluid needs to be greater than or equal to the threshold pressure of the pore throat it is trying to enter for the interface to advance into the pore. Here we employ the extension of this concept to flows at larger scales, which replaces the pore throat with a volume of rock with a characteristic value of capillary entry pressure. The fluid capillary pressure is proportional to the height of continuous column of the buoyant phase. The effects of (i) threshold pressure range, i.e. difference between the maximum and minimum threshold pressures in the domain; and (ii) the density difference between CO₂ and connate water on capillary channels of CO₂ were studied on the various sedimentologic fabrics. As the rock and fluid properties varied for different model domains, ₂ migration patterns varied between predominantly fingering and predominantly back-filling structures. Sufficiently heterogeneous media (threshold pressures varying by a factor of 10 or more) and media with depositional fabrics having high ratios of horizontal and vertical correlation lengths of capillary entry pressures in the domain yield back-filling pattern, resulting in a significantly large storage capacity. Invasion percolation simulation models give qualitatively similar CO₂ migration patterns compared to full-physics simulators in small-scale but high resolution domains which are sufficiently heterogeneous. On the other hand, we find the invasion percolation simulations predicting disperse capillary fingering pattern in relatively homogeneous media (threshold pressures varying by less than a factor of 10) while the full-physics simulations reveal a very compact CO₂ front in the same media. This stark difference needs to be investigated to understand the governing flow physics in these domains. Fingering flow pattern in the capillary channel regime would clearly result in the estimated storage capacity being much less than the nominal value (the pore volume of the rock) as the rock-fluid contact is minimal. The importance of this work lies in the verification that a relatively simple model (invasion percolation), which runs in a very small fraction of the time required by full-physics simulators, can be used to study buoyant migration in rocks at the micro-scale. Understanding migration behavior at the small-scale can help us approach the problem of upscaling better and hence define the complex plume dynamics at the reservoir scale more realistically. Knowledge of the correlation structure of the sedimentologic fabric (ratio of correlation lengths of threshold pressures in horizontal and vertical directions) and the threshold pressure distribution (permeability distribution) for any given reservoir rock could help evaluate amount of CO₂ that can be stored per unit volume of rock (storage potential) for a reservoir in the migration phase of sequestration. The possibility of predictive ability for expected capillary channel flow patterns kindles the prospect of enabling an engineered storage strategy that drives the behavior toward the desired flow patterns in the subsurface. / text
Time-lapse seismic modeling and production data assimilation for enhanced oil recovery and CO2 sequestrationKumar, Ajitabh 15 May 2009 (has links)
Production from a hydrocarbon reservoir is typically supported by water or carbon dioxide (CO2) injection. CO2 injection into hydrocarbon reservoirs is also a promising solution for reducing environmental hazards from the release of green house gases into the earth’s atmosphere. Numerical simulators are used for designing and predicting the complex behavior of systems under such scenarios. Two key steps in such studies are forward modeling for performance prediction based on simulation studies using reservoir models and inverse modeling for updating reservoir models using the data collected from field. The viability of time-lapse seismic monitoring using an integrated modeling of fluid flow, including chemical reactions, and seismic response is examined. A comprehensive simulation of the gas injection process accounting for the phase behavior of CO2-reservoir fluids, the associated precipitation/dissolution reactions, and the accompanying changes in porosity and permeability is performed. The simulation results are then used to model the changes in seismic response with time. The general observation is that gas injection decreases bulk density and wave velocity of the host rock system. Another key topic covered in this work is the data assimilation study for hydrocarbon reservoirs using Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF). Some critical issues related to EnKF based history matching are explored, primarily for a large field with substantial production history. A novel and efficient approach based on spectral clustering to select ‘optimal’ initial ensemble members is proposed. Also, well-specific black-oil or compositional streamline trajectories are used for covariance localization. Approach is applied to the Weyburn field, a large carbonate reservoir in Canada. The approach for optimal member selection is found to be effective in reducing the ensemble size which was critical for this large-scale field application. Streamline-based covariance localization is shown to play a very important role by removing spurious covariances between any well and far-off cell permeabilities. Finally, time-lapse seismic study is done for the Weyburn field. Sensitivity of various bulk seismic parameters viz velocity and impedance is calculated with respect to different simulation parameters. Results show large correlation between porosity and seismic parameters. Bulk seismic parameters are sensitive to net overburden pressure at its low values. Time-lapse changes in pore-pressure lead to changes in bulk parameters like velocity and impedance.
Simulation assessment of CO2 sequestration potential and enhanced methane recovery in low-rank coalbeds of the Wilcox Group, east-central TexasHernandez Arciniegas, Gonzalo 30 October 2006 (has links)
Carbon dioxide (CO2) from energy consumption is a primary source of greenhouse gases. Injection of CO2 from power plants in coalbed reservoirs is a plausible method for reducing atmospheric emissions, and it can have the additional benefit of enhancing methane recovery from coal. Most previous studies have evaluated the merits of CO2 disposal in high-rank coals. Low-rank coals in the Gulf Coastal plain, specifically in Texas, are possible targets for CO2 sequestration and enhanced methane production. This research determines the technical feasibility of CO2 sequestration in Texas low-rank coals in the Wilcox Group in east-central Texas and the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. It includes deterministic and probabilistic simulation studies and evaluates both CO2 and flue gas injection scenarios. Probabilistic simulation results of 100% CO2 injection in an 80-acre 5-spot pattern indicate that these coals with average net thickness of 20 ft can store 1.27 to 2.25 Bcf of CO2 at depths of 6,200 ft, with an ECBM recovery of 0.48 to 0.85 Bcf. Simulation results of 50% CO2 - 50% N2 injection in the same 80-acre 5-spot pattern indicate that these coals can store 0.86 to 1.52 Bcf of CO2, with an ECBM recovery of 0.62 to 1.10 Bcf. Simulation results of flue gas injection (87% N2 - 13% CO2) indicate that these same coals can store 0.34 to 0.59 Bcf of CO2, with an ECBM recovery of 0.68 to 1.20 Bcf. Methane resources and CO2 sequestration potential of low-rank coals of the Wilcox Group Lower Calvert Bluff (LCB) formation in east-central Texas are significant. Resources from LCB low-rank coals in the Wilcox Group in east-central Texas are estimated to be between 6.3 and 13.6 Tcf of methane, with a potential sequestration capacity of 1,570 to 2,690 million tons of CO2. Sequestration capacity of the LCB lowrank coals in the Wilcox Group in east-central Texas equates to be between 34 and 59 years of emissions from six power plants in this area. These technical results, combined with attractive economic conditions and close proximity of many CO2 point sources near unmineable coalbeds, could generate significant projects for CO2 sequestration and ECBM production in Texas low-rank coals.
The economic feasibility of enhanced coalbed methane recovery using CO2 sequestration in the San Juan BasinAgrawal, Angeni 17 September 2007 (has links)
Carbon dioxide emissions are considered a major source of increased atmospheric CO2 levels leading towards global warming. CO2 sequestration in coal bed reservoirs is one technique that can reduce the concentration of CO2 in the air. In addition, due to the chemical and physical properties of carbon dioxide, CO2 sequestration is a potential option for substantially enhancing coal bed methane recovery (ECBM). The San Juan Fruitland coal has the most prolific coal seams in the United States. This basin was studied to investigate the potential of CO2 sequestration and ECBM. Primary recovery of methane is controversial ranging between 20-60% based on reservoir properties in coal bed reservoirs15. Using CO2 sequestration as a secondary recovery technique can enhance coal bed methane recovery up to 30%. Within the San Juan Basin, permeability ranges from 1 md to 100 md. The Fairway region is characterized with higher ranges of permeability and lower pressures. On the western outskirts of the basin, there is a transition zone characterized with lower ranges of permeability and higher pressures. Since the permeability is lower in the transition zone, it is uncertain whether this area is suitable for CO2 sequestration and if it can deliver enhanced coal bed methane recovery. The purpose of this research is to determine the economic feasibility of sequestering CO2 to enhance coal bed methane production in the transition zone of the San Juan Basin Fruitland coal seams. The goal of this research is two- fold. First, to determine whether there is a potential to enhance coal bed methane recovery by using CO2 injection in the transition zone of the San Juan Basin. The second goal is to identify the optimal design strategy and utilize a sensitivity analysis to determine whether CO2 sequestration/ECBM is economically feasible. Based on the results of my research, I found an optimal design strategy for four 160- acre spacing wells. With a high rate injection of CO2 for 10 years, the percentage of recovery can increase by 30% for methane production and it stores 10.5 BCF of CO2. The economic value of this project is $17.56 M and $19.07 M if carbon credits were granted at a price of $5.00/ton. If CO2 was not injected, the project would only give $15.55 M.
Kinetics of CO₂ dissolution in brine : experimental measurement and application to geologic storage / Experimental measurement and application to geologic storageBlyton, Christopher Allen Johnson 02 August 2012 (has links)
A novel approach to geologic CO₂ sequestration is the surface dissolution method. This method involves lifting native brine from an aquifer, dissolution of CO₂ into the brine using pressurized mixing and injection of the CO₂ saturated brine back into the aquifer. This approach has several advantages over the conventional approach, including minimization of the risk of buoyancy driven leakage and dramatic reduction in the extent of pressure elevation in the storage structure. The mass transfer coefficient for the CO₂/brine two-phase system and associated transport calculations allow efficient design of the surface equipment required to dissolve CO₂ under pressure. This data was not previously available in the literature. Original experimental data on the rate of dissolution of CO₂ into Na-Ca-Cl brines across a range of temperatures and wet CO₂ densities are presented. From this data, the intrinsic mass transfer coefficient between CO₂-rich and aqueous phases has been calculated. The statistically significant variation in the mass transfer coefficient was evaluated and compared with the variation caused by the experimental method. An empirical correlation was developed that demonstrates that the mass transfer coefficient is a function of the NaCl salinity, temperature and wet CO₂ density. For the conditions tested, the value of the coefficient is in the range of 0.015 to 0.056 cm/s. Greater temperature and smaller NaCl salinity increases the mass transfer coefficient. There is an interaction effect between temperature and wet CO₂ density, which increases or decreases the mass transfer coefficient depending on the value of each. CaCl₂ salinity does not have a statistically significant effect on the mass transfer coefficient. The transport calculations demonstrate that wellhead co-injection of CO₂ and brine is feasible, providing the same technical outcome at lower cost. For example, assuming a 2000 ft deep well and typical aquifer injection conditions, complete dissolution of the bulk COv phase can be achieved at 670 ft for bubbles of 0.16 cm initial radius. Using a horizontal pipe or mixing tank was also shown to be feasible. Gas entrainment was shown to provide a marked reduction in size of mixing apparatus required. / text
Geochemical Clogging in Carbonate Mineralization on Carbon Dioxide Sequestration / 二酸化炭素地中貯留における炭酸塩鉱物の沈殿現象に関する地化学的研究Yoo, Seung Youl 24 September 2012 (has links)
Kyoto University (京都大学) / 0048 / 新制・課程博士 / 博士(工学) / 甲第17131号 / 工博第3621号 / 新制||工||1550(附属図書館) / 29870 / 京都大学大学院工学研究科社会基盤工学専攻 / (主査）教授 松岡 俊文, 教授 大津 宏康, 准教授 水戸 義忠 / 学位規則第4条第1項該当
Monitoring CO2 Plume Migration for a Carbon Storage-Enhanced Coalbed Methane Recovery Test in Central AppalachiaLouk, Andrew Kyle 04 February 2019 (has links)
During the past decade, carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) has gained considerable recognition as a viable option to mitigate carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. This process involves capturing CO2 at emission sources such as power plants, refineries, and processing plants, and safely and permanently storing it in underground geologic formations. Many CO2 injection tests have been successfully conducted to assess the storage potential of CO2 in saline formations, oil and natural gas reservoirs, organic-rich shales, and unmineable coal reservoirs. Coal seams are an attractive reservoir for CO2 storage due to coal's large capacity to store gas within its microporous structure, as well as its ability to preferentially adsorb CO2 over naturally occurring methane resulting in enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) recovery. A small-scale CO2 injection test was conducted in Southwest Virginia to assess the storage and ECBM recovery potential of CO2 in a coalbed methane reservoir. The goal of this test was to inject up to 20,000 tons of CO2 into a stacked coal reservoir of approximately 15-20 coal seams. Phase I of the injection test was conducted from July 2, 2015 to April 15, 2016 when a total of 10,601 tons of CO2 were injected. Phase II of the injection was conducted from December 14, 2016 to January 30, 2017 when an additional 2,662 tons of CO2 were injected, for a total of 13,263 total tons of CO2 injected. A customized monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) plan was created to monitor CO2 injection activities, including surface, near-surface, and subsurface technologies. As part of this MVA plan, chemical tracers were used as a tool to help track CO2 plume migration within the reservoir and determine interwell connectivity. The work presented in this dissertation will discuss the development and implementation of chemical tracers as a monitoring tool, detail wellbore-scale tests performed to characterize CO2 breakthrough and interwell connectivity, and present results from both phases of the CO2 injection test. / PHD / During the past decade, carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) has gained considerable recognition as a viable option to mitigate carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. This process involves capturing CO2 at emission sources such as power plants, refineries, and processing plants, and safely and permanently storing it in underground geologic formations. Many CO2 injection tests have been successfully conducted to assess the storage potential of CO2 in saline formations, oil and natural gas reservoirs, organic-rich shales, and unmineable coal reservoirs. Coal seams are an attractive reservoir for CO2 storage due to coal’s large capacity to store gas within its microporous structure, as well as its ability to preferentially adsorb CO2 over naturally occurring methane resulting in enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) recovery. A small-scale CO2 injection test was conducted in Southwest Virginia to assess the storage and ECBM recovery potential of CO2 in a coalbed methane reservoir. The goal of this test was to inject up to 20,000 tons of CO2 into a stacked coal reservoir of approximately 15-20 coal seams. Phase I of the injection test was conducted from July 2, 2015 to April 15, 2016 when a total of 10,601 tons of CO2 were injected. Phase II of the injection was conducted from December 14, 2016 to January 30, 2017 when an additional 2,662 tons of CO2 were injected, for a total of 13,263 total tons of CO2 injected. A customized monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) plan was created to monitor CO2 injection activities, including surface, near-surface, and subsurface technologies. As part of this MVA plan, chemical tracers were used as a tool to help track CO2 plume migration within the reservoir and determine interwell connectivity. The work presented in this dissertation will discuss the development and implementation of chemical tracers as a monitoring tool, detail wellbore-scale tests performed to characterize CO2 breakthrough and interwell connectivity, and present results from both phases of the CO2 injection test.
A Data-Driven Approach for the Development of a Decision Making Framework for Geological CO2 Sequestration in Unmineable Coal SeamsMiskovic, Ilija 18 January 2012 (has links)
In today's energy constrained world, carbon capture and sequestration can play an essential role in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions, while simultaneously maintaining a robust and affordable energy supply. This technology is an end-of-pipe solution that does not contribute to a decrease of the production of greenhouse gases, but is very useful as a transition solution on the way towards other sustainable energy production mechanisms. This research involves the development of a comprehensive decision making framework for assessing the techno-economic feasibility of CO2 sequestration in unmineable coal seams, with the Central Appalachian Basin chosen for analysis due to the availability of empirical data generated through recent characterization and field validation studies. The studies were conducted in order to assess the sequestration capacity of coal seams in the Central Appalachian Basin and their potential for enhanced coal bed methane recovery. The first stage of this research involves assessment of three major sequestration performance parameters: capacity, injectivity, and containment. The assessment is focused on different attributes and reservoir properties, characteristic of deep unmineable coal seams in the Central Appalachian Basin. Quantitative and qualitative conclusions obtained through this review process are used later in the identification of the minimum set of technical information necessary for effective design and development of CO2 storage operations. The second section of this dissertation analyzes economic aspects of CO2 sequestration. This segment of the research uses a real options analysis to evaluate the impact of major sources of uncertainty on the total cost of developing and operating a CCS project in a regulatory environment that expects implementation of carbon taxes, but with uncertainty about the timing of this penalty. Finally, all quantitative and qualitative information generated in the first two stages of this research were used for development of a decision making framework/matrix that summarizes the interactions between major technical and economic parameters and constraints, on the other hand, and their impact on overall feasibility of CO2 sequestration in unmineable coal seams. This framework will provide user with capability to address complex problems in a more systematic way and to analyze the most efficient way to utilize available resources. / Ph. D.
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