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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

A study of Xanthium insects to be used in the biological control of cockleburs in Australia

Kelly, Samuel Greenberry January 1930 (has links)
No description available.

A model for water hyacinth biological control

Hauptfleisch, Kendall Adair 20 January 2016 (has links)
A Dissertation submitted to the Faculty of Science, University of the Witwatersrand, in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science / Water hyacinth is one of the most invasive aquatic plants in the world. As such, there have been numerous attempts to model and predict its growth. Some of these models incorporate the influence of temperature or nutrients as the two most important determinants of water hyacinth growth. Other models include the effect of biological control on the growth of the plant, but only one model integrates environmental factors (temperature) with the effect of biological control. In this study, I attempt to incorporate temperature, and biological control effects on the growth of water hyacinth into a single model. Temperature-dependent water hyacinth and stage-structured Neochetina weevil population models were constructed in STELLA 9.1.4 and compared against an empirical dataset for two water hyacinth infested sites in South Africa for a two-year period (2004-2006). Although these models may not simulate field water hyacinth populations accurately, they suggest that Neochetina weevils can reduce water hyacinth populations, to below the assumed carrying capacity (70 kg/m2). It appears that the effects of Neochetina larvae are vital in reducing water hyacinth populations, and need to be further explored in order to simulate water hyacinth/weevil systems accurately.

Studies on mass culturing of Paranguina picridis Kirjanova and Ivanova, and its host-parasite relationship with Acroptilon repens (L.)DC. (Russian knapweed)

Anas, Osama. January 1983 (has links)
No description available.

Stress physiology and biological weed control : a case study with Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.)

Forsyth, Sheila Florence. January 1983 (has links)
The success of biological weed control programs has been limited by a lack of understanding of the stress physiology of insect damage and pathogen development. This case study with the perennial weed, Cirsium arvense, (L.) Scop. evaluated the stress of five natural enemies. Attack by a seed head predator, Orellia ruficauda (F.) caused about 21.5% predation and may reduce seed dispersal. The stress of stem gall formation (Urophora cardui (L.)) is greatest when the gall occurs on young plants and on the mainshoot and defoliation simulation (Cassida rubiginosa Muller) is most effective at high levels on young plants. In nature, however, the latter two natural enemies are not synchronized with these susceptible stages, thereby reducing their effectiveness. Although Cleonus piger Scop., a root crown inhabitant, can result in plant death, regeneration of damaged vascular tissue can occur. Plants which emerge systemically infected with Puccinia punctiformis (Str.) Rohl. (rust) rarely survive the season. A matrix model simulating the effects on Canada thistle population dynamics by the natural enemies was applied.

Development of a Colletotrichum dematium as a bioherbicide for the control of fireweed

Léger, Christian. January 1997 (has links)
An anthracnose-inducing pathogen, Colletotrichum dematium, was studied as a bioherbicide for Epilobium angustifolium. A comparative study involving other C. dematium isolates suggests that the isolate from E. angustifolium is a forma specialis and should be designated as Colletotrichum dematium f.sp. epilobii. The most severe damage was achieved on seedlings using a conidial density of $1 times 10 sp9$ conidia m$ sp{-2}$. Virulence decreased with plant maturity. Satisfactory levels of control were limited to long dew duration ($>$18 h) and high temperature treatments. Of various adjuvants tested, significantly higher levels of control were achieved when inoculum was sprayed in a vegetable oil emulsion (25% v/v). An inoculum buffered to acidic pH levels (pH 3.0) similarly increased level of control compared with an unbuffered conidial suspension and the adjustment to more alkaline pH levels using the citrate-phosphate buffer (pH $>$ 4.0), inhibited disease expression. In host range studies, C. dematium f.sp. epilobii was restricted to the Onagraceae family. Both Camissonia bistorta and Clarkia pulchella were susceptible whereas the fungus was highly virulent on all but one E. angustifolium ecotype. Among nine commercial tree species tested for susceptibility yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis) was susceptible to the fungus when conidia were applied in an oil emulsion. The application of inoculum in a tank mix combination with the oil emulsion and a low rate of glyphosate provided significant growth control of E. angustifolium seedlings (7-wk-old), whereas the effectiveness of this suspension significantly decreased with plant maturity. Under controlled conditions, post-emergence application of an oil-based formulation including the ground colonized substrate of another bioherbicide candidate of E. angustifolium, Alternaria sp., significantly reduced above-ground biomass when provided a 12-h dew and applied at a rate as low as $5 times 10 sp6$ conidia m$ sp{-2}$.

Effect of the fungal pathogen, Colletotrichum coccodes (Wallr.) Hughes, on growth, reproduction and competitive ability of velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medik.)

DiTommaso, Antonio January 1995 (has links)
Field and growth bench experiments were performed to assess the effect of a selective fungal pathogen of Abutilon theophrasti (velvetleaf) on various aspects of intra- and interspecific competition between this vigorous agricultural weed and soybean (Glycine max). In the absence of the foliar pathogen, Colletotrichum coccodes, A. theophrasti and soybean responded differently to the presence of conspecies or to individuals of the other species. In pure stand, the deleterious effects of intraspecific competition on reproductive output were substantially greater for A. theophrasti than for soybean, especially at lower monoculture densities. In mixtures, however, A. theophrasti reproductive performance was markedly higher than at equivalent monoculture densities, particularly at the lower mixture densities. Soybean reproduction at these lower mixture densities (10 to 20 plants m$ sp{-2}$) was severely curtailed compared with reproductive output at equivalent pure stand densities. A. theophrasti reproductive output was limited more by the presence of conspecies than by the presence of soybean, whereas the opposite trend was observed for soybean. In pure stand, application of C. coccodes had limited impact on either A. theophrasti or soybean yield. However, application of the fungal pathogen in A. theophrasti monocultures caused significant (30-44%) aboveground biomass reductions within five weeks of inoculation, in two of the three years in one field study. Eight weeks following C. coccodes inoculation, A. theophrasti biomass within inoculated monoculture plots did not differ significantly from biomass within uninoculated control plots, although height hierarchies were significantly more developed. In mixtures, C. coccodes applications caused reductions in A. theophrasti growth and reproduction when provided with an adequate dew period. Alternatively, soybean yield losses within inoculated mixture plots were generally lower than for uninoculated control plots, althoug

Formulation of Colletotrichum coccodes as a bioherbicide

Saad, Fadia January 1993 (has links)
Colletotrichum coccodes (Wallr.) Hughes, a foliar pathogen of velvetleaf, is being developed as a bioherbicide. Formulation of living organisms for use as pest control products presents unique problems. This research has achieved the development of an adequate formulation of the pathogen by using kaolin clay or talcum powder (1:2.79 wt/wt) as the fillers to dry conidia. Formulated C. coccodes conidia stored at 4, 30C, or at room temperature in bags permeable to oxygen remained viable and able to infect velvetleaf plants at least six months in storage. Various reported germination stimulants increased germination of formulated conidia, although not significantly, whereas increasing concentrations of cutin resulted in subsequent decreases in germination and appressoria formation of fresh as well as formulated conidia. In controlled environment experiments, 14 day-old velvetleaf seedlings were severely diseased when stearic or oleic acids were added to conidia formulated in kaolin clay or talcum powder, respectively. Combinations of germination stimulants, cutinase and/or pectinase inducers did not significantly increase germination and appressoria formation of C. coccodes conidia. Germination of fresh and formulated conidia increased, although not significantly, with the addition of 1% sucrose.

Enhancing biocontrol activity of Colletotrichum coccodes

Ahn, Byeongseok January 2003 (has links)
Resistance responses of Abutilon theophrasti were investigated to determine defense mechanisms of the weed against Colletotrichum coccodes and to verify if some chemical suppression of the resistance mechanism could be exploited to enhance the virulence. Induced resistance in A. theophrasti has been confirmed in treatments with C. coccodes, benzothiadiazole, bentazon, and acifluorfen. Induction of peroxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activities in the leaves that did not contact with the inducing agents was observed after the localized stresses to the first leaf or the root of the plant with those agents. alpha-Amino-oxy acetic acid (AOA), 2-deoxy-D-glucose (DDG), mannose, oxalic acid, and analogues of oxalic acid and mannose were tested to enhance C. coccodes virulence. However, the compounds did not enhance C. coccodes virulence or affect A. theophrasti growth. Strong antifungal effects, poor inhibitory effects on plant defense mechanisms, or minor dependence of A. theophrasti on the defense mechanisms that the chemicals affected could be reasons. The efficacy of C. coccodes increased in the presence of 0.25 kg a.i. ha-1 bentazon more than when C. coccodes was applied alone, while the effect of glyphosate was minimal. Peroxidase activity was strongly induced by the treatment of C. coccodes and increased over time. PAL and activation of peroxidase was inhibited in the presence of bentazon, suggesting the synergy effect by bentazon is probably due to the suppression on the two defense-related enzymes. In conclusion, A. theophrasti exploits various biochemical and morphological types of defense mechanisms against C. coccodes infection. However, the activation of the defense responses can be suppressed or by-passed in an integrated weed management system.

The biological control of Hakea sericea Schrader by the Hakea seed-moth, Carposina autologa Meyrick, in South Africa

Gordon, Antony John January 1993 (has links)
Hakea sericea Schrader was introduced to South Africa from Australia and has become a major problem in nearly all the coastal mountain ranges of the Cape Province. The hakea seed-moth, Carposina autologa Meyrick was released in South Africa for the biological control of H. sericea. The impact of the moth on the canopy-stored seeds of H. sericea was evaluated at two study sites in the south-western Cape over three years. The moth has reduced the accumulated seeds at the two study sites by 59.4% and 42.6%, respectively. The moth has shown a surprising ability to disperse and establish new colonies at low population levels. Factors contributing to the slow colonization of C. autologa in South Africa was investigated. The moths appear to be unable to distinguish between healthy and previously attacked fruits; 42.5% of the eggs were laid on attacked fruits. Only 13.1% of the healthy fruits with eggs yielded mature larvae. The high pre-penetration mortality found in the present study is similar to that found in Australia. The effect of the indigenous fungus, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Sacc., on both H. sericea and C. autologa was investigated. H. sericea trees and branches that die as a result of fungus cause the accumulated fruits on the affected trees or branches to dehisce. This seed loss occurs at a crucial stage during C. autologa larval development. Only 42.1% and 33.0% of the trees were found to be healthy at the two study sites, respectively. One seed crop will always be available for regeneration, since recruitment is linked to fires, and wild-fires occur at a stage when the latest seed crop has escaped attack by c. autologa. C. autologa was released at six sites in the south-western Cape by attaching egg-bearing follicles to healthy fruits in the field. Three release sites were evaluated the year following release to determine whether the moth established or not. The role of C. autologa in the H. sericea biological control programme is discussed. Although seed destruction by C. autologa is not severe, it is expected to contribute to the control of H. sericea.

Pre-release studies on Zophodia Tapiacola (Dyar) (Pyralidae : Lepidoptera) : a biological control agent against jointed cactus, Optuntia Aurantiaca Lindley

Hoffmann, J. H. January 1976 (has links)
Jointed Cactus, Opuntia aurantiaca Lindley (see frontispiece), is the most important weed plant in South Africa, infesting approximately, 1,2 X 10¹° M² and costing approximately R240 000 per annum. Tordon herbicide effectively kills jointed cactus bushes to which it is applied. However, apart from being expensive and damaging to beneficial vegetation, spray programmes have not successfully controlled the weed because most small O. aurantiaca plants are impossible to detect in the field. Biological control may provide a solution to the problem. Two insects, the cochineal bug, Dactylopius austrinus De Lotto and the pyralid moth, Cactoblastis cactorum Berg., already exercise a degree of control over the weed. The introduction into South Africa of other natural enemies such as Zophodia tapiacola (Dyar) from Argentina, South America, may reduce the density of jointed cactus to below an acceptable economic threshold. Any insect considered for release should not colonise and destroy beneficial plants of which the culivated spineless cacti are the most vulnerable. Pre-release studies on Z. tapiacola have shown that it can only colonise a few species of low growing cacti and that it will not damage the large spineless cacti or other desirable plants. Further, the moths are relatively fecund and each larva destroys significant amounts of O. aurantiaca during its development. Consequently, Z. tapiacola is not only considered safe for release but it has the potential to act as a successful biological control agent of O. aurantiaca in South Africa.

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