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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Particulate phosphorus accumulation and net retention in constructed wetlands receiving agricultural runoff : Critical analysis of factors affecting retention estimates / Ansamling och fastläggning av partikelbunden fosfor i anlagda våtmarker på jordbruksmark : Faktorer som påverkar retentionsskattningar

Johannesson, Karin January 2015 (has links)
Övergödning är ett allvarligt miljöproblem, som bland annat orsakar omfattande blomningar av alger och blågrönbakterier. I söt- och brackvatten är fosfor ofta det mest begränsande näringsämnet för dessa organismer, varför en minskning av fosfortillförseln är nödvändig för att nå förbättringar. I Sverige beräknas jordbruket bidra med 44 % av fosforbelastningen till Egentliga Östersjön, och olika åtgärder för att minska fosforförlusterna från jordbruksmark tillämpas runtom i Sverige. Våtmarker anläggs ofta för att fånga näringsämnen och partiklar från jordbruksmark innan de läcker ut i vattendrag och slutligen i Östersjön. Tidigare utvärderingar av anlagda våtmarker i Sverige har visat på en varierande och relativt låg fastläggning av fosfor. Osäkerheten kring dessa utvärderingar är dock ganska hög, och bottnar i kunskapsluckor både vad gäller processer för fastläggning och transport av fosfor från mindre jordbruksområden. I denna avhandling utreds därför hur anlagda våtmarker fungerar som fällor för jordpartiklar och partikelbunden fosfor i områden med höga fosforförluster. Sju anlagda våtmarker i jordbruksområden med mycket lerjordar studerades, och mängden fosfor och partiklar som fastlades på botten varierade mycket mellan olika våtmarker (13-108 ton partiklar/ha/yr och 11-175 kg fosfor/ha/yr). De faktorer i området uppströms som var kopplade till fosforfastläggning var lutningen i området, markens lerhalt och innehåll av växttillgänglig fosfor samt områdets djurtäthet. Resultat från fyra våtmarker visade på en hög resuspension (partiklar från botten virvlas tillbaka upp i vattnet), men en del av de uppvirvlade partiklarna kom troligtvis från erosion från våtmarkernas sidor och inte från det material som fastlades på botten. Man såg även indikationer på resuspension från vattenprover tagna i utloppet av en annan våtmark. Där var partikelbunden fosfor klart dominerande, vilket kan ha varit en konsekvens av resuspension från botten. Variationerna av fosforkoncentrationer vid in- och utlopp i sju anlagda våtmarker studerades, för att kritiskt kunna granska tidigare retentionsskattningar. Det var stora variationer i sambanden mellan vattenflöde och fosforkoncentrationer mellan de olika våtmarkerna. De faktorer som påverkade sambandet mellan flöde och koncentration var 1) om det var varm eller kall årstid (d v s sommar eller vinter), 2) om det var högt eller lågt vattenflöde, samt 3) om inflödet bestod av ett dräneringsrör eller ett öppet dike/åfåra. I våtmarker med öppet dike som inflöde var flödes-koncentrationssambandet av totalfosfor negativt vid låga flöden och positivt vid höga flöden. De olika sambanden visar hur viktig sättet att provta vatten är, då inkommande mängd fosfor både kan över- och underskattas om man inte är medveten om sådana variationer. Vid automatisk provtagning styrd av flödesmätningen sker detta ofta i utloppet, men eftersom vattnet har en viss uppehållstid i våtmarken (speciellt sommartid) kan retentionsberäkningen påverkas av att all provtagningen styrs av flödet i utloppet.     För att identifiera vilka områden som bidrar med mest näring och partiklar valdes ett stort område dominerat av jordbruksmark ut – för att undersöka hur man skulle kunna bedöma var anlagda våtmarker skulle kunna göra mest nytta. Området delades in i tio mindre områden, och vattenprover samlades in från diken och åfåror. Resultaten visade på stora skillnader i fosfordynamik mellan olika delområden med olika jordtyper, trots att de hade liknande markanvändning. Det fanns ofta en koppling mellan höga fosforkoncentrationer i vattnet och en hög andel lerjordar i området. För partiklar fanns det en tendens till samband mellan höga koncentrationer och hög andel vinterbar mark. En anlagd våtmark skulle antagligen ha högst effekt om den placerades nedströms områden som är känsliga för erosion – områden med hög andel lerjordar eller med hög andel vinterbar mark. / Eutrophication is one of the more serious current environmental problems, causing algal blooms and anoxic bottoms. In fresh and brackish water, phosphorus (P) is often the most limiting nutrient, and various mitigating strategies are used to reduce the load of P to sensitive recipients. In the agricultural sector, this includes both on-field measures (e.g. managing P inputs) and measures at the field edge (e.g. buffer zones and constructed wetlands). Previous evaluations of constructed wetlands (CWs) in Sweden have indicated a variable and relatively low P retention. However, the uncertainties in the estimates are large, and related to an incomplete knowledge about both retention processes and factors determining the P load from agricultural land. Hence, the overall aim of this thesis was to investigate possible reasons for the variation in wetland P retention estimates, and to assess the P retention in wetlands located in agricultural areas where losses are expected to be high. When comparing seven CWs located downstream small catchments with predominantly arable land, the particle and P net accumulation varied considerably (13-108 t particles ha-1 yr-1 and 11-175 kg P ha-1 yr-1, respectively). Catchment factors that were statistically correlated with accumulation of particles and P in the CWs were the slope of the arable land, the P content of the top soil, the animal density (expressed as livestock units per arable land) and the percentage clay in the topsoils. In four of the wetlands, resuspension was studied using sediment traps and plates. The results showed that up to 87 % of the settled material was resuspended, and indicated that erosion of the wetland sides and bottom probably contributed a substantial part of the trapped particles. In order to critically evaluate existing retention data from earlier investigations, the temporal dynamics of P concentrations and P retention in seven CWs were evaluated. The relationships between water flow and concentration (from grab sampling) varied, and depended on the season (warm or cold period of the year), water flow (high or low) and the inlet type (drainage pipe or open ditch). In CWs that received water through an open ditch, flow-concentration relationships were negative during low flow periods but positive during high flow periods. These differences in flow-concentration relationship have implications for water sampling, since P loads can be both over- and underestimated with grab or automatic sampling guided by clock-time. Also composite automatic sampling, regulated from the water flow at the outlet, can lead to errors in transport calculations since the same ‘water parcel’ is not measured at in and out (difference depending on how long the water retention time is in the CW). This may have an effect on estimates of P retention in both past, present and future investigations of constructed wetlands. Finally, a synoptic sampling approach with ten sampling points was used in an agriculturally dominated catchment area (160 km2) to identify differences in nutrient transport dynamics and areas with the highest losses. Spatial differences in P concentrations were strongly correlated with some of the catchment factors, for instance with soil type, and particle concentrations were weakly correlated to agricultural practices associated with bare soils during winter. This supports the practice to focus P mitigation measures – such as constructed wetlands – to erosion sensitive areas.
2

Catchment factors affecting particle and phosphorus retention in constructed wetlands receiving agricultural runoff

Senior, Anna January 2012 (has links)
Eight agricultural catchments in south Sweden were investigated for factors that may affect phosphorus (P) load and retention in the downstream situated wetlands (WL). P load is known to affect retention, and is determined by hydrological and geographical catchment characteristics. The wetlands were small (0.02-0.88%) in relation to their catchments (CA) and varied in design. Net sedimentation and P retention was determined with sedimentation plates during one year. The variables that best explained differences in particles and TP retention were the hydraulic load (q), TP load and the wetland length to width ratio. Contrary to expectations there was no correlation between factors that could be associated with erosion (i.e. slope and soil clay content) and retention of neither particles nor TP. Generally, the highest amounts of settled particles and P were found close to the wetland inlets, but soil disturbance (i.e. tillage) and high q increased the settling distance. It was likely that the smallest clay particles were too unaggregated to settle within these wetlands. Factors not included, such as wetland vegetation and bioturbation may have a large impact on P retention and this should be further investigated. The study also points to the difficulties in scaling down geological and P loss data from a regional to a local scale, as there can be large local deviations from the regional standard values. An easy method for identification of local “hotspots” for P losses should be of value for planning the location of future wetlands.
3

Phosphorus Retention and Regeneration of EAF Steel Slag and a Synthetic Iron Oxyhydroxide

Zeng, Fengzhencheng January 2017 (has links)
No description available.
4

Dynamics of phosphorus transport and retention in a wetland receiving drainage water from agricultural clay soils

Anderson, Malin January 2011 (has links)
A constructed wetland (0.08 ha) receiving drainage water from a small agricultural catchment (22 ha) with clay soil, was investigated with respect to phosphorus dynamics and retention. The aim was to evaluate the function of the wetland with respect to phosphorus retention, and relate that to gross sedimentation as measured with sediment traps. Hydraulic load and phosphorus retention were estimated for 2003-2010 based on monitoring data. Furthermore, water quality dynamics was studied during three intensive sampling periods of 3-5 days during 2010. For each period, phosphorus retention was calculated and the relationship between flow and phosphorus concentrations analysed. Additionally, the gross sedimentation rate was estimated using sediment traps, and the phosphorus, carbon and nitrogen content analysed. The results suggested that there was no net retention of phosphorus during 2003-2010, except for 04/05. During the intensive sampling periods, release of phosphorus from the wetland mainly occurred during high flow. Sediment analyses showed that settling of inflow particles mostly occurred in the inlet pond, while the sediment found in a shallow vegetated area and outlet pond likely originated from internal processes rather than from the catchment. In fact, the gross sedimentation of phosphorus during April-July and July-August, respectively, exceeded the measured phosphorus inflow. The results showed that short periods with rapid flow increases were crucial for the wetlands function and thus high frequency sampling must be done during these periods. Furthermore, it seems that the particles lost from the catchment during high flows are too small to settle in the wetland.
5

Phosphorus accumulation in constructed wetlands : A study of 10 wetlands constructed on agricultural clay soils in Södermanland / Fosforackumulation i anlagda våtmarker : En studie av 10 våtmarker anlagda i jordbruksområden med hög lerhalt i Södermanland

Corbee, Gabriella January 2021 (has links)
Eutrophication is a major problem causing algal blooms and impaired water quality, especially regarding coastal areas and seas. It is a result of an excessive supply of nutrients such as phosphorus (P), where agriculture accounts for the largest share of the anthropogenic nutrient load. Furthermore, arable fields with clay soils have been shown to have among the highest P-losses. In this study, 10 constructed wetlands located in agricultural areas with high clay content in the topsoil were examined. The aims were to investigate how the P accumulation is related to wetland design and catchment factors and to see if there is an optimal hydraulic load (HL) and wetland size for P accumulation. The study is based on P analyses of sediment cores sampled in March 2021, calculations of catchment factors in ArcMap, water flow calculations, and statistical analyses. Sedimentation of particles with associated P is considered to be the primary process for P retention in wetlands. Accordingly, the results showed that the P accumulation was positively correlated to particle retention. The total P accumulation varied between 8 and 96 kg ha-1 yr-1 and the total particle accumulation was 7-130 t ha-1 yr-1. The wetland design factors, including wetland area, water depth, and length-to-width ratio (L:W), had no significant influence on the P accumulation. However, water depths greater than 1.5 m inhibited the P retention which suggested that the water depth should be limited to approximately 1 m to avoid too large particle settling distances.  The proportion of agricultural land within each catchment did not show any correlation to the P accumulation. The clay content in the topsoil was however positively correlated to both particle and P accumulation. This suggested that the sedimentation process was promoted even though the inflowing particles potentially consisted of a large proportion of clay particles, which have a low sedimentation velocity. The erosion risk of the catchment area had no significant influence on the P accumulation, meaning that a high expected particle load did not entail an increased particle and associated P accumulation. High HL values of 450 and 850 m yr-1 were shown to counteract the P retention. This corresponded to wetlands smaller than 0.1% of the catchment area. A possible turning point of HL where the P accumulation is inhibited could also be distinguished, ranging between HL 200 and 300 m yr-1. An optimal HL for increased P accumulation could not be determined due to such few observations. However, it could be concluded that an HL up to approximately 210 m yr-1 had a positive influence on the particle and P accumulation and that wetlands should be larger than 0.1% of the catchment area to efficiently retain P. / Övergödning är ett stort problem som orsakar algblomningar och försämrad vattenkvalitet, särskilt vid kustområden och hav. Övergödningen orsakas av ett för stort utsläpp av näringsämnen såsom fosfor (P), där jordbruket står för den största antropogena näringsbelastningen. Åkermark med lerjord har dessutom visat sig ha bland den högsta utlakningen av P. I denna studie har 10 våtmarker anlagda i jordbruksområden med hög lerhalt undersökts. Syftet var att undersöka hur P-ackumuleringen är relaterad till våtmarksutformningen och abiotiska faktorer i avrinningsområdet. Projektet syftade även till att undersöka ifall det finns en optimal hydraulisk belastning (HL) för P-ackumulering. Studien baserades på P-analyser av sedimentproppar provtagna i mars 2021, beräkningar av avrinningsområdesfaktorer i ArcMap, flödesberäkningar samt statistiska analyser.  Den primära reningsprocessen för P i våtmarker är genom sedimentation av partiklar med bundet P. Följaktligen visade resultatet att P-ackumuleringen var positivt korrelerad med partikelretentionen. Den totala P-ackumuleringen varierade mellan 8 och 96 kg ha-1 år-1 och den totala partikelackumuleringen var 7-130 ton ha-1 år-1. Våtmarksutformningen, vilket innefattade våtmarksarea, vattendjup och längd-bredförhållande (L:W), hade ingen signifikant betydelse för P-ackumuleringen. Vattendjup större än 1,5 m hämmade emellertid P-ackumuleringen vilket indikerade att vattendjupet bör begränsas till cirka 1 m för att partiklar ska hinna sedimentera.  Andelen jordbruksmark i avrinningsområdet hade ingen korrelation med P-ackumuleringen. Lerhalten i avrinningsområdet var däremot positivt korrelerad till både partikel- och P-ackumuleringen. Detta indikerade att sedimentationen främjats trots att de inflödande partiklarna potentiellt bestod av en stor andel lerpartiklar, vilka har en långsam sedimentationshastighet. Erosionsrisken i avrinningsområdet hade ingen signifikant påverkan på P-ackumuleringen. En hög förväntad partikelbelastning resulterade därmed inte en ökad partikel- och P-ackumulering. Höga HL-värden på 450 och 850 m år-1 motverkade P-ackumulationen, vilket motsvarade våtmarker som utgjorde mindre än 0,1 % av avrinningsområdet. En möjlig brytpunkt där HL hämmar P-ackumulationen kunde urskiljas i intervallet HL 200-300 m år-1. På grund av för få observationer kunde inte en optimal HL för ökad P-ackumulation fastställas. Det kunde dock konstateras att en HL upp till cirka 210 m år-1 hade en positiv inverkan på partikel- och P-ackumulationen och att våtmarker bör utgöra minst 0,1 % av avrinningsområdet för att effektivt ansamla P.
6

Dinamica da retenção de fosforo de aguas residuais em sistemas de alagados construidos / Dynamics of phosphorus retention in constructed wetlands treating domestic wastewater

Oliveira, Celso Luiz Borges de 15 August 2018 (has links)
Orientador: Jose Teixeira Filho / Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Faculdade de Engenharia Agricola / Made available in DSpace on 2018-08-15T05:17:02Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 Oliveira_CelsoLuizBorgesde_D.pdf: 7803925 bytes, checksum: 1a75de816c7680ca4e07299a55d9967d (MD5) Previous issue date: 2006 / Resumo: Este estudo objetivou avaliar a dinâmica na retenção do fósforo no sistema de alagados construídos de fluxo subsuperficial, que funciona como tratamento secundário da água de esgoto da Faculdade de Engenharia Agrícola da Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas (SP), e encontra-se em operação desde setembro de 1998. O experimento teve início em maio de 2003 e término em agosto de 2004, totalizando quinze amostragens, com medidas horárias durante oito a dez horas por dia. Foram anotadas as vazões de entrada e saída dos leitos e simultaneamente coletadas as amostras para análise do fósforo, pH e condutividade elétrica. A determinação do teor de fósforo foi feita pelo método AOAC Official Method 973.55 - Phosphorus in water. As plantas da Typha passaram por quatro cortes e as de Arroz por três cortes durante os quinze meses do experimento. Os resultados demonstraram que as maiores taxas de retenção do fósforo ocorreram nos leitos cultivados com a Typha, atingindo percentuais médios de até 92%. A utilização do Arroz é uma alternativa, quando manejadoadequadamente, em função do seu ciclo reprodutivo, com cortes próximos ao estágio deformação de grãos. As opções pelas culturas da Typha e do Arroz não são excludentes, considerando a sua eficiência na retirada de fósforo da água residuária, pois, a depender do seu estágio de desenvolvimento, o período e o número de cortes realizados, essas plantas podempromover uma eficiente redução nos teores de fósforo nesse tipo de efluente quando tratadosnos sistemas de alagados construídos / Abstract: This study objectified to evaluate dynamics phosphorus removal subsurface flow constructed wetlands systems as treatment secondary of sewer of the School of Agricultural Engineering of the State University of Campinas, Campinas (SP) and meets in it operates since September of 1998. The experiment was being in May of 2003 and during still in August of 2004, when had been carried through fifteen samplings, with measures hours with along eight at ten hours per day. They had been record the inflow and outflow the streambeds and simultaneously collected the samples for analysis of phosphorus, pH and electrical conductivity. The phosphorus rates were determined by method of AOAC Official Method 973.55. Phosphorus in water. With the data of diary inflow flow, per concentrations of phosphorus results of analyses of the samples had been calculated loads horary of phosphorus, in mg P.h-1. The Cattail have cutted plants of Typha had passed for four cuts and of Rice for three cuts during the fifteen months of the experiment. The results had demonstrated that the biggest taxes of withdrawal and/or removal of match had occurred in the cultivated rectangular stream beds with the Typha and the use of the Rice is an alternative of use when management in function of its reproductive cycle, with cuts next to the period of training to formation of grains. The used plants are not exculpatory, when of the choice for its efficiency in the withdrawal of match of the residuary water, therefore to depend on its period of training of development, the period and the number of carried through cuts, can promote greater purifications in the water that passes for the treatment stream beds / Doutorado / Agua e Solo / Doutor em Engenharia Agrícola
7

Untersuchungen zum Einfluss seeinterner Verfahren auf die Phosphor-Diagenese in Sedimenten

Lewandowski, Jörg 06 December 2002 (has links)
Viele seeinterne Maßnahmen zielen darauf, die Phytoplanktonentwicklung über die Verfügbarkeit von Phosphor (P) im Wasserkörper zu steuern. Die meisten Restaurierungsverfahren sollen über eine Erhöhung der P-Bruttosedimentation oder Verminderung der P-Rücklösung die P-Retention im Sediment beeinflussen. Daher sind Sedimentuntersuchungen zur Abschätzung der P-Retention und ihrer Veränderung unter dem Einfluss der erwogenen Maßnahmen eine wichtige Voraussetzung für die Auswahl des im konkreten Einzelfall am besten geeigneten Verfahrens. Eine durch Fragebögen und Literaturauswertung vorgenommene Analyse legt offen, dass die Sedimentuntersuchungen häufig nicht oder mit ungeeigneten Methoden erfolgten und die Therapieversuche daher in der Vergangenheit oft nicht die erwartete Wirkung hatten. Mit einer Kosten-Nutzen-Abschätzung wird gezeigt, dass sich Voruntersuchungen auch finanziell rechnen, obwohl sie aufwendig und teuer sind. Die Forschung der letzten Jahre hat das Prozessverständnis für die Kopplung der verschiedenen Kreisläufe und das Zusammenspiel von chemischen und biologischen Prozessen erheblich vervollständigt. Wegen der Komplexität ist es jedoch immer noch sehr schwierig, die Wirkung eines technischen Eingriffs genau vorherzusagen. Es werden Untersuchungsmethoden benötigt, die die beteiligten Prozesse und Zustandsgrößen mit ausreichender räumlicher und zeitlicher Auflösung erfassen. Besonders wichtige Größen für seeinterne Maßnahmen sind das P-Freisetzungspotential und die P-Freisetzungsrate. Verschiedene Bestimmungsmethoden für die beiden Größen werden in der Arbeit beschrieben, weiterentwickelt, gegenübergestellt, mit Beispielen veranschaulicht und im Bezug auf ihre Vor- und Nachteile diskutiert. Das P-Freisetzungspotential kann aus der Veränderung der Gesamtphosphorgehalte im Sedimenttiefenprofil, aus den P-Bindungsformen der oberen Sedimentschicht oder aus Desorptionsuntersuchungen mit Sediment der oberen Schicht abgeleitet werden. Die P-Freisetzungrate kann als Konzentrationsanstieg des Freiwassers in Säulenversuchen, in Flux-Kammern oder im Hypolimnion gemessen werden. Alternativ ist es möglich, sie aus dem Konzentrationsgradienten des gelösten Phosphors an der Sediment-Wasser-Grenze mit Filtration, Zentrifugation, Sensoren oder Dialysesammlern zu ermitteln. Ein spezielles Augenmerk wird auf die kleinräumige horizontale Heterogenität der P-Porenwasserkonzentrationen gelegt, da diese Variabilitäten zu fehlerhaften P-Freisetzungsraten führen können. Ein neues Probenahmegerät, ein zweidimensionaler Porenwassersammler, wurde entwickelt, um die P-Porenwasserkonzentrationen mit hoher horizontaler und vertikaler Auflösung messen zu können. Das neue Probenahmegerät erwies sich zur Klärung der Frage, wie viele unabhängige Messungen in einem konkreten Fall für zuverlässige Ergebnisse erforderlich sind, als geeignet. Der Einsatz des zweidimensionalen Porenwassersammlers identifizierte biologische Aktivität als Hauptursache räumlicher Variabilität. Ferner wurde deutlich, dass die räumliche Variabilität der P-Porenwasserkonzentrationen in flachen Gewässern größer als in tiefen Gewässern ist. Bei der Probenahmeplanung und Ergebnisauswertung sollte die räumliche Variabilität auf jeden Fall ausreichend berücksichtigt werden. An einem konkreten Anwendungsfall (Auensee) werden die vorgestellten Untersuchungsmethoden eingesetzt, um die Auswahl von Restaurierungsverfahren zu demonstrieren. Erst die kombinierte Interpretation von P-Freisetzungspotential und P-Freisetzungsrate erlaubt, die richtigen Schlussfolgerungen für das Untersuchungsgewässer zu ziehen. In einem weiteren Fallbeispiel (Süßer See) wird gezeigt, dass Nachuntersuchungen nicht nur zur Erfolgskontrolle notwendig sind, sondern auch um wissenschaftliche Erkenntnisse zu gewinnen. Im dargestellten Fall wird anhand von Laborversuchen und einer konzeptionellen Modellierung gezeigt, dass eine mit Neusediment überdeckte P-sorbierende Schicht auch bei noch vorhandener Sorptionskapazität keinen nennenswerten Einfluss auf die P-Konzentrationen im Wasserkörper hat. Die mit der vorliegenden Dissertation erfolge Zusammenschau und kritische Bewertung der Untersuchungsmethoden soll auch dazu dienen, die Lücke zwischen wissenschaftlichem Prozessverständnis und wasserwirtschaftlicher Praxis zu verkleinern. / Many internal restoration measures in lakes are directed to control of phytoplankton development by limiting the availability of phosphorus (P). Most such measures are aimed at changing P retention in sediment by increasing gross P sedimentation, or reducing P release (Chapter 2). Thus, pre- and post-restoration investigations of the lake sediment, including estimating the actual P retention and its predicted change caused by the considered measure, are an important means for choosing the most appropriate restoration technique and to determine whether restoration was successful. However, our questionnaires and literature study reveal that, in the past, pre-restoration investigations were frequently either omitted or inadequate. Consequently, effectiveness of lake restorations was often low. In contrast, appropriate pre-restoration investigations, increase the prospect of success. Our cost-benefit estimation proves that pre-restoration investigations, though expensive, reduce costs of lake restorations and increase the cost-benefit relationship (Appendix 1). Last years research has improved the knowledge of the complex coupling of the chemical cycles involved, and of the chemical and biological processes in the lake ecosystem. However, it is still difficult to estimate the effects of a technical measure, because we lack investigation methods that record the involved processes with the necessary temporal and spatial resolution. To evaluate internal measures, the P release potential and the P release rate are necessary. In this dissertation, the methods to determine the P release potential and the P release rate are developed, described, exemplified, compared, and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. The P release potential can be derived from the change of total phosphorus in the sediment depth profile, from P binding forms, or from P desorption experiments in laboratory (Chapter 3). The P release rate can be measured in the water column as increase of phosphorus in core experiments, in flux chambers, or in the hypolimnion of stratified lakes. Alternatively, the P release rate can be determined from P concentration gradients at the sediment-water interface with filtration, centrifugation, microsensors, or dialysis samplers (Chapter 4). Special attention of this dissertation is focussed on pore water inheterogeneity because in might result in incorrect P release rates. A new device, a two-dimensional pore water sampler, was developed to measure pore water P concentrations with high horizontal and vertical resolution. The new device is shown to be applicable to particular lakes to determine how many independent measurements are necessary to get reliable results. Our use of the two-dimensional pore water sampler determined biological activity as the main cause of the spatial heterogeneity of pore water P concentrations and revealed that the spatial variability is larger in shallow lakes than in deep lakes. The variability should be taken into account when planning a sampling program or evaluating results (Appendix 2). The proposed sediment investigation methods to determine the P release potential and the P release rate are used at Lake Auensee to demonstrate their use for choosing the most appropriate restoration technique. The case study of Lake Auensee points out that only a combined interpretation of P release potential and P release rate leads to the correct conclusion (Appendix 3). Post-restoration investigations are necessary to check whether a restoration was successful or not, and to gain scientific insight. A study of Lake Süsser See is used as an example for post-restoration investigations of the sediment. Core experiments and a conceptual model are used to show that a buried layer, even with P sorption capacity, has no impact on the P release (Appendix 4). Furthermore, the surveys and critical evaluations contained in this dissertation should decrease the gap between scientific understanding of processes in a lake and practical water management.
8

En studie av retentionen i floden Oder och dess avrinningsområden, Polen. / Investigation on the riverine retention in the Odra River, Poland

Dorozynska, Dorota January 2004 (has links)
<p>Nutrient enrichment is the main cause of the increasing eutrophication process in the Baltic Sea during last century. A prerequisite counteract this process the load of nutrients to the Sea must be investigated. The large contribution of nutrients to the Sea is caused by emission from the rivers within the drainage basin. For the total emission of nutrient into the Sea the retention process in the rivers has big influence. This process in the river system has been assumed as a not important part of the nutrient cycle. However some investigators have pointed out that the retention process occurs in the river and be an important part of the nutrient dynamics in the river. For the object of investigation the Odra River Basin was chosen, as an example of a large river basin in the Baltic Sea Drainage Basin. The Odra River is mainly localized in Poland and contributes substantially to the eutrophication of the Baltic Proper. The Odra River is one of the least dammed major rivers of the Baltic Proper and as such of especial interest in retention studies. The phosphorus was chosen as an example of nutrient in the eutrophication process. The purpose of the investigation is to determine the phosphorus retention within the river. Two different models were used to calculate the retention process in the river. The"Multiple Regression Model"turned out to be insignificant, therefore the results were computed by using a “similarity model”, based on similarities between load from monitored tributary basins and the rest of the sub-basin. The retention in the Odra River in the amounted to -4608 t yr-1, which is 43% of the total phosphorus emission to the Odra River. There is also stated that in the Notec and the Warta rivers the retention process occur in the amount of -1940 t yr-1 and -3007 t yr-1 respectively.</p>
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En studie av retentionen i floden Oder och dess avrinningsområden, Polen. / Investigation on the riverine retention in the Odra River, Poland

Dorozynska, Dorota January 2004 (has links)
Nutrient enrichment is the main cause of the increasing eutrophication process in the Baltic Sea during last century. A prerequisite counteract this process the load of nutrients to the Sea must be investigated. The large contribution of nutrients to the Sea is caused by emission from the rivers within the drainage basin. For the total emission of nutrient into the Sea the retention process in the rivers has big influence. This process in the river system has been assumed as a not important part of the nutrient cycle. However some investigators have pointed out that the retention process occurs in the river and be an important part of the nutrient dynamics in the river. For the object of investigation the Odra River Basin was chosen, as an example of a large river basin in the Baltic Sea Drainage Basin. The Odra River is mainly localized in Poland and contributes substantially to the eutrophication of the Baltic Proper. The Odra River is one of the least dammed major rivers of the Baltic Proper and as such of especial interest in retention studies. The phosphorus was chosen as an example of nutrient in the eutrophication process. The purpose of the investigation is to determine the phosphorus retention within the river. Two different models were used to calculate the retention process in the river. The"Multiple Regression Model"turned out to be insignificant, therefore the results were computed by using a “similarity model”, based on similarities between load from monitored tributary basins and the rest of the sub-basin. The retention in the Odra River in the amounted to -4608 t yr-1, which is 43% of the total phosphorus emission to the Odra River. There is also stated that in the Notec and the Warta rivers the retention process occur in the amount of -1940 t yr-1 and -3007 t yr-1 respectively.
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Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in created agricultural wetlands

Thiere, Geraldine January 2009 (has links)
This doctoral dissertation was produced in a cooperation between Halmstad University (Wetland Research Centre, School of Business and Engineering) and Lund University (Limnology &amp; Marine Biology, Department of Ecology). Abstract . Wetland creation at large, regional scales is implemented as a measure to abate the biodiversity loss in agricultural landscapes and the eutrophication of watersheds and coastal areas by non-point source nutrient pollution (mainly nitrogen). The consequences of creating many new wetlands for biodiversity conservation and nutrient reten- tion (ecosystem functioning) in agricultural landscapes are still relatively unknown, both on local (per wetland) and regional (per landscape) scales. In Sweden, wetland creation has progressed already since the 1990s, and by now larger numbers of created wetlands are present, mainly in the intensively farmed landscapes of southwestern Sweden. This thesis aimed to investigate the following aspects in these systems: (i) their large-scale effects on biodiversity, (ii) their functional diversity of bacterial denitrifiers, (iii) the abiotic and biotic influences on wetland ecosystem functioning, (iv) the potential for biodiversity-function links, and (v) the potential for functional links and joint functioning.(i) Created wetlands hosted diverse assemblages of macroinvertebrates and plants. They maintained a similar com- position and diversity as natural ponds in agricultural landscapes. The environmental conditions per wetland did hardly affect macroinvertebrate and plant assemblages, and the prerequisites for nutrient retention did neither. In landscapes were wetland creation efforts had increased the total density of small water bodies by more than 30%, macroinver- tebrate diversity of created wetlands was facilitated on both local and regional scales. (ii) Diverse communities of denitrifying bacteria with the capacity for conducting different denitrification steps (functional types) were present in all investigated wetlands. The richness of denitrifying bacteria communities was affected by nitrate concentration and hydraulic loading rate, which may potentially be relevant for the nitrogen retention function of created wetlands. The diversity across different functional types of bacterial denitrifiers increased with nitrate concentration. (iii) Both abiotic and biotic factors influenced ecosystem functions of created wetlands. Variation in nitrogen retention was associated to nitrate load, but even to vegetation parameters. In wetlands with constant nitrate load, planted emergent vegetation facilitated nitrogen retention compared to other vegetation types. In wetlands with variable loads, nitrogen retention was facilitated if nitrate load was high and many different vegetation types were present; nitrogen load could explain the majority of the variation in nitrogen retention compared to vegetation parameters. Phosporus retention of created wetlands was best explained by vegetation parameters. Litter decomposition was inhibited at high nitrate to phosphorus ratios. Methane production increased with age and decreased with plant cover. (iv) Biodiversity may facilitate wetland ecosystem functions, particularly in dynamic wetland ecosystems. Nitrogen retention increased with vegetation type diversity, phosphorus retention capacity with plant richness, and litter decomposition with macroinvertebrate diversity. (v) Created wetlands have the capacity of sustaining several parallel ecosystem services. Some wetland functions were coupled; nitrogen retention increased with fast litter decomposition. On the other hand, methane emission and nitro- gen retention were independent of each other, as were nitrogen and phosphorus retention.In conclusion, created wetlands have the potential to at least partly abate the lost biodiversity and multifunctionality caused by the past extensive destruction of natural wetlands in agricultural landscapes. / <p>[Paper II] Milenkovski S., Thiere G., Weisner S.E.B., Berglund O. &amp; Lindgren P.-E. Variation of eubacterial and denitrifying bacterial biofilm communities among constructed wetlands. Submitted manuscript. [Paper V] Thiere G. &amp; Weisner S.E.B. Influence of biotic and abiotic parameters on ecosystem functioning of created wetlands. Manuscript.</p>

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