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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Well control procedures for extended reach wells

Gjorv, Bjorn 30 September 2004 (has links)
The limits of directional drilling continue to be pushed back as horizontal or near-horizontal reservoir sections are being drilled, cased, cemented and completed to tap reserves at extreme distances. Continuous development of new technology and adopting a technical-limit approach to performance delivery are key elements for the success and further development of extended-reach drilling projects. For this study a two-phase well control simulator was used to evaluate different kick scenarios that are likely to occur in extended-reach wells. An extensive simulation study covering a vide range of variables has been performed. Based on this investigation together with a literature review, well-control procedures have been developed for extended-reach wells. The most important procedures are as follows: Perform a "hard" shut-in when a kick is detected and confirmed. Record the pressures and pit gain, and start to circulate immediately using the Driller's Method. Start circulating with a high kill rate to remove the gas from the horizontal section. Slow down the kill circulation rate to 1/2 to 1/3 of normal drilling rate when the choke pressure starts to increase rapidly. The simulator has been used to validate the procedures.
2

THE USE OF LOWER BODY BRACING DURING ONE-HANDED SUBMAXIMAL EXERTIONS WITH EXTENDED REACHES

Cappelletto, Jessica A.M. 10 1900 (has links)
<p>In many occupational tasks, environmental constraints limit how close a worker can place their body to a desired element of the task. Although this provides an obstacle when performing the task, workplace obstructions can often be used by a worker to externally support their body by means of bracing. The purpose of this thesis was to identify how a worker’s posture would differ when the task must be performed with a constrained reach, compared to having the option to externally support against the thighs. At 4 different task hand Locations, subjects performed 6 exertions, comprised of 2 Loads (27.5 N and 55 N) and 3 Directions (Up, Down, and Pull). Subjects were able to choose if bracing would be used when performing the first 24 trial exertions. After the choice conditions had been collected, trials were performed again with a forced brace or unbraced. The most important finding of this study was that participants were twice as likely to brace when performing a task with a far reach. In addition, average brace forces were approximately 117 N for Up and Pull exertions, and were nearly half that (67 N) for Down exertions. Participants would brace at a lower height at low versus high locations. Flexing the trunk forward and twisting the right shoulder forward, combined with a more flexed task arm and reduced shoulder rotation, allowed participants to adopt a posture where their shoulder was closer to the point of exertion during braced exertions, thereby increasing their functional arm length.</p> / Master of Science in Kinesiology
3

Stress analysis of drillstring threaded connections

Salihu, B. M. January 2011 (has links)
The demand for energy from developed and developing economies of the world is driving the search for energy resources to more challenging environments. The exploration and exploitation of hydrocarbons now requires the drillbit to hit pay zones from drillships or platforms that are located on water surfaces below which is, possibly, in excess of ten thousand feet of water above the sea bed. From Brazil, to the Gulf of Mexico and the Gulf of Guinea on the western coast of Africa, hitherto unfamiliar, but now common, concepts in the drilling parlance such as ultra-deep drilling (UDD), ultraextended- reach drilling (uERD) and slimhole drilling, are employed to reach and produce reservoirs which a few decades ago would seem technologically impossible to produce. This is expected to exert tremendous demands on the physical and mechanical properties of the drillstring components. Limiting factors for reaching and producing oil and gas resources hidden very deep in the subsurface are both the capacity of the drilling rig to support the weight of the drillstring, which in some instances can be several kilometres long, and the bending, tensile and impact stresses the string has to withstand in well trajectories that are getting both longer and more tortuous. Associated with this increased well depths and complex well trajectories is the prohibitive cost penalty of a failed drillstring. The in-service failure of drillstrings has always been an issue in the industry long before the wells become this deep and complex. The global oil and gas industry estimates the cost of string failure to be in excess of quarter of a billion dollars annually. Researchers are continuously looking for ways to design against string failure and improve the level of confidence in drillstrings. Defect-tolerant design, tooljoint geometry modification and surface coldworking are just a few of the ideas that have gained mileage in this effort. Others that are now in consideration are the use of nonconventional materials such as aluminium and titanium alloys for drillstring components. More novel, still, is the use of a combination of two materials - one ‘softer’ than the other to form a hybrid string of two materials of unequal moduli of elasticity. This is done to make the string lighter, reduce stress concentration factor at the connections and place fatigue resistant materials in areas of high well bore curvature.In this work a computational technique in the form of two-dimensional finite element analysis is used to develop a robust model of a drillstring connection and to analyse the stresses on the model of a threaded connection of standard drillstring tooljoint made from alloy steel. Further comparative analyses were undertaken on models of drillstrings made from a newly developed drillstring material for ultra-deep drilling, the UD-165, aluminium and titanium alloys and, finally, on hybrid drillstrings made from two different materials of unequal moduli of elasticity. The aim is not only to develop and validate a better method of computational drillstring analysis but also to use the model to investigate and suggest areas of optimisation that will benefit industry especially in the areas hybrid strings.
4

Stress analysis of drillstring threaded connections

Salihu, B. M. 11 1900 (has links)
The demand for energy from developed and developing economies of the world is driving the search for energy resources to more challenging environments. The exploration and exploitation of hydrocarbons now requires the drillbit to hit pay zones from drillships or platforms that are located on water surfaces below which is, possibly, in excess of ten thousand feet of water above the sea bed. From Brazil, to the Gulf of Mexico and the Gulf of Guinea on the western coast of Africa, hitherto unfamiliar, but now common, concepts in the drilling parlance such as ultra-deep drilling (UDD), ultraextended- reach drilling (uERD) and slimhole drilling, are employed to reach and produce reservoirs which a few decades ago would seem technologically impossible to produce. This is expected to exert tremendous demands on the physical and mechanical properties of the drillstring components. Limiting factors for reaching and producing oil and gas resources hidden very deep in the subsurface are both the capacity of the drilling rig to support the weight of the drillstring, which in some instances can be several kilometres long, and the bending, tensile and impact stresses the string has to withstand in well trajectories that are getting both longer and more tortuous. Associated with this increased well depths and complex well trajectories is the prohibitive cost penalty of a failed drillstring. The in-service failure of drillstrings has always been an issue in the industry long before the wells become this deep and complex. The global oil and gas industry estimates the cost of string failure to be in excess of quarter of a billion dollars annually. Researchers are continuously looking for ways to design against string failure and improve the level of confidence in drillstrings. Defect-tolerant design, tooljoint geometry modification and surface coldworking are just a few of the ideas that have gained mileage in this effort. Others that are now in consideration are the use of nonconventional materials such as aluminium and titanium alloys for drillstring components. More novel, still, is the use of a combination of two materials - one ‘softer’ than the other to form a hybrid string of two materials of unequal moduli of elasticity. This is done to make the string lighter, reduce stress concentration factor at the connections and place fatigue resistant materials in areas of high well bore curvature.In this work a computational technique in the form of two-dimensional finite element analysis is used to develop a robust model of a drillstring connection and to analyse the stresses on the model of a threaded connection of standard drillstring tooljoint made from alloy steel. Further comparative analyses were undertaken on models of drillstrings made from a newly developed drillstring material for ultra-deep drilling, the UD-165, aluminium and titanium alloys and, finally, on hybrid drillstrings made from two different materials of unequal moduli of elasticity. The aim is not only to develop and validate a better method of computational drillstring analysis but also to use the model to investigate and suggest areas of optimisation that will benefit industry especially in the areas hybrid strings.

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