Stress physiology and biological weed control : a case study with Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.)Forsyth, Sheila Florence. January 1983 (has links)
The success of biological weed control programs has been limited by a lack of understanding of the stress physiology of insect damage and pathogen development. This case study with the perennial weed, Cirsium arvense, (L.) Scop. evaluated the stress of five natural enemies. Attack by a seed head predator, Orellia ruficauda (F.) caused about 21.5% predation and may reduce seed dispersal. The stress of stem gall formation (Urophora cardui (L.)) is greatest when the gall occurs on young plants and on the mainshoot and defoliation simulation (Cassida rubiginosa Muller) is most effective at high levels on young plants. In nature, however, the latter two natural enemies are not synchronized with these susceptible stages, thereby reducing their effectiveness. Although Cleonus piger Scop., a root crown inhabitant, can result in plant death, regeneration of damaged vascular tissue can occur. Plants which emerge systemically infected with Puccinia punctiformis (Str.) Rohl. (rust) rarely survive the season. A matrix model simulating the effects on Canada thistle population dynamics by the natural enemies was applied.
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