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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

AN INVESTIGATION OF LEANING BEHAVIOURS DURING ONE-HANDED SUBMAXIMAL EXERTIONS WITH EXTENDED REACHES

Fewster, Kayla M. 10 1900 (has links)
<p>The purpose of this study was to investigate leaning behaviours when completing tasks with constrained reaches. A logistic regression was developed, with the input of individual subject anthropometry and specific task characteristics, and the resulting model was able to provide a very accurate prediction of when an individual would lean. The inputs to this model give insight into what factors are important in the decision making process when a worker chooses whether lean. The task hand locations with the longest reaches resulted in the most frequent choice to lean. Leaning appears to be particularly common, and important, with long reaching and pulling tasks that can reduce task hand shoulder and trunk loads and improve balance, while allowing the worker to get closer to the task. Leaning hand forces were highest during pulling tasks. These findings are very important to document, as current ergonomic tools neglect to consider that different task characteristics may change how, and when, a worker leans. Even when only the direction of the task hand force was changed, leaning hand forces differed significantly. In this study, leaning hand height was slightly higher for the shoulder height, when compared to the umbilical height, task hand locations. The average height of the leaning hand did not vary considerably and ranged between 106.6cm to 116.3cm, depending on the condition. The leaning hand force magnitude changed as task hand location, force direction and force level changed. Leaning hand forces increased with increasing task hand load. Task hand forces in the push direction were higher compared to push and down exertions, regardless of task hand location or task hand load. The findings from this study are of particular use to industry as ergonomists now have representative forces and heights, to help guide leaning estimates during proactive risk assessments.</p> / Master of Science (MSc)
2

THE USE OF LOWER BODY BRACING DURING ONE-HANDED SUBMAXIMAL EXERTIONS WITH EXTENDED REACHES

Cappelletto, Jessica A.M. 10 1900 (has links)
<p>In many occupational tasks, environmental constraints limit how close a worker can place their body to a desired element of the task. Although this provides an obstacle when performing the task, workplace obstructions can often be used by a worker to externally support their body by means of bracing. The purpose of this thesis was to identify how a worker’s posture would differ when the task must be performed with a constrained reach, compared to having the option to externally support against the thighs. At 4 different task hand Locations, subjects performed 6 exertions, comprised of 2 Loads (27.5 N and 55 N) and 3 Directions (Up, Down, and Pull). Subjects were able to choose if bracing would be used when performing the first 24 trial exertions. After the choice conditions had been collected, trials were performed again with a forced brace or unbraced. The most important finding of this study was that participants were twice as likely to brace when performing a task with a far reach. In addition, average brace forces were approximately 117 N for Up and Pull exertions, and were nearly half that (67 N) for Down exertions. Participants would brace at a lower height at low versus high locations. Flexing the trunk forward and twisting the right shoulder forward, combined with a more flexed task arm and reduced shoulder rotation, allowed participants to adopt a posture where their shoulder was closer to the point of exertion during braced exertions, thereby increasing their functional arm length.</p> / Master of Science in Kinesiology
3

An Investigation of External Support Choices and Behaviours During One-Handed Exertions with Constrained Reaches

Liebregts, Julian H. January 2014 (has links)
Introduction: External support behaviours, which include leaning (supporting with the non-task hand) or bracing (supporting with the body), are frequently employed by workers in manufacturing settings. However, current ergonomic assessment tools are limited by our limited understanding of these behaviours. Recent studies have investigated these behaviours, however, the designs of these studies are limited in their applicability to real-world scenarios. The purpose of this study was to assess how different task parameters affect the prediction of external support behaviours, as well as the effect of support on task hand, and body, kinematics and kinetics, in a minimally constrained experimental design. Methods: Female participants (n = 18) performed a series of one-handed maximal exertions (in the six orthogonal directions), and one precision task, in four hand Locations. Trials either featured support (as chosen by the participant), or no support. Results & Discussion: Three logistic regression models were developed, with inputs from individual and task characteristics, and they correctly predicted the occurrence of leaning, bracing, or simultaneous leaning and bracing, 74-86% of the time. Leaning and/or bracing were found to provide: 1) oppositional forces to increase task hand force generation, 2) balance, by countering destabilizing moments about the feet, and 3) a reduction in moment arm of the task hand force, with respect to the upper body joints, by bringing the shoulder closer to the task hand. Participants were able to exert 64.8% more force at the task hand as a result of support. Leaning hand placement depended on the task force direction and location. However, the positioning of the leaning hand varied very little. Finally, the precision condition showed that fine motor demands may also affect external support choice. / Thesis / Master of Science in Kinesiology

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