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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
41

Tearing of Carbon Black-filled and Gum Natural Rubber Vulcanizates Cured with Dicumyl Peroxide (DCP)

Sun, Yu January 2013 (has links)
No description available.
42

Mathematical modeling of carbon black process from coal

Ji, Qingjun January 2000 (has links)
No description available.
43

Study of carbon black characteristics and their relations to the process parameters in flash carbonization of coal

Jamdar, Sunil M. January 1985 (has links)
No description available.
44

Electrical and mechanical stress responses for carbon black loaded rubber

Chen, Chin Jung January 1987 (has links)
The major objective of this study was to determine the relations between certain electrical parameters (resistance, capacitance) and mechanical parameters (stress, strain) for carbon black loaded rubber. Resistance and capacitance were measured under constant strain and constant stress conditions in an effort to determine these relations for rubber filled with 30 to 70 parts carbon black per hundred parts rubber. Seven materials for making electrical contact were investigated. Silver paint was found to result in low contact resistance, to be reliable, and fairly inexpensive. Electrical parameters (resistance, capacitance) and mechanical parameters (stress, strain) were found to exhibit similar trends as functions of carbon black content. This is in agreement with previous theories of the conduction network and electron percolation. Resistance and stress relaxation equations were quantitatively determined. These follow a power law time dependence, with relaxation rates depending mainly on carbon black content and temperature. / M.S.
45

Microwave sensing of bulk electrical properties of tank track pad rubber

Lee, Michael W. January 1988 (has links)
A complex permittivity measurement system composed of a network analyzer and a open-ended coaxial waveguide has been used to evaluate the permittivity of rubber samples. The conductivity of rubber provides an indication of the dispersion of carbon black throughout the rubber matrix. The technique is based on the Deschamps antenna modeling theorem which relates the effective admittance of an antenna in some arbitrary medium to the effective admittance of the same antenna embedded in free space. This technique is well suited for material with loss tangents between 0.1 and 1.0. Only material within a radius on the order of the outer conductor radius of the coaxial waveguide is interrogated. Inferred permittivity measurements for rubber samples are presented. An APC-7 connector is used as the transducer which provides a means for convenient calibration because standard calibration terminations can be used. The amount of pressure from the sample applied to the waveguide affects reflection coefficient measurements, preventing consistent results. / Master of Science
46

Structure property relationships in track pad rubber as a function of blending conditions

Rodrigues, David Ernest 06 February 2013 (has links)
Tank track pads have been known to degrade rapidly under adverse conditions, especially during cross country service where the average life has been estimated to be 500 miles. Several factors have been identified as being the cause for such low service life. One of these is the 'quality of dispersion' which plays an important role in the performance of any rubber compound. In order to evaluate the effect of the quality of dispersion on the service life of rubber compounds, a controlled blending experiment was carried out with a recipe modeled on a standard track pad formula. Mechanisms of failure produced by a bad dispersion have been identified. Two interesting observations were made, one of which was the formation of voids and the other was crack propagation along flow lines which are directly relatable to processing conditions. / Master of Science
47

Evaluation of carbon blacks and binders in polymer thick film resistors

Haria, Niraj January 2005 (has links)
This objective of this project is to develop an understanding of the ink and its interaction with substrate of Penny & Giles controls Ltd's conductive plastic potentiometers, so as to develop alternate ink, substrate and processing methods. Conductive plastic potentiometers comprises, a track containing polymer binder and carbon black, printed on a base plastic substrate. The objectives have to take into account the performance ofthe potentiometers, which are to be improved or maintained. The first stage of the project was concerned with investigating the properties of the carbon black used in the inks, which have a major effect on the performance of the potentiometers. Ten different carbon blacks with different properties were selected. The carbon blacks properties for most of these were characterised by techniques that included transmission electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, laser induced mass spectrometry and the scanning electron microscope. Inks were made with most of individual carbon blacks, and then tracks were produced on the diallyl phthalate plastic substrate. The electric resistance of these tracks was measured allowing the effect of carbon black properties on performance of the track to be studied. Various carbon black were found to provide similar performance to the Vegetabke MR842N, carbon black used currently. The next stage was the investigation of effect of binder on the performance of resistor using the same techniques as used in the first stage so that comparison could be made with the current binder. A phenolic binder was used and again showed similar properties to the DAIP binder used currently
48

Study of glycerol electrochemical conversion into addes-value compounds

Lee, Ching Shya 27 September 2016 (has links) (PDF)
The price of crude glycerol has significantly decreased worldwide because of its oversupply. Many chemical and biological processes have been proposed to transform glycerol into numerous value-added products, such as glycolic acid, 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO), 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PDO), glyceric acid, and lactic acid. However, these processes suffer from several drawbacks, including high production cost. Therefore, in this study, a simple and robust electrochemical synthesiswas developed to convert glycerol into various value-added compounds. This study reports for the first time the use of Amberlyst-15 as a reaction mediumand redox catalyst for electrochemical conversion of glycerol. In the first part, the electrochemical performance of Amberlyst-15 over platinum (Pt)electrode was compared with that of conventional acidic (H2SO4) and alkaline (NaOH) media. Other parameters such as reaction temperature [room temperature (27°C) to 80 °C] and applied current (1.0 A to 3.0 A) were also examined. Under the optimized experimental condition, this novel electrocatalytic method successfully converted glycerol into glycolic acid after 8 h of electrolysis, with a yield of 45% and selectivity of 65%, as well as to glyceric acid after 3 h of electrolysis, with a yield of 27% and selectivity of 38%. In the second part of this study, two types of cathode electrodes, namely, activated carbon composite(ACC) and carbon black diamond (CBD) electrodes, were used in electrochemical conversion of glycerol. To the best of our knowledge, electrochemical studies of glycerol conversion using these electrodes have not been reported yet. Glycerol was also successfully reduced to lactic acid, 1,2-PDO, and 1,3-PDO, in addition to oxidation compounds (e.g. glycolic acid). Three operating parameters, namely, catalyst amount (6.4% to 12.8% w/v), reaction temperature [room temperature (27 °C) to 80 °C], and applied current (1.0 A to 3.0 A), were tested. In the presence of 9.6% w/v Amberlyst-15 at 2.0 A and 80 °C, the selectivity of glycolic acid can reach 72% and 68% (with yield of 66% and 58%) for ACC and CBD electrodes, respectively. Lactic acid was obtained as the second largest compound, withselectivity of 16% and yield of 15% for the ACC electrode and 27% selectivity and 21% yield for the CBD electrode. Finally, electro-oxidation and electroreduction of glycerol were performed in a two-compartment cell separated by a cation exchange membrane (Nafion 117). This study only focused on the electroreduction region. Three cathode electrodes (Pt, ACC, and CBD) were evaluated under the following conditions: 2.0 A, 80 °C, and 9.6% w/v Amberlyst-15. ACC demonstrated excellent performance in the electroreduction study and successfully reduced glycerol to 1,2-PDO, with a high selectivity of 85%. The selectivity of 1,2-PDO on Pt and CBD was 61% and 68%, respectively. Acetol and diethylene glycol were also obtained. The reaction mechanisms underlying the formation of these products are then proposed.
49

Preparação e caracterização de compósitos condutores obtidos a partir da borracha natural com raspa de couro e negro de fumo

Alves, Aguinaldo Lenine [UNESP] 02 June 2009 (has links) (PDF)
Made available in DSpace on 2014-06-11T19:31:04Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 0 Previous issue date: 2009-06-02Bitstream added on 2014-06-13T21:02:05Z : No. of bitstreams: 1 alves_al_dr_bauru.pdf: 8448992 bytes, checksum: 6f09d8f5231cbff24cebe7da8169bbec (MD5) / Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) / Compósitos condutores são materiais preparados para combinar as propriedades físicas dos polímeros com partículas condutivas. Neste trabalho, são apresentadas a preparação e caracterização de compósitos condutores contendo borracha natural (BN), raspa de couro (RC) e negro de fumo (NF). As Amostras foram conformadas em diferentes percentuais em massa dos constituintes BN, RC e NF: 38/60/2.0; 37.5/60/2.5; 37/60/3.0 e 36.5/60/3.5, respectivamente, aplicando uma pressão de 12 toneladas durante o 5 minutos à temperatura de 160°C, resultando em membranas com boa qualidade e com a espessura desejada. Os compósitos BN/RC/NF foram caracterizados por microscopia óptica (MO), microscopia eletrônica varredura (MEV), Microscopia de Força Atômica (AFM), espectroscopia Raman e infravermelho, termogravimetria (TG), calorimetria exploratória de varredura (DSC), análise dinâmico mecânica (DMA), testes mecânicos (Tensão versus deformação) e medidas de condutividade elétrica. A presença do NF no compósitos BN/ RC/NF, promoveu uma condutividade elétrica da ordem de 1.5x10-3 S.cm-1. Os ensaios mecânicos mostram que o compósito BN/RC/NF possui propriedades físicas intermediárias entre as membranas de BN e o couro. Verificou-se que as membranas do compósito BN/RC/NF são de baixo custo, e podem ser facilmente preparadas. Estes compósitos apresentaram boa estabilidade térmica, adequadas propriedade mecânica e condutividade elétrica, e são apropriadas para produzir luvas, mantas e pisos antiestáticos. Além disso, o compósito BN/RC/NF são obtidos a partir de resíduos de curtumes de couro contribuindo para a redução de um problema ambiental. / Conductive composites are materials prepared combining the physical properties of polymers and conductive particles. In this work the preparation and characterization of conducting composites containing natural rubber (NR), leather residue (LR) and carbon black (CB) are presented. Samples were conformed in different percentages of mass of the NR, LR and CB constituents: 38/60/2.0; 37.5/60/2.5; 37/60/3.0 and 36.5/60/3.5, respectively, applying a pressure of 12 tons during 5 minutes at the temperature of 160°C, resulting in membranes with good quality and with the desired thickness. The NR/LR/CB composites were characterized using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman and infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), mechanical test (stress vs. strain) and he electric conductivity measurements. The presence of the CB in composites NR/LR/CB provided an electric conductivity of the order of 1.5x10-3 S.cm-1. Mechanical tests show that the NR/LR/CB composites have intermediate properties between the membranes of NR and the leather. It was found that NR/LR/CB membranes can be easily prepared with very low cost. They presented good thermal stability, adequate mechanical and electric conductivity properties that are appropriate to produce gloves, blankets and antistatic floors. In addition, the NR/LR/CB composites are obtained from leather residues from tanneries contributing for the reduction of an environmental problem.
50

Synthesis, Modification, Characterization and Processing of Molded and Electrospun Thermoplastic Polymer Composites and Nanocomposites

Julien, Tamalia 27 March 2018 (has links)
This dissertation focuses on the versatility and integrity of a novel, ultrasoft polycarbonate polyurethane (PCPU) by the introduction of nanoparticles and lithium salts. Additionally, the research takes into account the use of electrospinning as a technique to create PCPU and polyimide (PI) fibers. These polymers are of interest as they offer a wide range of properties and uses within the medical and industrial fields. An industrial batch of an ultrasoft thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) was synthesized using a two-step process. The first was to create an end capped pre-polymer from methylene bis (4-cyclohexylisocyanate), and a polycarbonate polyol made up of 1,6- hexanediol and 3-methyl-1,5-pentanediol. The second step was done by reacting the pre-polymer with an excess of the polycarbonate polyol with a chain extender, 1,4-butanediol. Biocompatibility testing such as USP Class VI, MEM Elution Cytotoxicity and Hemolysis toxicology reported that PCPU showed no toxicity. This novel type of polyurethane material targets growing markets of biocompatible polymers and has been used for peristaltic pump tubing, but also can be utilized as balloon catheters, enteral feeding tubes and medical equipment gaskets and seals. This material is ideal for replacing materials such as soft plastisols containing diethylhexyl phthalate for use in biomedical and industrial applications. After extensive characterization of this polymer system another dimension was added to this research. The addition of nanoparticles and nanofillers to polyurethane can express enhanced mechanical, thermal and adhesion properties. The incorporation of nanoparticles such as nanosilica, nanosilver and carbon black into polyurethane materials showed improved tensile strength, thermal performance and adhesion properties of the PCPU. Samples were characterized using contact angle measurements, Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), parallel plate rheology and tensile testing. The second chapter entails the fabrication and characterization of PCPU nanofibers and nanomembranes through a process known as electrospinning. The resulting PCPU nanomembranes showed a crystalline peak from the WAXS profile which is due to electrospun and solution strain induced crystallinity. The PCPU nanocomposite nanomembranes displayed increased thermal stability and an increase in tensile performance at higher weight percent. The nanomembranes were investigated using contact angle measurements, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), DSC, WAXS, SAXS and tensile testing. The final chapter focuses on investigating the rheological properties of PCPU/lithium electrolytes as well as transforming an unprocessable polyimide powder into a nanomembrane. The PCPU/ lithium composite electrolyte showed an increase in the activation energy and conductivity, while the PI/lithium showed increased conductivity over time. Dynamic mechanical analysis and four-point probe was used to investigate the samples.

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