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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
21

The use of constructed wetland systems for wastewater treatment : nitrogen transformation and indicator bacteria removal /

McKersie, Sue A. January 1991 (has links)
Thesis (M. Sc.)--University of Western Sydney, Hawkesbury, 1991. / Includes bibliographical references.
22

Habitat classification with reference to flooding and salinity, to assist with the vegetation of a saline artificial wetland /

Hunter, Sally Ann. January 1998 (has links) (PDF)
Thesis (M. Env. Sc.)--University of Adelaide, Mawson Graduate Centre for Environmental Studies, 1999. / Includes bibliographical references (leaves 104-110).
23

Monitoring and simulating nutrient removal in a constructed wetland

Kroeger, Anne-Caroline. January 1900 (has links)
Thesis (M.Sc.). / Written for the Dept. of Bioresource Engineering. Title from title page of PDF (viewed 2008/05/14). Includes bibliographical references.
24

Laboratory evaluation of electric arc furnace slag as a potential wetland substrate

Kumar, Harjinder. January 1900 (has links)
Thesis (M.Sc.). / Written for the Dept. of Bioresource Engineering. Title from title page of PDF (viewed 2008/05/14). Includes bibliographical references.
25

Treatment of highway storm water runoff by constructed wetlands analytical analysis and design model.

Hunt, Christopher L. January 1997 (has links)
Thesis (M.S.)--Ohio University, November, 1997. / Title from PDF t.p.
26

Biogeochemical characterization of a constructed wetland for acid mine drainage greatment

Gagliano, Wendy Buell, January 2004 (has links)
Thesis (Ph. D.)--Ohio State University, 2004. / Title from first page of PDF file. Document formatted into pages; contains xiii, 123 p. : ill. (some col.). Advisor: Jerry M. Bigham, Soil Science. Includes bibliographical references (p. 113-123).
27

An Investigation of the Performance of a Constructed Wetland in Treating Urban Stormwater

Carleton, James Nagle 05 May 1998 (has links)
This study investigated the pollutant removal performance of a constructed wetland treating stormwater runoff from a residential townhome complex in Manassas, Virginia. The facility was constructed by retrofitting a dry detention basin to retain a permanent shallow pool and included additional temporary storage to detain roughly the first half inch of rainfall for approximately 24 hours. Vegetation was allowed to establish itself through volunteer colonization, rather than active planting of selected wetland species. Flow measurements showed substantially greater volume passing through the outlet than entering through the single gaged inlet. The extra volume (about 41% of the total) was attributed to ungaged overland flow which drained a wooded/grassy area adjacent to the site. Mass balance calculations employing the rational method with a runoff coefficient of 0.2 to estimate the flow from this area showed good agreement between long-term total estimated inflow and measured outflow. However, this method was not effective in accounting for the discrepancies between inlet and outlet volumes of individual storms. Thirty-three runoff events were monitored between April, 1996 and May, 1997. Because of greater flow volumes passing through the outlet, constituent mass calculations which ignored the overland contribution generally exhibited higher loads exiting than entering the facility. With the results from a limited number of grab samples representing concentrations in overland input, estimated efficiencies improved substantially, showing overall net removal for most constituents. Less than one year after being retrofitted, the basin showed signs of beginning to develop a diverse wetland flora. / Master of Science
28

Particulate phosphorus accumulation and net retention in constructed wetlands receiving agricultural runoff : Critical analysis of factors affecting retention estimates / Ansamling och fastläggning av partikelbunden fosfor i anlagda våtmarker på jordbruksmark : Faktorer som påverkar retentionsskattningar

Johannesson, Karin January 2015 (has links)
Övergödning är ett allvarligt miljöproblem, som bland annat orsakar omfattande blomningar av alger och blågrönbakterier. I söt- och brackvatten är fosfor ofta det mest begränsande näringsämnet för dessa organismer, varför en minskning av fosfortillförseln är nödvändig för att nå förbättringar. I Sverige beräknas jordbruket bidra med 44 % av fosforbelastningen till Egentliga Östersjön, och olika åtgärder för att minska fosforförlusterna från jordbruksmark tillämpas runtom i Sverige. Våtmarker anläggs ofta för att fånga näringsämnen och partiklar från jordbruksmark innan de läcker ut i vattendrag och slutligen i Östersjön. Tidigare utvärderingar av anlagda våtmarker i Sverige har visat på en varierande och relativt låg fastläggning av fosfor. Osäkerheten kring dessa utvärderingar är dock ganska hög, och bottnar i kunskapsluckor både vad gäller processer för fastläggning och transport av fosfor från mindre jordbruksområden. I denna avhandling utreds därför hur anlagda våtmarker fungerar som fällor för jordpartiklar och partikelbunden fosfor i områden med höga fosforförluster. Sju anlagda våtmarker i jordbruksområden med mycket lerjordar studerades, och mängden fosfor och partiklar som fastlades på botten varierade mycket mellan olika våtmarker (13-108 ton partiklar/ha/yr och 11-175 kg fosfor/ha/yr). De faktorer i området uppströms som var kopplade till fosforfastläggning var lutningen i området, markens lerhalt och innehåll av växttillgänglig fosfor samt områdets djurtäthet. Resultat från fyra våtmarker visade på en hög resuspension (partiklar från botten virvlas tillbaka upp i vattnet), men en del av de uppvirvlade partiklarna kom troligtvis från erosion från våtmarkernas sidor och inte från det material som fastlades på botten. Man såg även indikationer på resuspension från vattenprover tagna i utloppet av en annan våtmark. Där var partikelbunden fosfor klart dominerande, vilket kan ha varit en konsekvens av resuspension från botten. Variationerna av fosforkoncentrationer vid in- och utlopp i sju anlagda våtmarker studerades, för att kritiskt kunna granska tidigare retentionsskattningar. Det var stora variationer i sambanden mellan vattenflöde och fosforkoncentrationer mellan de olika våtmarkerna. De faktorer som påverkade sambandet mellan flöde och koncentration var 1) om det var varm eller kall årstid (d v s sommar eller vinter), 2) om det var högt eller lågt vattenflöde, samt 3) om inflödet bestod av ett dräneringsrör eller ett öppet dike/åfåra. I våtmarker med öppet dike som inflöde var flödes-koncentrationssambandet av totalfosfor negativt vid låga flöden och positivt vid höga flöden. De olika sambanden visar hur viktig sättet att provta vatten är, då inkommande mängd fosfor både kan över- och underskattas om man inte är medveten om sådana variationer. Vid automatisk provtagning styrd av flödesmätningen sker detta ofta i utloppet, men eftersom vattnet har en viss uppehållstid i våtmarken (speciellt sommartid) kan retentionsberäkningen påverkas av att all provtagningen styrs av flödet i utloppet.     För att identifiera vilka områden som bidrar med mest näring och partiklar valdes ett stort område dominerat av jordbruksmark ut – för att undersöka hur man skulle kunna bedöma var anlagda våtmarker skulle kunna göra mest nytta. Området delades in i tio mindre områden, och vattenprover samlades in från diken och åfåror. Resultaten visade på stora skillnader i fosfordynamik mellan olika delområden med olika jordtyper, trots att de hade liknande markanvändning. Det fanns ofta en koppling mellan höga fosforkoncentrationer i vattnet och en hög andel lerjordar i området. För partiklar fanns det en tendens till samband mellan höga koncentrationer och hög andel vinterbar mark. En anlagd våtmark skulle antagligen ha högst effekt om den placerades nedströms områden som är känsliga för erosion – områden med hög andel lerjordar eller med hög andel vinterbar mark. / Eutrophication is one of the more serious current environmental problems, causing algal blooms and anoxic bottoms. In fresh and brackish water, phosphorus (P) is often the most limiting nutrient, and various mitigating strategies are used to reduce the load of P to sensitive recipients. In the agricultural sector, this includes both on-field measures (e.g. managing P inputs) and measures at the field edge (e.g. buffer zones and constructed wetlands). Previous evaluations of constructed wetlands (CWs) in Sweden have indicated a variable and relatively low P retention. However, the uncertainties in the estimates are large, and related to an incomplete knowledge about both retention processes and factors determining the P load from agricultural land. Hence, the overall aim of this thesis was to investigate possible reasons for the variation in wetland P retention estimates, and to assess the P retention in wetlands located in agricultural areas where losses are expected to be high. When comparing seven CWs located downstream small catchments with predominantly arable land, the particle and P net accumulation varied considerably (13-108 t particles ha-1 yr-1 and 11-175 kg P ha-1 yr-1, respectively). Catchment factors that were statistically correlated with accumulation of particles and P in the CWs were the slope of the arable land, the P content of the top soil, the animal density (expressed as livestock units per arable land) and the percentage clay in the topsoils. In four of the wetlands, resuspension was studied using sediment traps and plates. The results showed that up to 87 % of the settled material was resuspended, and indicated that erosion of the wetland sides and bottom probably contributed a substantial part of the trapped particles. In order to critically evaluate existing retention data from earlier investigations, the temporal dynamics of P concentrations and P retention in seven CWs were evaluated. The relationships between water flow and concentration (from grab sampling) varied, and depended on the season (warm or cold period of the year), water flow (high or low) and the inlet type (drainage pipe or open ditch). In CWs that received water through an open ditch, flow-concentration relationships were negative during low flow periods but positive during high flow periods. These differences in flow-concentration relationship have implications for water sampling, since P loads can be both over- and underestimated with grab or automatic sampling guided by clock-time. Also composite automatic sampling, regulated from the water flow at the outlet, can lead to errors in transport calculations since the same ‘water parcel’ is not measured at in and out (difference depending on how long the water retention time is in the CW). This may have an effect on estimates of P retention in both past, present and future investigations of constructed wetlands. Finally, a synoptic sampling approach with ten sampling points was used in an agriculturally dominated catchment area (160 km2) to identify differences in nutrient transport dynamics and areas with the highest losses. Spatial differences in P concentrations were strongly correlated with some of the catchment factors, for instance with soil type, and particle concentrations were weakly correlated to agricultural practices associated with bare soils during winter. This supports the practice to focus P mitigation measures – such as constructed wetlands – to erosion sensitive areas.
29

Temporal variation in the allocation of acid mine drainage contaminants in the waters and sediments of the engineered remediation reed beds along the Varkenslaagte stream: an autum - winter study

Omo-Okoro, Patricia Ndidiamaka 19 January 2016 (has links)
A research report submitted to the Faculty of Science, University of the Witwatersrand in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Masters (MSc. by Course work and Research Report) 30th September, 2015 / Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) refers to the seepage or runoff of acidic water from abandoned mines into the surrounding environment. Acid mine drainage is considered a serious long term environmental threat associated with mining. This study was conducted on the Varkenslaagte canal or stream which flows from north to south within the AngloGold Ashanti West Wits gold mining operation, 75 km west of Johannesburg, and receives AMD from tailings storage facilities (TSFs) located on both the northern aspect and the western aspect of the catchment. On the Varkenslaagte, 17 reed beds were planted between 1-12-2011 and 12-9-2012, in a series of shallow excavated depressions. This study was conducted in 2013 and 2014, and aimed to ascertain: (i) whether there is any temporal difference (autumn – end of the rainy season, versus winter – mid-dry season, for 2013 and 2014 combined) in selected fresh-water quality parameters and concentrations of AMD contaminants in the flowing waters in the engineered reed beds; - this was observed, as higher concentrations were recorded in winter than in autumn, for some of the selected water quality parameters, in both survey years; (ii) to determine if vertical changes exist in the elements down the sediment profile from the surface to a depth of approximately half a metre; - conspicuous vertical changes were not evident; and also; (iii) to provide a baseline for monitoring the post clean-up state of the upper Varkenslaagte, and conclude whether the reed bed system is retaining AMD contaminants (major ions, trace and major elements). Chemical variations in water and sediment samples were measured in situ in April/May 2013 and July 2014, and water samples and sediment cores collected for laboratory analyses. Water samples were collected from three points (inflow, middle and outflow) at each of 15 reed beds (RBs, numbered RB 1 -15) in receipt of AMD from two directions (downstream and laterally from TSFs on the northern and western aspects). Ion Chromatography was used to detect chloride (Cl-) and sulphate (SO42-), Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) were used to identify major and trace elements; iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), potassium (K), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in the water samples whereas X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis for elements was conducted on surface sediments (0-2cm; additional analyses of sediment core samples at depths 2-5 cm, 5-10 cm, 10-20 cm and 20 -30 cm were analyzed but were not considered further). The water in the reed beds was moderately acidic to within the target range. It ranged from pH 5.17 to 6.51 in April, 2014 (approaching the end of the wet season) (P < 0.05) (P = 0.0001) to slightly higher values of pH 5.45 to 6.82 in July, 2014 (mid-dry season) (P = 0.0053). Marginal acidity is above pH 6. A pH of 6.5 – 7.5 is within the target water quality range (TWQR) on the Highveld. High electrical conductivity (EC) values were found, ranging from 3500 – 4600 μs/cm in April and 2600 – 5500 μs/cm in July, though EC values can be higher on much of the South African gold mining Highveld. Lateral influx of AMD from the western TSFs was visually observed into two of the southernmost Varkenslaagte stream reed beds (at RBs13 and 15) during both April and July sampling. In 2014, the Varkenslaagte was still flowing from reed bed to reed bed, although very slowly, similar to 2013. Chloride, sulphate and metal concentrations were high relative to target water quality ranges in most of the reed beds in during April and July, 2014. Although higher concentrations in the sediment suggest that the reed beds are effective in capturing and retaining contaminants in sediment and root mass, the concentrations in the water in reed beds 1-15 still exceeded the target water quality ranges for aquatic ecosystems in South Africa (DWAF, 1996) and the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for drinking water quality (WHO, 2004). However use of the water from the Varkenslaagte by humans and livestock is prohibited by the Department of Water and Environmental Affairs, and the National Nuclear Regulator. The bar charts comparing 2013 and 2014 selected water quality data showed that during winter/drier periods with no rains, the rate of evaporation exceeded dilution; this was observed by the slightly lower pH values recorded across the reed beds in July, 2013 and 2014, in comparison with the slight higher pH values recorded across the reed beds in May, 2013 and April, 2014. The bar charts also showed that the highest EC was recorded in the winter of 2014. It was also observed from the principal component analyses (PCAs) that EC, sulphate and pH, in combination with Mg and Fe, were responsible for most of the variation in the water quality data for the two survey years, 2013 and 2014. Following the findings from this study, it is recommended that monitoring of the site should also address whether the reed beds and other control measures that have been put in place (riparian woodlands and windmill pumps) will be adequate to control the lateral seepage from the Western TSFs at some of the southernmost reed beds.
30

Spatial assessment of environmental fate of Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) contaminants in engineered wetlands along the Varkenslaagte canal

Rampedi, Ike Sephothoma January 2016 (has links)
A dissertation is submitted as MSc research project in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in the School of Geography, Archaeology and Environmental Studies. July 2016. / A major cause of environmental problems, in the vicinity of mine tailings in and around Johannesburg, is Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). In most research, engineered wetlands are used to ameliorate AMD with the use of vegetation to remove or extract heavy metals from the soil (i.e. phytoremediation). Phytoremediation has been defined as a technology that uses plants to extract or immobilize contaminants in soils and waters (Torresdey, 2007). The aim of this study was to assess and quantify the mass pool size of contaminants (macronutrients, micronutrients, non-essential trace elements) within and between a subset of paddocks from various compartments including sediments, aboveground biomass (shoots –stems and leaves), and belowground biomass (roots and rhizomes) of the two wetland plant species present (P. australis and S. corymbosus ). Analyses were done on the wetland paddocks in situ and ex situ applying different methods, water sample metal cations were analysed by ICP-MS and the major anion analysis by chromatography and Ion Chromatography (IC). The sediment and plant samples were subject to X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses of major elements and trace elements. Although analysis was undertaken for numerous trace and metal elements, only a few macronutrients, micronutrients, and non-essential elements with significant importance to the West Wits Mining Operation were selected for this study. The stream water test strips yielded poor results for this extremely contaminated plume receiving environment this suggests that in this system they are not a useful substitute for conventional laboratory analyses. Of the elements tested, only S showed significant differences in concentrations in plants between paddocks, with the highest concentrations and mass in the downstream paddocks ww6 and ww7. These paddocks also had the greatest masses of S in sediments, and water concentrations were also highest in paddocks ww4, ww6 and ww7. P. australis accumulated highest elemental mass than S. corymbosus, with the highest Zn mass of 93%. P. australis accumulated double the mass of U, Cu, Cl, Ca. In both plants, the roots consistently had highest elemental concentration with sequence often as follows roots> shoots> rhizomes. Sediment element mass accumulation of most tested elements significantly increased with depth, except for Zn and U, which decreased with depth. There are few significant differences in the mass distribution of the elements analysed between paddocks, which is assumed to reflect either the heterogeneity in the underlying sediments following construction of the wetlands, or lateral inputs into the system as seepage from other TSFs. Key words: AMD, Wetland, Varkenslaagte Canal, West Wits Mining Operation, metals, sediment, S. corymbosus, P. australis, ICP-MS, XRF. / LG2017

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