Arb, Julie Diann Leeds, Glaros, Alan G.,
Thesis (Ph. D.)--School of Education. University of Missouri--Kansas City, 2004. / "A dissertation in counseling psychology." Advisor: Alan G. Glaros. Typescript. Vita. Title from "catalog record" of the print edition Description based on contents viewed May 30, 2006. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 172-177 ). Online version of the print edition.
This thesis investigated treatment outcomes and processes in young people with chronic pain. The first chapter describes a systematic review, which examined the effectiveness of acceptance and mindfulness-based interventions in improving pain-related outcomes in young people. Secondary aims were to review changes in proposed treatment processes following the interventions, and to compare the effectiveness of these interventions to control conditions. Although there was evidence to suggest that these treatments may improve outcomes, particularly levels of daily functioning, further research is needed to adequately assess the utility of acceptance and mindfulness-based approaches with paediatric chronic pain populations. The second chapter details a cross-sectional study of contextual and cognitive processes in adolescents with chronic pain. Specifically, the study tested the mediating effects of acceptance, catastrophising and kinesiophobia in the relationship between pain intensity and indicators of adjustment. Both acceptance and kinesiophobia mediated the effects of pain intensity on disability and quality of life, while catastrophising mediated the effect of pain intensity on levels of anxiety and depression. The results demonstrated that both contextual and cognitive factors are important determinants of young people’s well-being. Future research would benefit from gaining a greater understanding of how these processes interact with each other to affect pain-related outcomes.
Azaril, Kim, Billington, Taness, Garlick, Kelsey
Class of 2017 Abstract / Objectives: To identify studies that have been conducted on pain self-management interventions to describe the strategies used in the treatment of pain Methods: Eligible studies were determined using a study inclusion-screening tool. To be eligible, studies needed to be randomized controlled trials comparing some type of self-management intervention to an alternative or usual care. Once determined to be eligible, selected studies were analyzed by two investigators using a consensus procedure and full article data extraction form which collected data on the study characteristics, patient characteristics, self-management strategies and relevant study outcomes. Results: The chronic pain management strategies from the 14 randomized controlled trials used in this study included: acupuncture, mobile based intervention, yoga, meditation/relaxation techniques, cupping therapy, musical therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, physical therapy and self-management therapies. All studies showed a statistically significant reduction in pain from baseline, however, the effect size ranged from very small (0.02) to quite large (2.2). Conclusions: Most studies showed a meaningful reduction in pain, hence, a wide variety of self-management strategies are available for managing pain.
Self-Management Strategies for Chronic Pain Reported in Population-Based Surveys: A Systematic ReviewBemis, Lola, Harper, Bonita, Molla-Hosseini, Sima January 2017 (has links)
Class of 2017 Abstract / Objectives: The purpose of this systematic review was to identify the types of management strategies reported by individuals with chronic pain to manage chronic pain, the average number of strategies used, outcomes, and side effects. Methods: To be included in the systematic review, reports of population surveys of adult patients with chronic pain, as defined by the authors, had to be published in English, include chronic pain from any cause, and include information on the treatment strategies used by respondents. Search terms included “pain,” “self-care,” “self management,” “self treatment,” and “adult” and the search strategy included systematic searches of Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Web of Science, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, searches of reference lists, and citation searches as well as key websites such as the CDC and NIH. Results: A total of 13 study reports were identified. Sample size ranged from 103 to 4839; mean age ranged from 42 to 81 and 51 to 69% female. All reports included information on medications used to manage pain; 6 reported other medical strategies; 9 reported physical strategies; 6 reported psychological strategies; and 11 reported non- medical strategies. Only 4 studies reported some data on the number of strategies used; one study reported 23% used 6 or more medications, another reported 51% used 3 or more strategies. Six studies reported some type of outcome; including inadequate control of pain (40%) or good relief (87%), and 36% as effective in a third study. Few side effects were reported; two studies reported constipation, nausea and vomiting. Conclusions: Population-based surveys of chronic pain have identified a large number of strategies used to manage pain, however they provide little information on the average number of strategies used, the effectiveness of the strategies, or resulting side effects.
Amadi, Suzanne C.
06 August 2021
(has links) (PDF)
Pain is a sensory experience associated with physical discomfort that is influenced by cognition and emotion and has been linked to an increased risk for aggression. The purpose of the current study was to examine the association between pain and aggression under controlled laboratory conditions using both experimental and non-experimental approaches. The aims of the study were two-fold. First, to manipulate perceived pain tolerance via faux feedback and then observe whether aggression differs as a function of this pain perception manipulation using a laboratory analogue of aggression. Second, to examine whether self-ratings of pain sensitivity and behavioral measures of pain are associated with self-reported or behavioral assessment of aggression. Eighty-three men and women were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: A high pain tolerance feedback group, a low pain tolerance feedback group, and a no pain tolerance feedback (control) group. Participants completed self-report ratings of pain and aggression, including the Life History of Aggression: Aggression subscale, the Buss Perry Aggression Questionnaire: Physical Aggression subscale, and the Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire. Participants then completed an algometer pressure pain task and immediately received high or low pain tolerance feedback (or no feedback) before engaging in an electric shock pain tolerance procedure and subsequently participating in a laboratory task of aggression against an increasingly provocative fictitious "opponent" during a competitive reaction-time task (i.e., the Taylor Aggression Paradigm; TAP). Aggression was operationalized both as the average shock and the number of "extreme" shocks administered to the opponent. The latter were ostensibly twice the opponent's pain threshold. Results indicated that, contrary to the main prediction, individuals who received high pain tolerance feedback tended to select lower mean shocks as provocation increased. Pain sensitivity was also positively related to TAP aggression. These results are consistent with the literature suggesting that low perceived pain tolerance is associated with aggression. However, pressure pain tolerance was positively associated with self-reported aggression, suggesting that the association between pain and aggression is complex, may involve multiple pathways, and is dependent on the method used to assess pain and aggression.
Goran, Debra Kay
No description available.
Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) / Older adults with persistent pain experience reduced physical functioning, increased disability, and higher rates of depression. Previous research suggests that different types of positive and negative expectancies (e.g., optimism and hopelessness) may be associated with the severity of these pain-related outcomes. Moreover, different types of expectancies may interact with perceived control to predict these outcomes. However, it is unclear whether different types of expectancies are uniquely predictive of changes in pain-related outcomes over time in older adults and whether perceived control moderates these relationships. The primary aims of the current study were to 1) examine how the shared and unique aspects of optimism and hopelessness differentially predict changes in pain-related outcomes (i.e., pain severity, pain interference, disability, and depressive symptoms) in older adults experiencing persistent pain over a 10-year and 2-year timeframe and 2) examine whether perceptions of control over one’s health moderate these relationships. The present study sampled older adults with persistent pain who participated in a nationally representative, longitudinal study (i.e., The Health and Retirement Study) at three timepoints across a 10-year period. First, confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were conducted to determine appropriate modeling of expectancy variables. Second, mixed latent and measured variable path analyses were created to examine the unique relationships between expectancy variables and changes in pain-related outcomes over both a 10- year and 2-year period. Finally, mixed latent and measured variable path analyses and PROCESS were used to test perceived control as moderator of the relationships between expectancy variables and changes in pain-related outcomes over time. CFA results suggested that measures of optimism and hopelessness were best understood in terms of their valence, as positive (i.e., optimism) or negative (i.e., pessimism and hopelessness) expectations. Results from path analyses suggested that only negative, not positive, expectancies were significantly associated with worsening pain severity, pain interference, disability, and depressive symptoms across both 10-year and 2-year periods. Moderation analyses demonstrated inconsistent results and difficulties with replication. However, post-hoc path analyses found that perceptions of control over one’s health independently predicted some changes in pain-related outcomes over time, even when controlling for expectancies. Altogether, the current findings expand our knowledge of the associations between expectancies and pain by suggesting that negative expectancies are predictive of changes in mental and physical pain-related outcomes across years of time. The current study also suggests that positive and negative expectancies may be related, but distinct factors in older adults with persistent pain and that health-related perceived control may be predictive of changes in pain over time. The current discussion reviews these extensions of our current knowledge in greater detail, discusses the potential mechanisms driving these relationships through a theoretical lens, and identifies the implications of this work.
Sato, Kaori D.
Recent studies have shown the efficacy and practicality of the integration of complementary and alternative therapies and biomedical treatments for various diseases and illnesses, including high blood pressure, diabetes, epilepsy, and cancer. Saper et al. (2013) demonstrated that once-weekly yoga classes were equally as effective for relieving chronic low back pain in low-income, minority populations than twice-weekly yoga classes. Pain medication data collected from this 12-week study was used to examine the effect of yoga on analgesic use. Pain medications were categorized into four major groups: (1) acetaminophen, (2) opiates, (3) non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), and (4) other. The average number of NSAID pills taken daily decreased from baseline to 12 weeks. In addition, there was no statistically significant difference in the average number of any type of analgesic taken between once- and twice-weekly yoga groups from baseline to 12 weeks. Our findings suggest that yoga is most useful for individuals with mild to moderate chronic low back pain; however, further studies with more powerful sample sizes must be conducted in order to make more precise conclusions.
Anthony, Yvonne LaRue
01 January 2017
Chronic pain is a condition that impacts millions of men and women around the globe. It is a compelling disease that particularly impacts quality of life (QOL) for many veterans with undertreated or untreated pain. The focus of this systematic literature review was the appraisal of articles and clinical practice guidelines to better understand best-practice nonpharmacological strategies for management of chronic pain. Key words used in the literature search included chronic pain and veterans, complementary alternative medicine (yoga, tai chi, music therapy, acupuncture, and massage), and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). The articles included in the review were limited to those pertaining to adults over the age of 18 with non-cancer musculoskeletal chronic pain. The review excluded articles pertaining to patients reporting headache, cancer-related pain, fibromyalgia, mental health problems, or gynecological pain. Polit and Beck's levels of evidence were used to appraise each article. The Stetler model was used as the change model for this project. Thirty-six articles met the criteria and were included. Nine clinical practice guidelines were appraised. Four articles were pilot studies, 3 met the criteria for Evidence Levels V-VII, 3 met the criteria for Levels III-IV, 8 were Level II, and 18 were systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials (Level I). The analysis of evidence supported the use of yoga, CBT, acupuncture, and massage therapy as best-practice methods of personalized nonpharmacological pain management. This project is important for those who care for veterans and other adult chronic pain patients. Application of the findings may lead to changes in chronic pain management that will enhance social change and improve QOL for veterans and others living with untreated or undertreated chronic pain.
The impact of nature of onset of pain and posttraumatic stress on adjustment to chronic pain and treatment outcomeTadros, Margaret January 2008 (has links)
Doctor of Philosophy / Despite the demonstrated efficacy of cognitive-behavioural therapy for chronic pain, recent research has attempted to identify predictors of treatment outcome in order to improve the effectiveness of such treatments. This research has indicated that variables such as the nature of the onset of the pain and psychopathology are associated with poor adjustment to chronic pain. Accordingly, these variables might also be predictive of poor response to treatment. Individuals who experience a sudden onset of pain following an injury or accident, particularly when the instigating event is experienced as psychologically traumatic, may present for treatment with high levels of distress, including symptoms consistent with a posttraumatic stress response. The impact of this type of onset of pain and posttraumatic stress symptoms on adjustment to chronic pain and treatment outcome is the focus of this thesis. Three studies were conducted to clarify and extend earlier research findings in this area. Using 536 patients referred for treatment in a tertiary referral pain management centre, the first study examined the psychometric properties of a widely used self-report measure of posttraumatic stress symptoms (the PTSD Checklist, or PCL), modified for use in a chronic pain sample. This study provided preliminary support for the suitability of the PCL as a self-report measure of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms in chronic pain patients. However, the study also highlighted a number of issues with the use of self-report measures of posttraumatic stress symptoms in chronic pain patient samples. In particular, PCL items enquiring about symptoms which are a common aspect of the chronic pain experience (e.g. irritability, sleep problems) appeared to contribute to high mean scores on the PCL Avoidance and Arousal subscales. Furthermore, application of diagnostic cut-off scores and an algorithm recommended for the PCL in other trauma groups suggested that a much larger proportion of the sample was identified as potentially meeting diagnostic criteria for PTSD than would have been expected from previous research. The second study utilised the modified PCL to investigate the impact of different types of onset of pain (e.g. traumatic onset) and posttraumatic stress symptoms on adjustment to chronic pain in a sample of 196 chronic pain patients referred to the same centre. For patients who experienced the onset of pain related to a specific event, two independent experts in the field of PTSD determined whether these events satisfied the definition of a traumatic event according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. Adjustment was assessed through a number of validated measures of mood, disability, pain experience, and pain-related cognitions. Contrary to expectations, comparisons between patients who had experienced different types of onset of pain revealed few significant differences between them. That is, analyses comparing patients presenting with accident-related pain, or pain related to other specific events, to patients who had experienced spontaneous or insidious onset of pain revealed no significant differences between the groups on measures of pain severity, pain-related disability, and symptoms of affective distress after adjustment for age, pain duration, and compensation status. Similarly, comparisons between patients who had experienced a potentially traumatic onset of pain with those who had experienced a non-traumatic or spontaneous or insidious onset of pain also revealed no significant differences on the aforementioned variables. In contrast, compensation status, age, and a number of cognitive variables were significant predictors of pain severity, pain-related disability, and depression. The final study investigated the impact of type of pain onset and posttraumatic stress symptoms on response to a multidisciplinary cognitive-behavioural pain management program. Unlike the previous study, this treatment outcome study revealed a number of differences between onset groups. Most notably, patients who had experienced an insidious or spontaneous onset of pain reported greater improvements in pain severity and maintained these improvements more effectively over a one month period than patients who had experienced pain in the context of an accident or other specific incident. There was also limited evidence that improvements in depression favoured patients who had experienced an insidious or spontaneous and non-traumatic onset of pain. Consistent with this, posttraumatic stress symptoms were a significant predictor of treatment outcome, with higher levels of symptoms being associated with smaller improvements in pain-related disability and distress. Notably, this study also revealed that certain cognitive variables (i.e. catastrophising, self-efficacy, and fear-avoidance beliefs) were also significant predictors of treatment outcome, consistent with previous findings in the pain literature. This provided some perspective on the relative roles of both PTSD symptoms and cognitive variables in adjustment to persisting pain and treatment response. These findings were all consistent with expectations and with previous research. Implications for future research and for the assessment and treatment of chronic pain patients who present with posttraumatic stress symptoms are discussed.
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